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All Invalid Arguments Are Unsound Quizlet

author
Danielle Fletcher
• Thursday, 25 February, 2021
• 16 min read

For an argument to be valid, it must take a form where it is impossible for the premises to be true and the conclusion to be false. If the premises don't logically guarantee the conclusion, then the argument is invalid.

Contents

However, while an argument can be invalid or valid but unsound, it doesn't mean that the conclusion is false. The conclusion might be perfectly true, but the person doing the arguing got there through incorrect means.

All valid arguments have all true premises and true conclusions. If an argument is valid, then it must have at least one true premise.

Every valid argument is a sound argument. The following is a valid deductive argument: If it snows, then we will go sledding, just like when we were kids.

So, certainly we will go sledding, just like when we were kids. The following is clearly a valid deductive argument: All rock fish are orange and red.

So, if we catch a rock fish, then it will surely be red and orange. The following is an invalid argument: Jim is at least sixty.

The following is a valid argument: Senator Clarke associates with known horologists. The following is a valid argument: No slogs are cross.

If a deductive argument is invalid, then it must also be unsound. If an argument is invalid, then it must have at least one false premise.

If an argument has a conclusion that is certainly false, then the argument must be invalid. If the premises and conclusion are all false, the argument must be invalid.

In the case of an argument which actually has false premises, it takes a short story or fictional work to do this. The President of the United States must be 35 years of age or older.

For either example, the logic is valid, but the premises are false. In these examples, luck rather than logic led to the true conclusion.

Understanding Logical Argumentation, Structure, and Reasoning Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. If you continue browsing the site, you agree to the use of cookies on this website.

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With practice exercises for argument analysis and Links to supplemental videos. Parts 2-5 Basic Components, Structure and Logic of Argumentation 2.

Part 2 Basic Components of Argumentation 3. “Master the machinery of , and you have a mental occupation always at hand… that will be of real use to you in any subject you take up.

Identifying Premises Part 2: Recognizing Elements of Good Arguments 1. Sound and Unsound Arguments Part 3: Inductive and Deductive Reasoning 5.

Argumentation Key Terms Claim: a statement or opinion that is either true or false Argument: a claim supported by premises Conclusion: the main claim in an argument Premises: claims that support an argument’s conclusion 7. The Detroit Lions have the potential to make the NFL playoffs.

Vending machines stocked with soda or candy should be removed from all public schools. It offers no support Star Wars is the best movie ever.

If we don’t, we might miss the last train, and we’ll be stuck here all night. Conclusions Conclusion: The main claim of an argument that is supported by a premise It’s the logical result of the relationship between the premises.

Identifying the Conclusion is the first step in understanding the argument 12. Click to View the Linked YouTube Video Below 13.

Identify the indicator word that often precedes the conclusion, such as: This shows Therefore It follows that Thus This suggests As a Result Hence That's why So Consequently Accordingly This means 14. Premise Today's freshmen cannot write very well Premise Joe is a freshman, Conclusion, so he must be a poor writer.

Abortion is wrong because all human life is sacred. John will probably receive the next promotion since he’s been here the longest John will receive the next promotion We must reduce the amount of money we spend on space exploration.

Right now, the enemy is launching a massive military buildup, and we need the additional money to purchase military equipment to help match the anticipated increase in the enemy’s strength We must reduce the amount of money we spend on space exploration. My sister saw it and said it was boring and her friend spotted three mistakes.

Claim: statement about the truth or value of something that is either true or false Argument: a conclusion and a supporting premise together Conclusion: the main claim or point in an argument that’s supported by premises: pieces of evidence that support the conclusion 20. CLICK HERE for Practice Identifying the Premises and Conclusions of Arguments 21.

Part 3: Standard Argument Form Identify the Premises and Conclusion 22. Identify the Premises and Conclusion Rewrite the argument in standard form Step 1: Identify which claim is the conclusion.

Identify the Premises and Conclusion All black dogs are warm-blooded because they are mammals, and all mammals are warm-blooded “because” = indicates a Premise Standard Form Premise 1: Black dogs are mammals Premise 2: All mammals are warm-blooded Conclusion: All black dogs are warm-blooded 25. Identify the Premises and Conclusion He must be a good basketball player.

Identify the Premises and Conclusion He must be a good basketball player. “After all = indicates a Premise Standard Form Premise 1: He’s tall Premise 2: All tall people are good basketball players Conclusion: He must be a good basketball player 27.

Identify the Premises and Conclusion The weather report is calling for blizzard conditions. Stay here tonight, and you can head back to college after the road is plowed tomorrow.

Write it in Standard Form Start on your homework now. You will get done earlier and still have time to watch the movie with us.

It shouldn’t take too long and your father can help you if you need it. Identify the Premises and Conclusion If all employers require their employees to take a flu shot, then fewer people would take sick days.

Conclusion: The flu shot would increase productivity for the nation as a whole. Identify the Premises and Conclusion If all employers require their employees to take a flu shot, then fewer people would take sick days.

Standard Form Premise 1: If all employers require their employees to take a flu shot, then fewer people would take sick days Premise 2: Fewer people taking sick days would increase productivity for the nation Conclusion: The flu shot would increase productivity for the nation as a whole. Identify the Premises and Conclusion Less than one percent of the people receiving parking tickets appeal those tickets.

Therefore, one cannot claim that the Parking officers are issuing unwarranted citations. Identify the Premises and Conclusion Less than one percent of the people receiving parking tickets appeal those tickets.

Therefore, one cannot claim that the Parking officers are issuing unwarranted citations. Standard Form Premise 1: Less than one percent of the people receiving parking tickets appeal those tickets.

Conclusion: one cannot claim that the Parking officers are issuing unwarranted citations. Identify the Premises and Conclusion Less than one percent of the people receiving parking tickets appeal those tickets.

Therefore, one cannot claim that the Parking officers are issuing unwarranted citations. Standard Form Premise 1: Less than one percent of the people receiving parking tickets appeal those tickets.

Premise 2: People appeal unwarranted citations Conclusion: one cannot claim that the Parking officers are issuing unwarranted citations. Write the two arguments presented with the following statements You shouldn’t take that job.

Write the two arguments presented with the following statements You shouldn’t take that job. Main Argument Premise 1: The lousy pay of that job will make it hard for you to pay your bills Premise 2: Not being able to pay your bills will make you unhappy Conclusion: You shouldn’t take that job Secondary Argument Premise 1: it hard for you to pay your bills Premise 2: Not being able to pay your bills Conclusion: It will make you unhappy 37.

Identify the Premises and Conclusion You shouldn’t take that job. Main Argument Premise 1: The lousy pay of that job will make it hard for you to pay your bills Premise 2: Not being able to pay your bills will make you unhappy Conclusion: You shouldn’t take that job 38.

The following argument consists of several conclusions You spend too much time playing video games. If you don’t, I think you’re headed for big trouble.

Click to View the Linked YouTube Video Below 43. To say the argument is valid is to say that it is logically impossible for its premises to be true and its conclusion false.

Unsound : An argument that has at least one false premise Sound: An argument that is valid and contains only TRUE premises Inductive Reasoning: A process of reasoning in which we use small, specific examples or observation to reach a BIG, general rule, conclusion or theory Deductive Reasoning: A process of reasoning in which we start with a general rule or conclusion and look to see whether specific evidence supports, or fits, that previously held belief 44. Valid Argument A Valid Argument has the following hypothetical property: If all the premises are true, the conclusion cannot be false.

That is, if you were to imagine that all the premises were true, then it would be logically impossible for the conclusion false at the same time Logic guarantees of the truth of the conclusion, (now provided that the premises are true) 45. Valid Argument Premise All actors are robots Premise Tom Cruise is an actor Conclusion Therefore, Tom Cruise is a robot Premise If Michigan scores the most points then they win the game.

Conclusion So, Michigan won the game 46. Valid Argument Premise Tom is happy only if the Tigers win, Premise the Tigers lost; Conclusion therefore, Tom is not happy.

Joe made the field goal. If the patient has malaria, then a blood test will indicate that his blood harbors the P. viva virus ii.

If John buys a house, he'll run for city council. Therefore, if John gets a raise, he will run for a position on the city council If P then Q Not P Therefore Q If Q then R Therefore ...

Valid Arguments Premise If a plane is flying it is in the air. Premise Flight 999 is flying, Conclusion Therefore it is in the air.

Valid Arguments Premise If there are clouds in the sky, then rain is possible. Valid Arguments Premise All toasters are items made of gold.

Premise All items made of gold are time-travel devices. Invalid Arguments Invalid : An argument where the conclusion could be false even if the premises are true Premise: Steve owns a Lexus automobile.

Premise: Rich people own Lexus automobiles Conclusion: Therefore, Steve must be rich The Argument Form is... P is Q R is Q Therefore, P is R 55. Therefore, Frank lives in the city Davison, MI.

Invalid Arguments Premise All dogs have four legs. Invalid Arguments Premise If my power goes out, then my cable TV goes out.

Premise My power is not out, Conclusion therefore, my cable TV is not out. Invalid Arguments Premise If I am with the one I love, then I am happy.

Also, it is impossible for the premises of a valid argument to be true and the conclusion to be false FOR INVALID arguments : the addition of new premises will many times strengthen or weaken a given conclusion. Also, it is possible for the conclusion of an invalid argument to be false even if it has true premises.

If my astrologer is clairvoyant, then she predicted my travel plans correctly. If God created the universe, we should observe order and design in Nature.

Deductive Reasoning A process of reasoning in which we start with a general rule or conclusion and look to see whether specific evidence supports, or fits, that previously held belief 71. If you can answer yes to question 3, then the conclusion should be logical and the argument valid and sound.

Inductive Reasoning A process of reasoning in which we use small, specific examples or observation to reach a BIG, general rule, conclusion or theory 74. Inductive Reasoning When detectives arrive at the scene of a crime, the first thing they do is look for clues that can help them piece together what happened.

Many Inductive arguments are strong but invalid 75. Inductive or Deductive Inductive: Evidence Deductive: Conclusion (IEC) Evidence (DCE) 77.

Inductive or Deductive If the truth of the premises does not definitely establish the truth of the conclusion, but provides a strong reason to believe the conclusion true, then you have an inductive argument If the truth of the premises definitely establishes the truth of the conclusion then you have a valid deductive argument 78. If you brush and floss your teeth daily then you will have fewer cavities.

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4 aqhra.ca - https://aqhra.ca/
5 www.silverdollarcircuit.com - https://www.silverdollarcircuit.com/
6 www.nrcan.gc.ca - https://www.nrcan.gc.ca/earth-sciences/geography/topographic-information/maps/national-topographic-system-maps/9767
7 www.cwf-fcf.org - https://www.cwf-fcf.org/en/
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