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Andalusian Arpeggio

author
James Lee
• Thursday, 26 November, 2020
• 16 min read

Andalusian Cadence explained in different ways (different chord extensions, positions, arpeggios, vulgar technique, harmonic playing etc.) I'm teaching general music education in a school in Germany and I wondered if you know any resources (books, websites, youtube-videos ...) in German.

andalous arpeggios andalusian espagnol xavier
(Source: myscena.org)

Contents

I'm especially interested in palms, as the different compares and palms seem to be relatively accessible for all the students and lend themselves well for a comparison with the rhythmic concepts of classical and pop music. Me interest especialmente Las Palmas, Puerto Que Los compares y palms Queen SER recreates mas o menus facilitate POR to-dos Los estudiantes, y ambient SE suede comparable may Bain con Los concepts critics DE la music classic y popular.

The Cheyenne is a Monumental Classic Of The Western Canon, but it has a surprisingly simple structure: a string of four-bar loops, each of which follows more or less the same chord progression. This ultra-predictable form is more like what you’d expect in a rock or pop song than a major classical work.

The generations of composers who came after Bach used structures like sonata form to sustain interest over long time spans. If you want to write a symphony or some other large-scale work, you usually use multiple themes moving through multiple key centers, so there can be lots of long and contrasting processes of statement, development, and transformation, as Joel Lester says.

Bach did write several large-scale works, but they are all collections of short individual movements. But the Cheyenne’s length is more like something you’d expect from a later symphonic composer; it’s almost as long as the rest of the movements in the D minor Parties put together.

The theme is like the head in a jazz tune, the first thing you hear in the piece, and the last. For the sake of simplicity, I list all sixty-four of the phrases as “variations.” Many of the variations come in matched pairs, like bookends.

ja matkamessut andalusian auringossa taenae finnairin ainakin vuonna sosiaalinen
(Source: www.rantapallo.fi)

As you step through the variations one at a time, it’s fascinating to see how carefully Bach builds up the complexity and intensity. It’s not a linear build over the whole piece–when the rhythms get more complicated, the harmonies get simpler, and vice versa.

At variation 34, the key center shifts from D minor to D major, and Bach resets the complexity level back to almost zero. I find it to be moving and effective for its entire duration, and my attention span is usually too short for long classical works.

Even my kids like listening to the Cheyenne, and they’re starting to sing along with the catchiest parts. The top notes of the chords spell out the melody, which flows uninterrupted straight into the next variation.

This theme uses a different ending from the first statement, with the melody rising to a higher and more intense peak. The melody shifts to a lower register, so now it’s the lowest or second-lowest note in each chord.

This is pretty much the same melody as in variation 3, but an octave higher, and moving through some slightly more complex harmony. However, right before the third bar in this variation, there’s the first appearance of the note F-sharp, the major third in the key of D. It’s part of the D7 chord, the V7/IV.

andalusian breyer chestnut
(Source: www.modelequus.com)

Being the clever composer that he is, Bach doesn’t resolve that right away, he puts in a Dm/A chord first, a contrapuntal extension of A7sus4. At the end of the third bar, there’s another new pitch we haven’t heard before, E-flat, the suspended fourth of the BB chord.

Bach has now used all twelve chromatic pitch classes, and we’re only an eighth of the way through the Cheyenne. Check out the elegant pattern of chromatic descents doing a call and response in the high and low registers.

Bach uses a simple straight eighth note rhythm so as not to overload your brain. Harmonically similar to variation 10 but a bit simpler, with a mix of scale runs and arpeggios.

Bach introduces a new chord progression, the Andalusian cadence, familiar to Ray Charles fans as the changes from Hit The Road, Jack.” This progression will continue through the next eight variations, in increasingly abstracted form. Rhythm-wise, there are sixteenth-note scale runs with some wide leaps at each chord change, giving way to arpeggios at the end.

Like an Andalusian cadence, but C and BB are replaced by their relative minors and preceded by secondary dominants. The harmony gets dramatically simpler, while the melody gets more complex, with fragmented rising and falling phrases in an unpredictable pattern.

andalusia landscape pinar jalifa sorso wikimedia commons kunnassa wikipedia besuchen spain vacation blueblazer
(Source: www.blueblazer.it)

The three-note chemical patterns in the third and fourth bars sound more like big-band jazz than Baroque music. Now Bach begins nine variations worth of fast and intense arpeggios.

Intense arpeggios with rising and falling chromatic lines in the outer voices. Bach is back to three-voice counterpoint, but with tense chromatically ascending harmony.

This time the chords descend chromatically, releasing the tension built up in the previous few variations. The bottom voice jumps around more unpredictably because of the chords: an Andalusian cadence that treats BAII, BVI and V as temporary key centers and precedes each one with its IV and V7 chords.

But then, in the last bar, it switches to a cool four-voice counterpoint sequence, with the top three voices descending chromatically. The counterpoint sequence with the chromatically descending top voice continues from variation 32.

Bach phrases straight through this section boundary; without looking at the MIDI or the score, I would have never guessed there was even a Arline in there. Halfway through, the counterpoint thins to three voices, presaging the simpler two-voice texture that follows.

andalusian bt threadworks balboa
(Source: learntodigitize.net)

Simple two and three voice counterpoint on plain vanilla diatonic major chords, just scale runs in eighth notes for the most part. More mellow pastoral counterpoint in eighth notes, though now expanding to three and four voices.

Yet more pastoral counterpoint, with an elegant two and three voice descending sequence through the second half of the variation. Same progression and basic melodic concept as variation 40, but with groups of three repeated A’s on top.

Using A as the bass note for an E7 chord is weird and “wrong,” and Bach knows that. The temporary dissonance between the A bass and G-sharp in the chord is highly effective.

More repeated notes, now with a D pedal, and with a more active chord progression elaborated from I-V7/IV-IV-V. Angelic four-note block chords that remind me of folk guitar.

Repeats the V7/IV with its seventh in the bass from variation 47, this time resolving to Gmaj7 by holding out the F-sharp on top. More angelic block chords, this time forming a gorgeous rising counterpoint.

(Source: andalusiaviaggioitaliano.com)

Huge three-note block chords with a descending chromatic melody on top, sounds bluesy. More royal-sounding double stop counterpoint, with the most complex chromatic harmony of the D major section so far.

This is the emotional peak of the major section, right before we return to D minor in the next variation. Pattern of dotted eighth and sixteenth-note arpeggios and scales over a complex abstraction of the Andalusian cadence.

An elegant melodic pattern: rising four-note arpeggio, descending scalar turn repeated with a bass note in the middle. Andalusian cadence with secondary dominants, nice jazzy circle of fifths movement.

Complicated melodic pattern over lightly embellished Andalusian cadence. The majestically intense baronage section begins over a straightforward Andalusian cadence.

Chords are still a straight Andalusian cadence, but the melody connects them chromatically. This variation paired with the previous one is the most beautiful thing in the history of Western music, as far as I’m concerned.

friesian andalusian
(Source: www.pinterest.com)

The baronage breaks out of the Andalusian cadence, with more complex rising and falling counterpoint. Triplets on descending scale fragment patterns and rising arpeggios on an Andalusian cadence, with a thirty-second note run all the way up and down the D melodic minor scale on the final A7 chord.

Three-voice counterpoint sequence descending through V-i progressions in G minor, landing on the climactic ending. The final D minor closes the circle, filling in the empty first beat from the very beginning of the piece.

Hey, I'm the kinda guy who needs to see the big picture before I can confidently proceed. I mean if I want to change my cars oil I don't need to know where the head gaskets are.

What I'm saying if guys learned one major 7 arpeggios from the 7th...as in 7 1 3 5 or in C the notes b.c, e,g and then simply played that sound over all 12 dom7, maj7, min7, min6 chords and simply made a mental note which they liked the sound of they'd be further ahead then learning the major arpeggio across the neck in 5 position. I guess what I'm saying is that there is way too much want to understand instead of just having fun trying. I mean if I want to change my cars oil I don't need to know where the head gaskets are.

What I'm saying if guys learned one major 7 arpeggios from the 7th...as in 7 1 3 5 or in C the notes b.c, e,g and then simply played that sound over all 12 dom7, maj7, min7, min6 chords and simply made a mental note which they liked the sound of they'd be further ahead then learning the major arpeggio across the neck in 5 position. I guess what I'm saying is that there is way too much want to understand instead of just having fun trying. It does for me as it allows me to see how everything is related and derived, but I get your point. Oh, and for the record: I do the stuff you suggest too, I just use the thing I've been talking about as background knowledge, which is the way I see it.

(Source: pl.dreamstime.com)

I told my two bands I’m going on a temporary hiatus, and being the main songwriter means they will have to as well (though by their choice). Other than a 6-month recovery from elbow surgery (that didn’t work) I’ve played almost every day since I was 15, and in the early years I played several hours a day. I’m a good guitarist, some have said the best they have ever played with, though I realize that’s speaking from a microcosm since I’m no virtuoso.

I’ve never taken a lesson and though I took some light theory classes in college, never really took the time to study anything applicable to the guitar. I play off of patterns and have gotten by off of intuition and having a good ear, but I’ve gotten discouraged lately, more so than normal.

If I start blindly thumbing through YouTube videos I’ll get discouraged and give up. This pandemic thing is not helping for motivation so that’s why I’ve decided to self impose a hiatus until I have a plan.

Well I don't know what you are into but take a simple thing like the Andalusian cadence. How would someone solo over it and/or use it in music/songs. The Eagles used it (a variation on it) for Hotel California (which they ripped off from Jethro Tull BTW) and Joe Walsh and Don Elder solo over it and what do they use.

Guns and Roses use it for the Sweet Child Of Mine solo and what does Slash use over it. Just the Andalusian cadence results in so many variations and having some idea as to how to handle it is a must for a lot of music.

impasto andalusian burke michael digital 18th artwork piece august which uploaded
(Source: fineartamerica.com)

Knowles basically uses a combo of Pentatonic (mostly Minor but also Major at some points) and Arpeggios (hinting at a Harmonic Minor) and basically it's the same for Joe Walsh and Don Elder. The Am G F part is basically a chord progression from the harmonized Natural Minor and the E7 part introduces a leading tone (G#) which likes to go back to Am and A Harmonic Minor tends to fit it.

Dorian progressions lend themselves to Funk pretty well i.e. Another Brick In The Wall. There are four chords that comprise a staggering number of songs, from the progressions of modern pop to the groundwork of classical compositions.

I do all my writing on keys, because I don't know any keyboard licks or riffs, so I don't get consumed in patterns and boxes. To the OP: you’re in a very special place when you feel you play half decent.

I don’t say this to pass judgment, but to illustrate that there is a lifetime of studying ahead of you...no matter what level you are....maybe its finding new musical ambition where the journey should start.... Advanced theory bores the hell out of me, but realize that it may be the only way to improve improvisation and open up the freeboard.

I could probably write all the music theory you ever need on 2 sheets of paper...and anyone can comprehend it in a week...some maybe in 1 day if you set your mind to it. It's not the theory that is the hard part...it's the application and the connection to your ears that is a lifetime study.

andalusia viaggiofaidate
(Source: viaggiofaidate.blogspot.com)

It is not a trap unless you choose it to be or if your imagination can't see beyond it. To ignore a fundamental and useful way of looking at music is the real box. My point is, if you're learning a pattern as a place to put your fingers so you can “unlock” the freeboard you're well on your way to getting boxed in.

Just because you can play a scale over the entire neck doesn't mean you've unlocked anything. To the OP: you’re in a very special place when you feel you play half decent.

I don’t say this to pass judgment, but to illustrate that there is a lifetime of studying ahead of you...no matter what level you are....maybe its finding new musical ambition where the journey should start.... I could probably write all the music theory you ever need on 2 sheets of paper...and anyone can comprehend it in a week...some maybe in 1 day if you set your mind to it. It's not the theory that is the hard part...it's the application and the connection to your ears that is a lifetime study.

Well decent, yes, meaning I am able to play somewhat competently, but I don't think I am great by any stretch (and right now I do feel like I suck), especially seeing how many amazing players are out there today just on YouTube alone. Guitar has always come pretty naturally to me, so I guess that is an advantage, but maybe also a hindrance because I never truly put in the work like I should have. The last part you stated was an issue for me as well.

Holds worth talks about seeing the neck as one giant pattern, from the lowest note to highest, whatever scale he's using. Well decent, yes, meaning I am able to play somewhat competently, but I don't think I am great by any stretch (and right now I do feel like I suck), especially seeing how many amazing players are out there today just on YouTube alone.

(Source: spanishwanderings.wordpress.com)

Guitar has always come pretty naturally to me, so I guess that is an advantage, but maybe also a hindrance because I never truly put in the work like I should have. The last part you stated was an issue for me as well. Someone, I can’t remember the player, said years ago “I would do this even if no one ever knew, or I ever played in public.

Holds worth talks about seeing the neck as one giant pattern, from the lowest note to highest, whatever scale he's using. Poor guy... if only he had lived to read this thread he would have learned how trapped in a box he was.

I told my two bands I’m going on a temporary hiatus, and being the main songwriter means they will have to as well (though by their choice). Other than a 6-month recovery from elbow surgery (that didn’t work) I’ve played almost every day since I was 15, and in the early years I played several hours a day. I’m a good guitarist, some have said the best they have ever played with, though I realize that’s speaking from a microcosm since I’m no virtuoso.

I’ve never taken a lesson and though I took some light theory classes in college, never really took the time to study anything applicable to the guitar. I play off of patterns and have gotten by off of intuition and having a good ear, but I’ve gotten discouraged lately, more so than normal.

I hear all the wrong notes when jamming/improving on our band practice recordings. If I start blindly thumbing through YouTube videos I’ll get discouraged and give up.

(Source: www.youtube.com)

This pandemic thing is not helping for motivation so that’s why I’ve decided to self impose a hiatus until I have a plan. I listened to some of your band camp album, and it's pretty clear you have a VERY good idea of what you're doing.

Most of the guitarists I've found most inspirational have tended to have a pretty low assessment of their own abilities....often because they're comparing themselves with “proper” musicians who followed a traditional path in mastering their instrument. Virtuosity is great but, to me, those who take a non-traditional route have always tended to be a bit more interesting and inspiring. You have a very solid grasp on the conventions of music and have been able to harness that knowledge and make some wonderful music.

When I go back and hear it, I can kind of see someone doing a really AWFUL attempt to sound like Bowie...but his limitations produce something interesting and unique. A virtuoso singer could do a spot on mimic of David Bowie and I wouldn't find it anywhere near as compelling as Ian McCullough's terrible attempts.

David torn / splatter cell Platinum Supporting Member Funnily enough folks tend to want a bigger slice than they can chew.

I never thought of that.then again, when I needed to learn the entire freeboard, I was instructed by my teacher to simultaneously learn all positions & permutations (including limited string sets) of each Major scale, then the same with Harmonic Minor & Melodic Minor scales. It def took me a bit less than a month of practicing, thinking/visualizing (& all kinds of gigs); this came at a point when my ear was already pretty (but not massively) well-developed, intervallically & harmonically speaking.

travellerspoint guide
(Source: www.travellerspoint.com)

I listened to some of your band camp album, and it's pretty clear you have a VERY good idea of what you're doing. Most of the guitarists I've found most inspirational have tended to have a pretty low assessment of their own abilities....often because they're comparing themselves with “proper” musicians who followed a traditional path in mastering their instrument.

Virtuosity is great but, to me, those who take a non-traditional route have always tended to be a bit more interesting and inspiring. You have a very solid grasp on the conventions of music and have been able to harness that knowledge and make some wonderful music. When I go back and hear it, I can kind of see someone doing a really AWFUL attempt to sound like Bowie...but his limitations produce something interesting and unique.

A virtuoso singer could do a spot on mimic of David Bowie and I wouldn't find it anywhere near as compelling as Ian McCullough's terrible attempts. The thing is, I probably do occasionally stumble upon some interesting harmonies and melodies because I am flying without convention, which I always thought was sort of my 'thing” but now I'm starting to feel like maybe it's time to let that mindset go and try to understand what is going on and hopefully it will broaden my palate without shoehorning me into something too conventional, which I've always feared in the past. That's funny you say that about Ian and ETB (great band) because I have always seen myself as that, a poor interpretation of whatever I was trying to emulate.

On that last album it was me trying (and failing in my eyes) to write songs in the vein of Open, Mastodon, and Porcupine Tree, which I was listening to a lot of at the time. I do generally agree that there is great value in limitations, I just think I need more than that to progress at this point.

Maybe obsess over the tonal differences of various types of tremolo spring metals. I could probably write all the music theory you ever need on 2 sheets of paper...and anyone can comprehend it in a week...some maybe in 1 day if you set your mind to it.

(Source: pl.dreamstime.com)

It's not the theory that is the hard part...it's the application and the connection to your ears that is a lifetime study. Thanks for listening, that is very old stuff and I played with a lot of restraint for obvious reasons, serving the song, etc.

I'm not a jazz player but wouldn't mind knowing some fundamentals, same with rockabilly, blues, soul, etc. No sense in saying, I'm a progressive metal player, that's all I want to learn. For the music I play and write now, which is somewhat similar to the music in my SIG, I would love to know where to go next for songwriting instead of aimlessly fumbling around until I find what matches in my head.

It would be nice to know what chords fit and can be applied, instead of my past philosophy of just going straight off of feeling and trial and error. Maybe obsess over the tonal differences of various types of tremolo spring metals.

The problem clearly has something to do with the knife edges of his tremolo unit. I am an intermediate player who has played since he was 13 (now 35, but did have a ~10 year hiatus in the middle).

Like really listen and play along with the songs and learn every damn note. It’s made me a better player and I feel like I’m progressing for the first time in years.

(Source: spanishwanderings.wordpress.com)

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