Born and raised in Iraq, Iraq (d. 857), who later became court musician of ABD Brahman II in Córdoba, is sometimes credited with its invention. Later, the poet, composer, and philosopher In Rajah (d. 1139) of Saragossa is said to have combined the style of Iraq with Western approaches to produce a wholly new style that spread across Iberia and North Africa.
By the 10th century, Muslim Iberia had become a center for the manufacture of instruments. These goods spread gradually to Provence, influencing French troubadours and trouvères and eventually reaching the rest of Europe.
The English words lute, rebel, guitar, and Baker derive from the Arabic out, Rabat, Ithaca and Nazareth, although some Arabic terms (Ithaca, for example) had been derived in their turn from Vulgar Latin, Greek and other languages like Persian. Mass resettlement of Muslims and Sephardi Jews from Córdoba, Seville, Valencia, and Granada, fleeing the Reconquista, further expanded the reach of Andalusian music, though not without changes.
In North Africa, the Andalusian music traditions all feature a suite known as a Cuba (colloquial Arabic from the formal Arabic NAWSA : a “turn” or opportunity to perform), an idea which may have originated in Islamic Iberia, but took on many forms in the new environments. Moreover, these migrants from the 13th century on encountered ethnic Andalusian communities that had migrated earlier to North Africa, which helped this elite music to take root and spread among wider audiences.
In his book Jews of Andalusia and the Maghreb on the musical traditions in Jewish societies of North Africa, Him Afghani writes: “In the Maghreb, the Muslims and Jews have piously preserved the Spanish-Arabic music .... In Spain and Maghreb, Jews were ardent maintainers of Andalusian music and the zealous guardians of its old traditions ....” Indeed, as in so many other areas of Andalusian culture and society, Jews have played an important role in the evolution and preservation of the musical heritage of landaus throughout its history.
From the very beginning, one of Iraq's colleagues at the court of ABD Brahman II was a fine musician Manner al-Yahd (“Manner the Jew”). The scholars Abraham Elam-Amzallag and Edwin Serous further highlight the important role played by Jews in the history of Andalusian music, pointing out that not only have many important North African Andalusian musicians been Jews, but also Moroccan Jewish communities today in Israel preserve Andalusian melodies and even song texts in their religious music.
A number of old manuscripts preserve song texts and elements of Andalusian musical philosophy. The oldest surviving collection of these texts is found in two chapters from Ahmad al-Tfsh's al-Mutat al-Assad phi film al-msq wa-l-sam (ca.
More recent is a document entitled, al-Adhar al-mist f-l-azjl wa-l-muwashshat (“The Virgins Swaying for Canals and Muwashshas “), which probably dates to the middle of the 15th century and seems to be linked to the Andalusian music of Element in Algeria. By far the best-documented Andalusian tradition is that of Morocco, with the first surviving anthology having been produced by Muhammad al-Bim (d. ca.
But the most important collection was Sunnah al-ik (the first of several versions is dated 1202/1788), which was revised by the air al-Jmi in 1886 (numerous copies are found in libraries in Morocco, Madrid, London and Paris). Each of the modern nations of North Africa has at least one style of Andalusian music.
In Algeria there are three styles: al-Gharn (referring to Granada) in the west, Albania in the region around Algiers, and al-mlf in the east. In Morocco, each Cuba is divided into five parts called Milan, each with a corresponding rhythm.
Algeria : Element, Neuroma, Churchill, Algiers, Belief, Blimey, Constantine, Anna, Souk Auras, Side Be Abbes, Oran, Korea, Blimey, Mostaganem Morocco : Fe's, Menes, Return, Sale, USDA, Rabat, Tangiers, Chefchaouen, Safe The Alkali, meaning “instrumental music “, as opposed to religious music which is primarily vocal is predominant. The Alabama wa-l-madih, a religious a cappella style that makes use of very similar melodic, rhythmic and textual materials as Al-Ala. The Ghana of the school of Element is also played, mainly, in USDA.
Libya : Tripoli Outside the Maghreb exists the Israeli Andalusian Orchestra, that plays classical Andalusian music together with piyyutim from the tradition of Sephardi Jews. They use instruments including out (lute), Rabat (rebel), Barbour (goblet drums), Africa (tambourine), QAnon (zither), and Amanda (violin).
More recently, other instruments have been added to the ensemble, including piano, contrabass, cello, and even banjos, saxophones, and clarinets, though these are rare. Andalusia was probably the main route of transmission of a number of Near Eastern musical instruments used in European music : the lute from the out, rebel from the rehab, the guitar from Qatar and Greek Ithaca, and the Baker from the Nazareth.
Further, terms fell into disuse in Europe: due from although, Alaska from album, nail from Altair, excreta from al-shabbaba (flute), atonal (bass drum) from Altaba, animal from al-tinbal, the Balkan, sonatas DE afar from sunup al-sufr, the conical bore wind instruments, and the Elam from the salami or fistula (flute or musical pipe). According to Menisci in his Thesaurus Lingual Orient alum (1680), Solfège syllables may have been derived from the syllables of an Arabic (Moorish) solmization system Duran Mufaalt (“Separated Pearls”).
However, there is no documentary evidence for this theory, and no Arabian musical manuscripts employing sequences from the Arabic alphabet are known to exist. Although the philosopher al-Kind (d. 259/874) and the author ABU Lara al-Ifahn (d. 355/967) both mention music writing systems, they were descriptive and based on lute fingerings, and thus complicated to use.
No practical, indigenous system of music writing existed in the Islamic world before the colonial era. Some scholars have speculated that the troubadour tradition was brought to France from landaus by the first recorded troubadour, William IX of Aquitaine (d. 1126), whose father had fought in the siege and sack of Barbara in 1064 and brought back at least one female slave singer.
It is likely that young William's taste in music and poetry was thus influenced by landaus. George T. Beech observes that while the sources of William’s inspirations are uncertain, he did have Spanish individuals within his extended family, and he may have been friendly with some Europeans who could speak Arabic.
The Andalusian Music of Morocco: Alkali: History, Society and Text. “La music arábigo-andaluza en leis baqqashot judeo-marroquíes: Studio historic y musical”.
^ Elam-Amzallag, Abraham (1997) “La Ala Andalusia Chen LES Roofs ET LES Arabs du Marc” in Relations Judéo-Musulmanes Au Marc: Perception set Realizes, edited by Robert Assaraf and Michel Capitol. “Lost Virgins Found: The Arabic Songbook Genre and an Early North African Exemplar”.
76–77 Harvey error: no target: CITEREFFarmer1988 (help) ^ Miller, Samuel D. (Autumn 1973), “Guido d'Arezzo: Medieval Musician and Educator”, Journal of Research in Music Education, 21 (3): 239–45, DOI : 10.2307/3345093, JSTOR 3345093 ^ Farmer 1988, pp. “Troubadour Contacts with Muslim Spain and Knowledge of Arabic: New Evidence Concerning William IX of Aquitaine”.
“Egypt, or the quest for syncretism and spiritual wholeness in Lawrence Darrell's Avignon Quintet”. Cantor, Philip (2012) The Ma'LUF in Contemporary Libya: An Arab- Andalusian Musical Tradition.
Cortés-García, Manuela (1993) Pas ado y present DE la music Andalusia. Dávila, Carl (2016) Cuba Rama Alafaya in Cultural Context: The Pen, the Voice, the Text.
Davis, Ruth (2004) Ma'LUF: Reflections on the Arab- Andalusian Music of Tunisia. Glasses, Jonathan (2016) The Lost Paradise: Andalusia Music in Urban North Africa.
Reynolds, Dwight (2000) Music in Cambridge History of Arabic Literature: The Literature of landaus, edited by Raymond Schindler, Maria Rosa Medical and Michael Sells. Wikimedia Commons has media related to Andalusian classical music.
The most famous are Copley and Lebanon, the latter being sometimes used as a portmanteau term for various regional musical traditions within Andalusia. Andalusia was probably the main route of transmission of a number of Near-Eastern musical instruments used in classical music ; the rebel (ancestor of violin) from the rehab, the guitar from Qatar and Baker from Nazareth.
Further, terms fell into disuse in Europe; due from although, Alaska from album, nail from Altair, excreta from al-shabbaba (flute), atonal (bass drum) from Altaba, animal from al-tinbal, the Balkan, sonatas DE afar from sunup al-sufr, the conical bore wind instruments, the Elam from the salami or fistula (flute or musical pipe), the Shaw and Juliana from the reed instruments AMR and alumna, the gait from the Haiti, racket from Iraq or Iraqi, Gage (German for a violin) from fiche and the theory from the Arab. Trend acknowledges that the troubadours derived their sense of form and the subject of their poetry from Andalusia.
The hypothesis that the troubadour tradition was created, more or less, by William after his experience of Moorish arts while fighting with the Reconquista in Spain was also championed by Ramón Menéndez Tidal in the early twentieth-century, but its origins go back to the Cinquecento and Grammarian Barrier (died 1575) and Juan Andrés (died 1822). Meg Begin, English translator of the female troubadours, also held this hypothesis.
Certainly “a body of song of comparable intensity, profanity and eroticism in Arabic from the second half of the 9th century onwards.” Improvised flamenco songs of ancient Andalusian origin are called caste condo, and are characterized by a reduced tonal ambiance, a strict rhythm, baroque ornamentation and repetition of notes.
The guitar is a vital instrument to flamenco; it marks the measure of a song, and is frequently used in expressive solos during which the guitarist will improvise short variations called falsetto. Ramón Montoya was the most influential early guitarist, known for having solidified the guitar as a solo instrument.
His successors included Anglo Singular and Pace de Lucía. The golden age of flamenco is said to be 1869 to 1910, later becoming more and more popularized internationally and influenced by South American music, especially the tango.
Musicians from the golden age performed at bars called café cant antes, such as Café de Chinitas in Málaga, which was made famous by the poetry of García Lorna. Other musicians of the early 20th century include Anglo Cara col, who walked from Jerez to participate in a caste condo competition, which he won.
Though the golden age had long since passed, the 1950s saw flamenco achieving increased respectability in Spain. Hispano, a Spanish record label, released Apologia del Caste Flamenco in 1956; the recording's collection of most all the greatest flamenco singers was very popular.
In 1956, the first national caste condo competition was held in Córdoba, followed by a Chair of Flamenco logy being established at Jerez in 1958. In the 1970s and 80s, salsa, blues, rumba and other influences were added to flamenco, along with music from India.
Trend (1965), Music of Spanish History to 1600 (New York: Krause Reprint) ^ Begin, Meg. ^ María Rosa Medical; Raymond P. Schindler; Michael Anthony Sells (2000).
4 Arabic literature to the end of the Umayyad period (illustrated ed.). Trend (1965), Music of Spanish History to 1600 (New York: Krause Reprint) ^ Begin, Meg.