African Jews, under Paula al-Yahudi, took part in the decisive battle near Perez de la Frontera, 711. Notwithstanding this, scarcely a decade later, many faithful Jews followed the pseudo-Messiah Serene ; abandoning their goods and homes, which were confiscated to the public treasury.
Their trade, in silk especially, and their various industries contributed not a little to the prosperity of the kingdom; while their varied knowledge and cultivation of the Arabic tongue were of great assistance in the elevation and spread of science. Jews distinguished for culture and wealth were especially preferred by the caliphs as counselors and astrologers, and were appointed to such important posts as judges and secretaries of state (Kali, Najib, Katie).
Hastie urged the establishment of a rabbinical college in the flourishing Jewish community of Cordova, with the fugitive scholar Moses Ben Hank (Enoch) at its head, which enabled the Spanish Jews to be independent of the Babylonian donate in matters of Jewish law. A dispute which arose upon the death of Moses Ben Hank as to the appointment of a successor to the office of rabbi was decided by the caliph Hakim II.
When Hakim's son was opposed by Suleiman, Al-Mansur's successor, he sent an embassy, composed mainly of Cordovan Jews, to Count Raymond of Barcelona, asking for help. The angry Suleiman swore revenge on the Jews, and many were slain in a massacre at Cordova; but many escaped to Saragossa, Seville, and Malaga.
His linguistic attainments and his calligraphy secured for him the influential post of private secretary and minister to Ha bus, the regent of the newly formed kingdom of Granada, which position he held for thirty years. On the death of Ha bus in 1037, his younger son Balkan, supported by many influential Jews, was to have succeeded to the throne; but he declined in favor of his elder brother Basis.
Samuel, who was loyal to Basis, retained his position and was made NASA and chief rabbi of the Jews in Granada, for which his profound Talmudic erudition especially qualified him. This was the golden age of the Jews of Granada; they were in all respects placed on the same footing as their Moorish fellow citizens.
Reared in luxury, he lacked all his father's modesty; his arrogance earned for him the hatred of the Moorish grandees; and on December 30, 1066, a terrible massacre of the Jews in Granada was organized, from which but few escaped. Calling a meeting of the representatives of the congregation, he announced that he had read in the book of the Cordovan writer Serra that the Jews had promised to acknowledge Mohammed as prophet, and become Muslims, if their expected Messiah should not have arrived before the year 500 of the Hegira.
It took considerable exertion and an enormous sum of money to induce the ruler's vizier to secure the postponement of the decree. After his death, Abd-al-Mu'min, another great fanatic, took the leadership and in the middle of the twelfth century conquered Cordova, with the greater part of Andalusia, consigning both Jews and Christians to the flames and to the spear.
Many Jews were stripped of their possessions and sold as slaves; many others fled to Castile and Aragon; still others pretended to become Muslims. Mohammed of Granada built a costly bath-house in his capital with the revenues derived from his Jewish and Christian subjects.
In 1478, before the outbreak of the great war which was to put an end to the Moorish power in Spain, Jews were forbidden to dwell in Cordova, Seville, and other cities of Andalusia. Andalusia, however, remained full of secret Jews after the edict of expulsion, and against these the Inquisition strove until the middle of the eighteenth century.
1055 Children Joseph in Rafaela Samuel in Naghrillah (Hebrew : , Sh'fuel Ha Levi Ben Yosef Managed ; Arabic : ABU mishap Ismail bin an-Naghrlah), also known as Samuel Managed (Hebrew : , Shmuel Managed, lit. Samuel the Prince) (born 993; died after 1056), was a medieval Spanish Talmudic scholar, grammarian, philologist, soldier, merchant, politician, and an influential poet who lived in Iberia at the time of the Moorish rule.
Samuel in Naghrillah was an Andalusian Jew born in Mérida in 993. He studied Jewish law and became a Talmudic scholar who was fluent in both Hebrew and Arabic.
However, civil war broke out in 1009 against the Aired Kingdom and Berbers took the city in 1013, forcing him to flee from Córdoba. His relations with the Granada royal court, and his eventual promotion to the position of vizier, happened in a coincidental manner.
The shop he set up was near the palace of the vizier of Granada, Abu alkali in Alaric. Eventually Naghrillah was given the job of a tax collector, then a secretary, and finally an assistant vizier of state to the Berber king Habits al-Muzaffar.
In return for his support, Basis made Samuel in Naghrillah his vizier and top general. Some sources say that he held office as a vizier ship of state for over three decades until his death sometime around or after 1056.
Because Jews were not permitted to hold public office in Islamic nations as an agreement made in the Pact of Umar, that Samuel Nag id, a Jew or shimmy, should hold such a high public office was rare. His example was used to support the Golden Age theory, regarding Jewish life under Muslim rule, rather than the lachrymose view.
His unique position as the vizier ship made him the highest ranking Jewish courtier in all of Spain. The peculiar fact regarding his position as the top general in the Granada army was that he was a Jew.
That a Jew would command the Muslim army, which he did for 17 years, having them under his authority, was an astonishing feat. Other leading Jews, including Joseph in Mi gash, in the generation that succeeded Samuel managed, lent their support to Bulletin and were forced to flee for their safety.
As a Jew, Samuel managed actively sought to assert an independence from the Babylonian Leonid by writing independently on Jewish law for the Spanish community. It has often been speculated that Samuel was the father or otherwise an ancestor of Jasmina, the only attested female Arabic-language medieval Jewish poet, but the foundations for these claims are shaky.
:xix Joseph succeeded his father as vizier of Granada before turning twenty-one. Many Muslims, envious of his position and unhappy with Joseph's excesses, accused him of using his office to benefit Jewish friends.
The people then proceeded to crucify his body upon the city's main gate. The following morning, on December 31, 1066, the massacre of Granada's Jews began and a mob went on a rampage in Granada, killing many Jewish inhabitants.
When he defeated the allied armies of Seville, Malaga and the Berbers on Sept. 8, 1047 at Ronda, he wrote in his Hebrew poem of gratitude for his deliverance: “A redemption which was like the mother of my other redemptions, and they became to it as daughters. He founded the yeshiva that produced such brilliant scholars as Yitzhak in Heath and Mammon Ben Joseph, the father of Maimonides.
By David Solomon Sassoon (London: Oxford University Press, 1934) Divan Sh emu'El managed, ed. By D. Garden, 2 vols (Jerusalem, 1966-82) Selected Poems of Shmuel Managed, trans.
Jews, Visigoths, and Muslims in Medieval Spain: Cooperation and Conflict. The Jews of Arab Lands: A History and Source Book, The Jewish Publication Society of America,1979.
In: Seder Slam Rabbi / Seder Slam Zeta, Jerusalem 1971, p. 40 (Hebrew) ^ Abbey Solomon Ban, Heritage: Civilization and the Jews, Simon & Schuster 1984 ^ Constable, Olivia R., ed. CS1 main: extra text: authors list (link) ^ María Angeles Gallegos, 'Approaches to the Study of Muslim and Jewish Women in Medieval Iberian Peninsula: The Poetess Jasmina Bat IMA`IL', Mean, section Hebrew, 48 (1999), 63-75 (pp.
Selected Religious Poems of Solomon in Gabriel. ^ Ban, Abbey Solomon Heritage: civilization and the Jews Simon and Schuster, Jul 1, 1984.
Sephardi Bestowal population 2,300,000 up to 15–20% of the global Jewish populationRegions with significant populations Israel 1.4 million France 300,000–400,000 United States 200,000–300,000 Argentina 50,000 Brazil 40,000 Spain 40,000 Canada 30,000 Turkey 26,000 Italy 24,930 Mexico 44,000 El Salvador 8,000 Panama 8,000 Colombia 7,000 Greece 3,000 Morocco 6,000 Bulgaria 2,000 Bosnia and Herzegovina 1,000 Tunisia 1,000 Cuba 1,500 Serbia 1,000 Netherlands 600 North Macedonia 200 Romania 200LanguagesHistorical: Hebrew, Aramaic, Latino, Andalusian Arabic, Judeo-Arabic, Dakota, Judeo-Portuguese, Judeo-Berber, Judaeo-Catalanic, Studio, local languages Modern: Local languages, primarily Modern Hebrew, French, English, Turkish, Spanish, Portuguese, Italian, Latino, ArabicReligion Judaism (Jewish secularism, Conservative Judaism, Modern Orthodox Judaism, Hard Judaism)Related ethnic groups Ashkenazi Jews, Iraqi Jews, other Jewish ethnic divisions, Samaritans, other Seventies, Lebanese, Syrians, other Near Eastern Semitic people, Spaniards, Portuguese, Pieds-noirs and Hispanics / Latinos Sephardi Jews, also known as Sephardi Jews, Sephardi, or Hispanic Jews, are a Jewish ethnic division originating from traditionally established communities in the Iberian Peninsula (modern Spain and Portugal). Largely expelled from the Iberian Peninsula in the late 15th century, they carried a distinctive Jewish diaspora identity with them to North Africa, including modern day Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya, and Egypt ; South-Eastern and Southern Europe, including France, Italy, Greece, Bulgaria, North Macedonia and Turkey ; the Middle East, including Lebanon, Syria, Iraq, and Iran ; as well as the Americas (although in smaller numbers compared to Ashkenazi Jews); and all other places of their exiled settlement.
The millennial residence of the Sephardi as an open and organized Jewish community in Iberia began to decline with the Reconquista. That community's decline began with the Alhambra Decree by Spain's Catholic Monarchs in 1492.
In 1496 Portuguese king Manuel I issued an edict of expulsion of Jews and Muslims. These actions resulted in a combination of internal and external migrations, mass conversions, and executions.
In 2015, both Spain and Portugal passed laws allowing Sephardi who could prove their ancestral origins in those countries to apply for citizenship. The historical forms of Spanish that differing Sephardi communities spoke communally was related to the date of their departure from Iberia and their status at that time as Jews or New Christians.
This distinction has also been made in reference to 21st-century genetic findings in research on 'Pure Sephardi', in contrast to other communities of Jews today who are part of the broad classification of Sephardi. Ethnic Sephardi Jews have had a presence in North Africa and various parts of the Mediterranean and Western Asia due to their expulsion from Spain.
In its most basic form, this broad religious definition of a Sephardi refers to any Jew, of any ethnic background, who follows the customs and traditions of Sephardi. It encompasses most non-Ashkenazi Jews who are not ethnically Sephardi, but are in most instances of West Asian or North African origin.
They are classified as Sephardi because they commonly use a Sephardi style of liturgy; this constitutes a majority of Iraqi Jews in the 21st century. The term Busch Seward or Busch Farad does not refer to the liturgy generally recited by Sephardi proper or even Sephardi in a broader sense, but rather to an alternative Eastern European liturgy used by many Hasidim, who are Ashkenazi.
In the case of the Alhambra Decree of 1492, the primary purpose was to eliminate Jewish influence on Spain's large converse population, and ensure they did not revert to Judaism. Over half of Spain's Jews had converted in the 14th century as a result of the religious persecution and pogroms which occurred in 1391.
They and their Catholic descendants were not subject to the Decree or to expulsion, yet were surveilled by the Spanish Inquisition. “The real purpose of the 1492 edict likely was not expulsion, but compulsory conversion and assimilation of all Spanish Jews, a process which had been underway for a number of centuries.
Foreseeing a negative economic effect of a similar Jewish flight from Portugal, King Manuel issued his decree four years later largely to appease a precondition that the Spanish monarchs had set for him in order to allow him to marry their daughter. He decided that the Jews who stayed accepted Catholicism by default, proclaiming them New Christians.
Also included among Sephardi Jews are those who descend from New Christian converses, but returned to Judaism after leaving Iberia, largely after reaching Southern and Western Europe. Additional to all these Sephardi Jewish groups are the descendants of those New Christian converses who either remained in Iberia, or moved from Iberia directly to the Iberian colonial possessions in what are today the various Latin American countries.
For historical reasons and circumstances, most of the descendants of this group of converses never formally returned to the Jewish religion. All these sub-groups are defined by a combination of geography, identity, religious evolution, language evolution, and the timeframe of their reversion (for those who had in the interim undergone a temporary nominal conversion to Catholicism) or non-reversion back to Judaism.
These Sephardi sub-groups are separate from any pre-existing local Jewish communities they encountered in their new areas of settlement. From the perspective of the present day, the first three sub-groups appeared to have developed as separate branches, each with its own traditions.
The Jewish community of Giorno, Italy acted as the clearing-house of personnel and traditions among the first three sub-groups; it also developed as the chief publishing center. Sephardi Jewish couple from Sarajevo in traditional clothing (1900)Eastern Sephardi comprise the descendants of the expel lees from Spain who left as Jews in 1492 or prior.
This sub-group of Sephardi settled mostly in various parts of the Ottoman Empire, which included areas in the Near East (West Asia's Middle East such as Anatolia, the Levant and Egypt), and the Balkans in Southeastern Europe. They had a presence as well in Malachi in what is today southern Romania, where there is still a functioning Sephardi Synagogue.
It is Judaeo-Spanish, sometimes also known as Latino, which consisted of the medieval Spanish and Portuguese they spoke in Iberia, with admixtures of Hebrew, and the surrounding languages, especially Turkish. A 1902 Issue of La Epoch, a Latino newspaper from Salonika (Thessaloniki)Some Sephardi went further east to West Asian territories of the Ottoman Empire, settling among the long-established Arabic-speaking Jewish communities in Damascus and Aleppo in Syria, as well as in the Land of Israel, and as far as Baghdad in Iraq.
Although technically Egypt was a North African Ottoman region, those Jews who settled Alexandria are included in this group, due to Egypt's cultural proximity to the West Asian provinces. For the most part, Eastern Sephardi did not maintain their own separate Sephardi religious and cultural institutions from pre-existing Jews.
Instead, the local Jews came to adopt the liturgical customs of the recent Sephardi arrivals. Additionally, Eastern Sephardi in European areas of the Ottoman Empire retained their culture and language.
Those in the West Asian portion gave up their language and adopted the local Judeo-Arabic dialect. This latter phenomenon is just one of the factors which has today led to the broader religious definition of Sephardi.
They adopted Sephardi rite and traditions through cultural diffusion, and are properly termed Iraqi Jews. For instance, Syrian Jews, while clustering within the various world Jewish groups (where most Jewish groups cluster closely together at large compared to non-Jews), are most closely related to the Sephardi proper counterparts in other regions of Sephardi settlement, rather than to the Iraqi Jews who are geographically closest to them.
In recent times, principally after 1948, most Eastern Sephardi have since relocated to Israel, and others to the US and Latin America. Other Eastern Sephardi have since also translated their Hispanic surnames into the languages of the regions they settled in, or have modified them to sound more local.
19th century Moroccan Sephardi wedding dress. North African Sephardi consist of the descendants of the expel lees from Spain who also left as Jews in 1492. This branch settled in North Africa (except Egypt, see Eastern Sephardi above).
North African Sephardi still also often carry common Spanish surnames, as well as other specifically Sephardi surnames from 15th century Spain with Arabic or Hebrew language origins (such as Airplay, Bulgaria, Abravanel) which have since disappeared from Spain when those that stayed behind as converses adopted surnames that were solely Spanish in origin. Henry Karen and Joseph Perez estimate that of the total Jewish origin population of Spain at the time of the issuance of the Alhambra Decree, those who chose to remain in Spain represented the majority, up to 300,000 of a total Jewish origin population of 350,000.
Furthermore, a significant number returned to Spain in the years following the expulsion, on condition of converting to Catholicism, the Crown guaranteeing they could recover their property at the same price at which it was sold. Discrimination against this large community of converses nevertheless remained, and those who secretly practiced the Jewish faith specifically suffered severe episodes of persecution by the Inquisition.
External migrations out of the Iberian Peninsula coincided with these episodes of increased persecution by the Inquisition. As a result of this discrimination and persecution, a few warrants (converses who secretly practiced Judaism) later emigrated to more religiously tolerant Old World countries outside the Iberian cultural sphere such as the Netherlands, Belgium, France, Italy, Germany, England.
In these lands converses reverted to Judaism, rejoining the Jewish community sometimes up to the third or even fourth generations after the initial decrees stipulating conversion, expulsion, or death. New World Western Sephardi are juxtaposed to yet another group of descendants of converses who settled in the Iberian colonies of the Americas who could not revert to Judaism.
These comprise the related but distinct group known as Sephardi BNEI ANSI (see section below). Due to the presence of the Spanish and Portuguese Inquisition in the Iberian American territories, initially converse immigration was barred throughout much of Ibero-America.
Of those converses in the New World who did return to Judaism, it was principally those who had come via an initial respite of refuge in the Netherlands and/or who were settling the New World Dutch colonies such as Curaçao and the area then known as New Holland (also called Dutch Brazil). Jews who had only recently reverted in Dutch Brazil then again had to flee to other Dutch-ruled colonies in the Americas, including joining brethren in Curaçao, but also migrating to New Amsterdam, in what is today New York.
All the oldest congregations in the non-Iberian colonial possessions in the Americas were founded by Western Sephardi, many who arrived in the then Dutch-ruled New Amsterdam, with their synagogues being in the tradition of “Spanish and Portuguese Jews”. The intermittent period of residence in Portugal (after the initial fleeing from Spain) for the ancestors of many Western Sephardi (whether Old World or New World) is a reason why the surnames of many Western Sephardi tend to be Portuguese variations of common Spanish surnames, though some are still Spanish.
Sephardi's family from Missions Province, Argentina, circa 1900. Due to historical reasons and circumstances, Sephardi BNEI ANSI had not been able to return to the Jewish faith over the last five centuries, although increasing numbers have begun emerging publicly in modern times, especially over the last two decades. Except for varying degrees of putative rudimentary Jewish customs and traditions which had been retained as family traditions among individual families, Sephardi BNEI ANSI became a fully assimilated sub-group within the Iberian-descended Christian populations of Spain, Portugal, Hispanic America and Brazil.
In the last 5 to 10 years, however, “organized groups of Beta ANSI in Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Chile, Ecuador, Mexico, Puerto Rico, Venezuela, Dominican Republic and in Se farad itself” have now been established, some of whose members have formally reverted to Judaism, leading to the emergence of Neo-Western Sephardi (see group below). Although numerically superior, Sephardi BNEI ANSI are, however, the least prominent or known sub-group of Sephardi descendants.
At least some Sephardi ANSI in the Hispanosphere (in Iberia, but especially in their colonies in Ibero-America) had also initially tried to revert to Judaism, or at least maintain crypto-Jewish practices in privacy. This, however, was not feasible long-term in that environment, as Judaizing converses in Iberia and Ibero-America remained persecuted, prosecuted, and liable to conviction and execution.
Historical documentation shedding new light on the diversity in the ethnic composition of the Iberian immigrants to the Spanish colonies of the Americas during the conquest era suggests that the number of New Christians of Sephardi origin that actively participated in the conquest and settlement was more significant than previously estimated. A number of Spanish conquerors, administrators, settlers, have now been confirmed to have been of Sephardi origin.
Recent revelations have only come about as a result of modern DNA evidence and newly discovered records in Spain, which had been either lost or hidden, relating to conversions, marriages, baptisms, and Inquisition trials of the parents, grandparents and great-grandparents of the Sephardi-origin Iberian immigrants. With Latin America's current population standing at close to 590 million people, the bulk of which consists of persons of full or partial Iberian ancestry (both New World Hispanics and Brazilians, whether they're Criollo, mestizos or mulattoes), it is estimated that up to 50 million of these possess Sephardi Jewish ancestry to some degree.
In Iberia, settlements of known and attested populations of BNEI ANSI include those in Belmont, in Portugal, and the Quotes of Palma de Mallorca, in Spain. In 2011 Rabbi Nissan Berlitz, a leading rabbi and Galactic authority and chairman of the Bat Din There rabbinical court in BNEI Break, Israel, recognized the entire Quite community of BNEI ANSI in Palma de Mallorca, as Jews.
Almost all Sephardi BNEI ANSI carry surnames which are known to have been used by Sephardi during the 15th century, however, per se, almost all of this surname are not specifically Sephardi, and are in fact mostly surnames of gentile Spanish or gentile Portuguese origin which only became common among BNEI ANSI because they deliberately adopted them during their conversions in an attempt to obscure their Jewish pedigrees. Prior to 1492, substantial Jewish populations existed in most Spanish and Portuguese provinces.
Among these towns were Ocala, Guadalajara, Footage del Loyola, Lucia, Batavia, Serves, Klarna, and Amazon. In Castile, Amanda de Duero, Ávila, Alba de Tormes, Arévalo, Burgos, Calahorra, Carrion de los Codes, Cellar, Herrera del Tuque, León, Medina Del Camp, Ourense, Salamanca, Segovia, Syria, and Villain were home to large Jewish communities or lamas.
The Alhambra Decree (also known as the Edict of Expulsion) was an edict issued on 31 March 1492, by the joint Catholic Monarchs of Spain (Isabella I of Castile and Ferdinand II of Aragon) ordering the expulsion of practicing Jews from the Kingdoms of Castile and Aragon and its territories and possessions by 31 July, of that year. The primary purpose was to eliminate their influence on Spain's large converse population and ensure they did not revert to Judaism.
Over half of Spain's Jews had converted as a result of the religious persecution and pogroms which occurred in 1391, and as such were not subject to the Decree or to expulsion. The Spanish Jews who chose to leave Spain instead of converting dispersed throughout the region of North Africa known as the Maghreb.
Sultan Bayed II of the Ottoman Empire, learning about the expulsion of Jews from Spain, dispatched the Ottoman Navy to bring the Jews safely to Ottoman lands, mainly to the cities of Salonika (currently Thessaloniki, now in Greece) and Smyrna (now known in English as Izmir, currently in Turkey). Many of these Jews also settled in other parts of the Balkans ruled by the Ottomans such as the areas that are now Bulgaria, Serbia and Bosnia.
Throughout history, scholars have given widely differing numbers of Jews expelled from Spain. The Jewish community in Portugal (perhaps then some 10% of that country's population) were then declared Christians by Royal decree unless they left.
Such figures exclude the significant number of Jews who returned to Spain due to the hostile reception they received in their countries of refuge, notably Fez. The situation of returnees was legalized with the Ordinance of 10 November 1492 which established that civil and church authorities should be witness to baptism and, in the case that they were baptized before arrival, proof and witnesses of baptism were required.
On the other hand, the Provision of the Royal Council of 24 October 1493 set harsh sanctions for those who slandered these New Christians with insulting terms such as tornados. As a result of the more recent Jewish exodus from Arab lands, many of the Sephardi Theorem from the Middle East and North Africa relocated to either Israel or France, where they form a significant portion of the Jewish communities today.
Other significant communities of Sephardi Theorem also migrated in more recent times from the Near East to New York City, Argentina, Costa Rica, Mexico, Montreal, Gibraltar, Puerto Rico, and Dominican Republic. According to the genetic study “The Genetic Legacy of Religious Diversity and Intolerance: Paternal Lineages of Christians, Jews, and Muslims in the Iberian Peninsula” at the University Pompey Sabra of Barcelona and the University of Leicester, led by Briton Mark Jobbing, Frances Caldwell and Elena Bosch, published by the American Journal of Human Genetics, genetic markers show that nearly 20% of Spaniards have Sephardi Jewish markers (direct male descent male for Y, equivalent weight for female mitochondria); residents of Catalonia have approximately 6%.
Although some are of Ashkenazi origin, the majority are Sephardi Jews who returned to Spain after the end of the protectorate over northern Morocco. In 2011 Rabbi Nissan Berlitz, a leading rabbi and Galactic authority and chairman of the Bat Din There rabbinical court in BNEI Break, Israel, recognized the entire community of Sephardi descendants in Palma de Mallorca, the Cheats, as Jewish.
Spanish citizenship by Iberian Sephardi descent In 1924, the Dictatorship of Prim ode Rivera approved a decree to enable Sephardi Jews to obtain Spanish nationality. Although the deadline was originally the end of 1930, diplomat Ángel San Brig used this decree as the basis for giving Spanish citizenship papers to Hungarian Jews in the Second World War to try to save them from the Nazis.
Today, Spanish nationality law generally requires a period of residency in Spain before citizenship can be applied for. This had been relaxed from ten to two years for Sephardi Jews and for Hispanic Americans and others with historical ties to Spain.
The Law establishes the right to Spanish nationality of Sephardi Jews with a connection to Spain who apply within three years from 1 October 2015. The law defines Sephardi's as Jews who lived in the Iberian Peninsula until their expulsion in the late fifteenth century, and their descendants.
Eligibility criteria for proving Sephardi descent include: a certificate issued by the Federation of Jewish Communities of Spain, or the production of a certificate from the competent rabbinic authority, legally recognized in the country of habitual residence of the applicant, or other documentation which might be considered appropriate for this purpose; or by justifying one's inclusion as a Sephardi descendant, or a direct descendant of persons included in the list of protected Sephardi families in Spain referred to in the Decree-Law of 29 December 1948, or descendants of those who obtained naturalization by way of the Royal Decree of 20 December 1924; or by the combination of other factors including surnames of the applicant, spoken family language (Spanish, Latino, Dakota), and other evidence attesting descent from Sephardi Jews and a relationship to Spain. The path to Spanish citizenship for Sephardi applicants remained costly and arduous.
By July 2017 the Portuguese government had received about 5,000 applications, mostly from Brazil, Israel, and Turkey. Dedication at Yad Vashem in Jerusalem written in Hebrew, English, Yiddish, and Judeo-SpanishThe most typical traditional language of Sephardi is Jude o-Spanish, also called Demo or Latino.
It is a Romance language derived mainly from Old Castilian (Spanish), with many borrowings from Turkish, and to a lesser extent from Greek, Arabic, Hebrew, and French. Because of later emigration, it was also spoken by Sephardi in CEFTA and Melissa (Spanish cities in North Africa), Gibraltar, Casablanca (Morocco), and Oran (Algeria).
The Eastern Sephardi dialect is typified by its greater conservatism, its retention of numerous Old Spanish features in phonology, morphology, and lexicon, and its numerous borrowings from Turkish and, to a lesser extent, also from Greek and South Slavic. But the number of Hebraisms in everyday speech or writing is in no way comparable to that found in Yiddish, a first language for some time among Ashkenazi Jews in Europe.
On the other hand, the North African Sephardi dialect was, until the early 20th century, also highly conservative; its abundant Colloquial Arabic loan words retained most of the Arabic phonemes as functional components of a new, enriched Hispano-Semitic phonological system. Most Moroccan Jews now speak a colloquial, Andalusian form of Spanish, with only an occasional use of the old language as a sign of in-group solidarity.
Except for certain younger individuals, who continue to practice Haiti as a matter of cultural pride, this dialect, probably the most Arabized of the Romance languages apart from Arabic, has essentially ceased to exist. By contrast, Eastern Judeo-Spanish has fared somewhat better, especially in Israel, where newspapers, radio broadcasts, and elementary school and university programs strive to keep the language alive.
Judeo-Arabic and its dialects have been a large vernacular language for Sephardi who settled in North African kingdoms and Arabic-speaking parts of the Ottoman Empire. Within the last centuries and, more particularly the 19th and 20th centuries, two languages have become dominant in the Sephardi diaspora: French, introduced first by the Alliance Israelite Universally, and then by absorption of new immigrants to France after Tunisia, Morocco and Algeria became independent; and Hebrew in the state of Israel.
Elsewhere, he writes about his maternal grandfather's family and how they came to Spain: “When Titus prevailed over Jerusalem, his officer who was appointed over Hispanic appeased him, requesting that he send to him captives made-up of the nobles of Jerusalem, and so he sent a few of them to him, and there were amongst them those who made curtains and who were knowledgeable in the work of silk, and whose name was Baruch, and they remained in Mérida.” Here, Rabbi Abraham Ben David refers to the second influx of Jews into Spain, shortly after the destruction of Israel's Second Temple in 70 CE.
The earliest mention of Spain is, allegedly, found in Obadiah 1:20: “And the exiles of this host of the sons of Israel who are among the Canaanites as far as Surfeit (Hebrew: ), and the exiles of Jerusalem who are in Sephardi, will possess the cities of the south.” While the medieval lexicographer, David Ben Abraham Alias, identifies Surfeit with the city of Sargent (Judeo-Arabic: ), the word Sephardi (Hebrew: ) in the same verse has been translated by the 1st century rabbinic scholar, Jonathan Ben Ozzie, as Asama.
According to Rabbi David Kimchi (1160–1235), in his commentary on Obadiah 1:20, Surfeit and Sephardi, both, refer to the Jewish captivity (Heb. Galut) expelled during the war with Titus and who went as far as the countries Ale mania (Germany), Escalope, France and Spain.
Now, I have heard that this praise, meet was was sent by the exiles who were driven away from Jerusalem and who were not with Ezra in Babylon, and that Ezra had sent inquiring after them, but they did not wish to go up , replying that since they were destined to go off again into exile a second time, and that the Temple would once again be destroyed, why should we then double our anguish? However, that they might not be thought of as wicked men and those who are lacking in fidelity, may God forbid, they wrote down for them this magnanimous praise, etc.
In 252 Anna funds , the king Ferdinand and his wife, Isabella, made war with the Ishmaelites who were in Granada and took it, and while they returned they commanded the Jews in all of his kingdom that in but a short time they were to take leave from the countries , they being Castile, Navarre, Catalonia, Aragon, Granada and Sicily. Then the inhabitants of ulayulah (Toledo) answered that they were not present at the time when their Christ was put to death.
Apparently, it was written upon a large stone in the city's street which some very ancient sovereign inscribed and testified that the Jews of ulayulah (Toledo) did not depart from there during the building of the Second Temple, and were not involved in putting to death Christ. Yet, no apology was of any avail to them, neither unto the rest of the Jews, till at length six hundred-thousand souls had evacuated from there.
An amphora dating from at least the 1st century found in Ibiza, which bears imprints of two Hebrew characters. Several early Jewish writers wrote that their families had lived in Spain since the destruction of the first temple.
Some suggest that substantial Jewish immigration probably occurred during the Roman period of Hispanic. The province came under Roman control with the fall of Carthage after the Second Punic War (218–202 BC).
Exactly how soon after this time Jews made their way onto the scene in this context is a matter of speculation. It is within the realm of possibility that they went there under the Romans as free men to take advantage of its rich resources.
Any Jews already in Hispanic at this time would have been joined by those who had been enslaved by the Romans under Vespasian and Titus, and dispersed to the extreme west during the period of the Jewish Wars, and especially after the defeat of Judea in 70. Subsequent immigration came into the area along both the northern African and southern European sides of the Mediterranean.
Scholars such as Josephus Flavius have taken Paul's intention to go to Hispanic to preach the gospel (Romans 15:24, 28) to indicate the presence of Jewish communities there, as well as the fact that Herod Antipas's banishment by Caligula in the year 39 may have been to Hispanic. From a slightly later period, Midrash Rabbi (Leviticus Rabbi § 29.2), and Peseta Debra Kahuna (Rose Shanna), both, make mention of the Jewish Diaspora in Spain (Hispanic) and their eventual return.
Perhaps the most direct and substantial of early references are the several decrees of the Council of Elvira, convened in the early 4th century, which address proper Christian behavior with regard to the Jews of Hispanic. As citizens of the Roman Empire, the Jews of Hispanic engaged in a variety of occupations, including agriculture.
Until the adoption of Christianity, Jews had close relations with non-Jewish populations, and played an active role in the social and economic life of the province. The edicts of the Synod of Elvira, provide evidence of Jews who were integrated enough into the greater community to cause alarm among some.
Of the Council's 80 canon decisions, those that pertain to Jews maintained separation between the two communities. This is due in large measure to the difficulty the Church had in establishing itself in its western frontier.
In the west, Germanic tribes such as the Sue vi, the Vandals, and especially the Visigoths had more or less disrupted the political and ecclesiastical systems of the Roman Empire, and for several centuries the Jews enjoyed a degree of peace their brethren to the east did not. Barbarian invasions brought most of the Iberian Peninsula under Visigothic rule by the early 5th century.
Other than in their contempt for Trinidadian Christians, the Arian Visigoths were largely uninterested in the religious creeds within their kingdom. The situation of the Jews changed after the conversion of the Visigothic royal family under Received from Arianism to Roman Catholicism in 587.
In their desire to consolidate the realm under the new religion, the Visigoths adopted an aggressive policy towards Jews. As the king and the church acted in a single interest, the Jews' situation deteriorated.
Under successive Visigothic kings and under ecclesiastical authority, many orders of expulsion, forced conversion, isolation, enslavement, execution, and other punitive measures were made. By 612–621, the situation for Jews became intolerable and many left Spain for nearby northern Africa.
The Jews of Hispanic had been utterly embittered and alienated by Catholic rule by the time of the Muslim invasion. In many conquered towns the garrison was left in the hands of the Jews before the Muslims proceeded further north.
This began nearly four centuries of Muslim rule in the Iberian Peninsula, which became known as the “Golden Age” of Sephardi Jewry. 13th century depiction of a Jew and Muslim playing chess in Landaus With the victory of Tariq in Jihad in 711, the lives of the Sephardi changed dramatically.
Though Islamic law placed restrictions on shimmies (non-Muslim members of monotheistic faiths), the coming of the Moors was by and large welcomed by the Jews of Iberia. Although in some towns Jews may have been helpful to Muslim success, because of their small numbers they were of limited impact.
Many Jews came to Iberia, seen as a land of tolerance and opportunity, from the Christian and Muslim worlds. Following initial Arab victories, and especially with the establishment of Umayyad rule by ABD Brahman I in 755, the native Jewish community was joined by Jews from the rest of Europe, as well as from Arab lands, from Morocco to Babylon.
The cultural and intellectual achievements of the Arabs, and much of the scientific and philosophical speculation of Ancient Greek culture, which had been best preserved by Arab scholars, was made available to the educated Jew. The meticulous regard the Arabs had for grammar and style also had the effect of stimulating an interest in philological matters in general among Jews.
Arabic became the main language of Sephardi science, philosophy, and everyday business, as had been the case with Babylonian Leonid. This thorough adoption of the Arabic language also greatly facilitated the assimilation of Jews into Moorish culture, and Jewish activity in a variety of professions, including medicine, commerce, finance, and agriculture increased.
By the 9th century, some members of the Sephardi community felt confident enough to take part in proselytizing amongst Christians. Each man, using such epithets as “wretched compiler”, tried to convince the other to return to his former faith, to no avail.
The Golden Age is most closely identified with the reign of ABD Brahman III (882–942), the first independent Caliph of Córdoba, and in particular with the career of his Jewish councilor, Hastie in Short (882–942). Within this context of cultural patronage, studies in Hebrew, literature, and linguistics flourished.
Hastie benefited world Jewry not only indirectly by creating a favorable environment for scholarly pursuits within Iberia, but also by using his influence to intervene on behalf of foreign Jews: in his letter to ByzantinePrincess Helena, he requested protection for the Jews under Byzantine rule, attesting to the fair treatment of the Christians of landaus, and perhaps indicating that such was contingent on the treatment of Jews abroad. One notable contribution to Christian intellectualism is In Gabirol's neo-Platonic Fans Vitae (“The Source of Life;” “Major Khayyam”).
Thought by many to have been written by a Christian, this work was admired by Christians and studied in monasteries throughout the Middle Ages, though the work of Solomon Punk in the 19th century proved that the author of Fans Vitae was the Jewish in Gabriel. Mainly in Toledo, texts were translated between Greek, Arabic, Hebrew, and Latin.
In translating the great works of Arabic, Hebrew, and Greek into Latin, Iberian Jews were instrumental in bringing the fields of science and philosophy, which formed much of the basis of Renaissance learning, into the rest of Europe. In the early 11th century centralized authority based at Córdoba broke down following the Berber invasion and the ousting of the Umayyads.
In its stead arose the independent Haifa principalities under the rule of local Multi, Arab, Berber, or Slavonic leaders. Rather than having a stifling effect, the disintegration of the caliphate expanded the opportunities to Jewish and other professionals.
The services of Jewish scientists, doctors, traders, poets, and scholars were generally valued by Christian and Muslim rulers of regional centers, especially as order was restored in recently conquered towns. He was succeeded by his son Joseph in Rafaela who was slain by an incited mob along with most of the Jewish community.
The decline of the Golden Age began before the completion of the Christian Reconquista, with the penetration and influence of the Almoravid es, and then the Almohad's, from North Africa. These more intolerant sects abhorred the liberality of the Islamic culture of landaus, including the position of authority some shimmies held over Muslims.
Some, such as the family of Maimonides, fled south and east to the more tolerant Muslim lands, while others went northward to settle in the growing Christian kingdoms. As had happened during the reconstruction of towns following the breakdown of authority under the Umayyads, the services of Jews were employed by the victorious Christian leaders.
However, many of the newly arrived Jews of the north prospered during the late 11th and early 12th centuries. The majority of Latin documentation regarding Jews during this period refers to their landed property, fields, and vineyards.
Christian leaders of reconquered cities granted them extensive autonomy, and Jewish scholarship recovered somewhat and developed as communities grew in size and importance. Among the Sephardi were many who were the descendants, or heads, of wealthy families and who, as Warrants, had occupied prominent positions in the countries they had left.
Their Spanish or Portuguese was a lingua franca that enabled Sephardi from different countries to engage in commerce and diplomacy. They were received at the courts of sultans, kings, and princes, and often were employed as ambassadors, envoys, or agents.
For a long time the Sephardi took an active part in Spanish literature ; they wrote in prose and in rhyme, and were the authors of theological, philosophical, belletristic (aesthetic rather than content based writing), pedagogic (teaching), and mathematical works. The rabbis, who, in common with all the Sephardi, emphasized a pure and euphonious pronunciation of Hebrew, delivered their sermons in Spanish or in Portuguese.
Their thirst for knowledge, together with the fact that they associated freely with the outer world, led the Sephardi to establish new educational systems. Even with the increasing pressure from the Catholic Church this state of affairs remained more or less constant and the number of Jews in Portugal grew with those running from Spain.
This changed with the marriage of D. Manuel I of Portugal with the daughter of the Catholic Monarchs of the newly born Spain. In 1497 the Decree ordering the expulsion or forced conversion of all the Jews was passed, and the Sephardi either fled or went into secrecy under the guise of “Crystals Novas”, i.e. New Christians (this Decree was symbolically revoked in 1996 by the Portuguese Parliament).
Those who were fortunate enough to reach the Ottoman Empire had a better fate: the Sultan Bayed II sarcastically sent his thanks to Ferdinand for sending him some of his best subjects, thus “impoverishing his own lands while enriching his (Bayed's)”. Jews arriving in the Ottoman Empire were mostly resettled in and around Thessaloniki and to some extent in Constantinople and Izmir.
This was followed by a great massacre of Jews in the city of Lisbon in 1506 and the establishment of the Portuguese Inquisition in 1536. This caused the flight of the Portuguese Jewish community, which continued until the extinction of the Courts of Inquisition in 1821; by then there were very few Jews in Portugal.
In Amsterdam, where Jews were especially prominent in the 17th century on account of their number, wealth, education, and influence, they established poetical academies after Spanish models; two of these were the Academia de los Sitibundos and the Academia de los Florida. In the same city they also organized the first Jewish educational institution, with graduate classes in which, in addition to Talmudic studies, instruction was given in the Hebrew language.
Jews in Algeria were given French citizenship in 1870 by the secret Cremains (previously Jews and Muslims could apply for French citizenship, but had to renounce the use of traditional religious courts and laws, which many did not want to do). They were declared Christians by Royal decree unless they left, but the King hindered their departure, needing their partisanship and working population for Portugal's overseas enterprises and territories.
Later Sephardi Jews settled in many trade areas controlled by the Empire of Philip II and others. In a letter dated 25 November 1622, King Christian IV of Denmark invites Jews of Amsterdam to settle in Glickstein, where, among other privileges, the free exercise of their religion would be assured to them.
Attracting settlers proved difficult, however, the Jewish settlement was a success and their descendants settled many parts of Brazil. They contributed to the establishment of the Dutch West Indies Company in 1621, and some were members of the directorate.
Jews supported the Dutch in the struggle between the Netherlands and Portugal for possession of Brazil. In 1642, About the Fonseca was appointed rabbi at Kamal Our Israel Synagogue in the Dutch colony of Pernambuco (Recife), Brazil.
About the Fonseca managed to return to Amsterdam after the occupation of the Portuguese. Members of his community immigrated to North America and were among the founders of New York City, but some Jews took refuge in Series.
Besides merchants, a great number of physicians were among the Spanish Jews in Amsterdam: Samuel Abravanel, David Into, Elijah Mont alto, and the Buena family; Joseph Buena was consulted in the illness of Prince Maurice (April 1623). Jews were admitted as students at the university, where they studied medicine as the only branch of science of practical use to them, for they were not permitted to practice law, and the oath they would be compelled to take excluded them from the professorships.
Exceptions, however, were made in the case of trades that related to their religion: printing, book selling, and the selling of meat, poultry, groceries, and drugs. Jonathan Ray, a professor of Jewish theological studies, has argued that the community of Sephardi was formed more during the 1600s than the medieval period.
He explains that prior to expulsion Spanish Jewish communities did not have a shared identity in the sense that developed in diaspora. A young woman weeps during the deportation of Jews of Ioannis (Greece) on 25 March 1944. The Holocaust that devastated European Jewry and virtually destroyed its centuries-old culture also wiped out the great European population centers of Sephardi Jewry and led to the almost complete demise of its unique language and traditions.
Sephardi Jewish communities from France and the Netherlands in the northwest to Yugoslavia and Greece in the southeast almost disappeared. On the eve of World War II, the European Sephardi community was concentrated in Southeastern Europe countries of Greece, Yugoslavia, and Bulgaria.
The experience of Jewish communities in those countries during the war varied greatly and depended on the type of regime under which they fell. The Jewish communities of Yugoslavia and northern Greece, including the 50,000 Jews of Salonika, fell under direct German occupation in April 1941 and bore the full weight and intensity of Nazi repressive measures from dispossession, humiliation, and forced labor to hostage-taking, and finally deportation to the Auschwitz concentration camp.
The Jewish population of southern Greece fell under the jurisdiction of the Italians who eschewed the enactment of anti-Jewish legislation and resisted whenever possible German efforts to transfer them to occupied Poland, until the surrender of Italy on 8 September 1943 brought the Jews under German control. Sephardi Jews in Bosnia and Croatia were ruled by a German-created Independent State of Croatia state from April 1941, which subjected them to pogrom-like actions before herding them into local camps where they were murdered side by side with Serbs and Roma (see Ramos).
The Jews of Macedonia and Thrace were controlled by Bulgarian occupation forces, which after rendering them stateless, rounded them up and turned them over to the Germans for deportation. Finally, the Jews of Bulgaria proper were under the rule of a Nazi ally that subjected them to ruinous anti-Jewish legislation, but ultimately yielded to pressure from Bulgarian parliamentarians, clerics, and intellectuals not to deport them.
During World War II and until Operation Torch, the Jews of Morocco, Algeria, and Tunisia, governed by pro-Nazi Vichy France, suffered the same antisemitic legislation that Jews suffered in France mainland. They did not, however, directly suffer the more extreme Nazi Germany antisemitic policies, and nor did the Jews in Italian Libya.
They were therefore considered part of the European paid noir community in spite of having been established in North Africa for many centuries, rather than subject to the Indigent status imposed on their Muslim former neighbors. Most consequently moved to France in the late 1950s and early 1960s after Tunisia, Morocco and Algeria became independent, and they now make up a majority of the French Jewish community.
Today, the Sephardi have preserved the romances and the ancient melodies and songs of Spain and Portugal, as well as many old Portuguese and Spanish proverbs. A number of children's plays, like, for example, El Castillo, are still popular among them, and they still manifest a fondness for the dishes peculiar to Iberia, such as the pastel, or pastel, a sort of meat-pie, and the pan DE España, or pan DE León.
At their festivals they follow the Spanish custom of distributing Dulles, or dolces, a confection wrapped in paper bearing a picture of the mage David (six-pointed star). In Mexico, the Sephardi community originates mainly from Turkey, Greece and Bulgaria.
In 1942 the Colegio Hebrew Tar but was founded in collaboration with the Ashkenazi family and instruction was in Yiddish. In 1944 the Sephardi community established a separate Colegio Hebrew Sephardi with 90 students where instruction was in Hebrew and complemented with classes on Jewish customs.
In 1972 the Magazine Torn institute is created aiming to prepare young male Jews for their Bar Mitzvah. For example, the 1654 Jews who arrived in New Amsterdam fled from the colony of Recife, Brazil after the Portuguese seized it from the Dutch.
Through most of the 18th century, American synagogues conducted and recorded their business in Portuguese, even if their daily language was English. It was not until widespread German immigration to the United States in the 19th century that the tables turned and Ashkenazim (initially from Germany but by the 20th century from Eastern Europe) began to dominate the American Jewish landscape.
The Sephardi usually have followed the general rules for Spanish and Portuguese names. Many used to bear Portuguese and Spanish names; however, it is noteworthy that many Sephardi names are of Hebrew and Arabic roots and are totally absent in Iberian paronyms and are therefore often seen as typically Jewish.
Many of the names are associated with non-Jewish (Christian) families and individuals and are by no means exclusive to Jews. After 1492, many warrants changed their names to hide their Jewish origins and avoid persecution, adopting professions and even translating such paronyms to local languages like Arabic and even German.
Dr. Mark Hilton's research demonstrated in IPS DNA testing that the last name of warrants linked with the location of the local parish was correlated 89.3% There are times though when the “free” names are used to honor the memory of a deceased relative who died young or childless.
These conflicting naming conventions can be troublesome when children are born into mixed Ashkenazic-Sephardic households. The amendment to Portugal's “Law on Nationality” was approved unanimously on 11 April 2013, and remains open to applications as of October 2019 .
By the expiry date on 30 September 2019, Spain had received 127,000 applications, mostly from Latin America. He and the rabbinate of his congregation formed the “ma'Ahmad”, without whose approbation (often worded in Spanish or Portuguese, or Italian) no book of religious content might be published.
The president not only had the power to make authoritative resolutions with regard to congregational affairs and to decide communal questions, but he had also the right to observe the religious conduct of the individual and to punish anyone suspected of heresy or of trespassing against the laws. In the Medieval, a considerable number of Ashkenazi Jews from historic “Ashkenazi” (France and Germany) had moved to study Kabbalah and Torah under the guidance of Sephardi Jewish Rabbis in Iberia.
Sephardi Jews are closely genetically related to their Ashkenazi Jewish counterparts and studies have shown that they have mainly a mixed Middle Eastern (Byzantine) and Southern European ancestry. Due to their origin in the Mediterranean basin and strict practice of endgame, there is a higher incidence of certain hereditary diseases and inherited disorders in Sephardi Jews.
“The Reform blog: Marc Shapiro: What Do Avon Slam and ” Mean?” “Mapped: Where Sephardi Jews live after they were kicked out of Spain 500 years ago”.
^ a b “Rhodes Jewish Museum: Frequently asked questions for Spanish citizenship for Sephardi Jews. “El Governor Amelia pasta 2019 El plaza para Que Los Sephardi began la nationalized” .
By Solomon L. Shows, 1936 Yale University ^ Tar gum Jonathan Ben Ozzie on the Minor Prophets ^ Mishnah, with a commentary by Pinches Karate, Baba Bath 3:2 s.v., , Jerusalem 1998 (Hebrew) ^ Elan Nathan Adler, Jewish Travelers, Routledge:London 1931, pp. Cambridge University Library, Taylor-Schecter Collection (T-S Misc.35.38) ^ According to Don Isaac Mbabane, in his Commentary at the end of II Kings, this was a city built near Toledo, in Spain.
Mbabane surmises that the name may have been given to it by the Jewish exiles who arrived in Spain, in remembrance of the city Ashkelon in the Land of Israel. ^ Moses de León, in Aneesh Ha-akhamah (also known as Refer Ha-Mishal), end of Part VI which treats on the Resurrection of the Dead, pub.
However, the place of banishment is identified in Josephus's Antiquities of the Jews as Gaul ; for discussion, see Emil Scourer (1973). ^ Mandela (Nagel), Abu Hus ain Joseph In by Richard Glottal, Meyer Asserting, Jewish Encyclopedia.
“Duarte Tunes the Costa (Jacob Curie), of Hamburg, Sephardi Nobleman and Communal Leader (1585–1664)”. ^ “522 ants disputes, Los Sephardi Jordan tenner nationalized Espinoza”.
The Dispersion of Egyptian Jewry: Culture, Politics, and the Formation of a Modern Diaspora. ^ “Guide to the Hebrew Immigrant Aid Society, Boston, Massachusetts, Records, undated, 1886–1977 (Bulk dates 1938–1954), I-96”.
^ V. Color, Judaic minor, Milano 1983 and Solomon Dimension, History of the Jews in the Duchy of Mantra, Jerusalem, 1977. : : Studies in the History of the Jewish People Presented to Professor Him Bernard.
Security Threatened: Surveying Israeli Opinion on Peace and War (illustrated ed.). CS1 main: archived copy as title (link) ^ Lorenz, Dagmar C. G. (17 April 2004).
2, Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society of America (1979) Assist, You To, The Jews of Spain: From Settlement to Expulsion, Jerusalem: Hebrew University of Jerusalem|The Hebrew University of Jerusalem (1988) Beyer, Yitzhak. Bowers, W. P. “Jewish Communities in Spain in the Time of Paul the Apostle” in Journal of Theological Studies Vol.
“Growing Up Jewish in Alexandria: The Story of a Sephardi Family's Exodus from Egypt”. Dan, Joseph, “The Epic of a Millennium: Judeo-Spanish Culture's Confrontation” in Judaism Vol.
Vivian B. Mann, Thomas F. Click, and Merrily D. Odds, New York: George Braille, Inc. (1992) Grow, Arnold A. Sails, M. Mitchell, New York: Jacob E. Sara Institute of Sephardi Studies (2001).
Kaplan, Yosef, An Alternative Path to Modernity: The Sephardi Diaspora in Western Europe. 12: The Jews in the Visigothic and Frankish Kingdoms of Spain and Gaul, Cambridge, Massachusetts: The Medieval Society of America (1937) Resource, Elie, editor.
Raphael, Chief, The Sephardi Story: A Celebration of Jewish History London: Valentine Mitchell & Co. Ltd. (1991) Rauschenbach, Sing, The Sephardi Atlantic. Sara, Nahum M., “Hebrew and Bible Studies in Medieval Spain” in Sephardi Heritage, Vol.
Folk Literature of the Sephardi Jews Searchable archive of audio recordings of Sephardi ballads and other oral literature collected from informants from around the world, from 1950s until the 1990s, by Professor Samuel Farmstead and his colleagues, maintained by Professor Bruce Restock. Alberto Lunar Isaac Arose website of a cantor from Seattle, WA, USA, instrumental in preservation of the Sephardi liturgical tradition of Rhodes Songs of the Sephardi Jewish Women of Morocco Internet Radio Show featuring field recordings of Sephardi Jewish Women in Tangier & Return, 1954 w/ song texts translated into English.