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Please in or Register or post as a guest A ndaiusianThe word dialect is still more appropriately applied to Andalusian than either to Asturian or Navarrese-Aragonese.
The feeble Andalusian princes were terrified into paying tribute, and Fernando advanced to the very gates of Seville without finding an enemy to meet him in the field. Other birds peculiar to the south are two species of quails, the Andalusian episode (Turnip salvation), confined to the plains of Andalusia, the southern shear water (Puffins cigars), and other water-birds.
The foundation of Oran is more properly ascribed to Andalusian Arabs, who settled there in the beginning of the 10th century, and gave it its name. While the mountainous parts of Morocco continued to be occupied by pure Berber people, the Shut or Shill uh, the Andalusian Moors flocked to 5 Pro.
Please in or Register or post as a guest Llano or Anita is a mixture of Andalusian Spanish and British English, with vocabulary from Genovese, Hebrew, Maltese and Portuguese.
It is spoken in Gibraltar by the Llanos, as the Gibraltarians called themselves, and involves much code-switching to English. Most Llanos, especially those with higher education, also speak English and Andalusian and Castilian Spanish.
Llano also has vocabulary from Dakota, a Judeo-Spanish language once spoken by Sephardi Jews in Northern Morocco and in CEFTA and Melissa. Llano: SI, pro at the end of the day... Spanish: SI, pro a fin DE cents... English: Yes, but at the end of the day...
Dragons, Japanese, Romanian, Asturian, Catalan, Corsican, Dalmatian, Emilian-Romagnol, Extremaduran, Fall, Franco-Provençal, French, Frisian, Galician, Gallo, Gascony, Genovese, Guernésiais, District, Italian, Jèrriais, Latino, Latin, Lombard, Lorraine, Megleno-Romanian, Mirandese, Moldovan, Monégasque, Arabic, Neapolitan, Occitan, Picard, Piedmont, Portuguese, Romanian, Romansh, Sardinia, Sicilian, Spanish, Venetian, Walloon It enables you to type almost any language that uses the Latin, Cyrillic or Greek alphabets, and is free.
Wikipedia mentions that the name of the river Guadalupe in the Andalusian language was Guadaletho. This kind of mention is repeated in several articles and texts in Internet.
I could not find any well-founded book, research article that supports this “guadaletho” and/or mentions its supposed medieval Annals source. What the article says is that it was known as Guadaletho in the times of Landaus which means when under Moorish control.
I welcome any information about the original source that mentions the name of this river as Guadaletho. I welcome any information about the original source that mentions the name of this river as Guadaletho.
As to the precise etymology, you'll have to wait for someone who knows (Andalusian) Arabic to turn up. Probably they mean that the name Guadalupe derives from an Arabic wadi Late, itself from a Latin lumen Lethe Del sim.
In classical mythology, 'Lethe' was the subterranean ''river of oblivion'' : whoever drank its water would forget the past. However, I surmise that Late/Lethe was the original name of the river, and that the mythology connection was but a sort of 'folk etymology'.
Probably they mean that the name Guadalupe derives from an Arabic wadi Late, itself from a Latin lumen Lethe Del sim. It is by no means unknown for people moving into an area to keep the names of places and features like mountains and rivers.
Indeed, place names, especially hydroniums, are often offered as evidence that a language was once spoken in an area where it is no longer spoken. All we need is someone who knows Arabic to advise if there is any Arabic word for “forgetfulness” or “oblivion” which resembles “Lethe” or “late”. Most scholars seem to think it's the valley known in Arabic as wadi Lanka, where the first battle between the invading Muslims and Visigoths is said to have taken place in 711.
The battle is mentioned in a Christian chronicle from as early as 745, which would mean it is almost certainly a pre-existing name. I had somehow the opposite information, that “wad” would mean valley and not necessarily river.
Seems like there are dry valleys, without a river, which are denominated wad in Northern Africa. However, the sense of this word wad can vary according to the region.
When you say that “clearly in Andalusian Arabic wad means river, not a valley”, please could you share your source with us? There seem to be plenty of dry wadis in the North African desert regions, as Margrave mentioned.
The misleading part in this topic is probably coming from Wikipedia's article indicating the river's name is pure Arabic without referring to any sources, a quick research shows that Juan Félix in his book (Origin y primers oblations DE España) p85 says that the river's name is half Greek and half Arabic, another important point he added earlier is that Pliny suggests there are two rivers called ''Letters'', one in Italy and the other is in Iberia, The Greek name which it carries ''Lethe'' confirms its existence and origin. Bologna sempre considerate LE variation Del climb e Della provost new torso DEI second.
New medieval IL prosper are Dell community montane vain associate a temperature motto Calder. Consuelo la parole «Wadi» (Italianization in «Wadi») perch Durante la Guerra d’Ethiopia GI Italian association ESS all concerto DI «lama»: gross Catalonia sec chi Che in case DI loggia (rare) diventavano film in pain.
La morphological Del territory pub cambial new tempo in mode imprevedibile: IL report DI Detroit in cert punt pub appiattire IL profile, mentee IL regime impetus pub scalar gone profound in alter. In Italian quest comportment Del flume vain Chicago “regime torrential” (UN gross flume SI pub figure an UN rigagnolo in Crete station), e SI verified principalmente per la manana a Monte DI nevi parent o DI financial.
Per metonymy IL significant Osceola the quell DI flume a quell DI value e, ovviamente, IL significant VA contestualizzato: la battalion Del Guadalupe SI sole Ella value, non new flume. In Italian sister la parole «Guido» , e UN flume SI traverse dove è più basso. Resort DE la league Castellano (dictionary).
Do you know some characteristics which were found in this unfortunately dead language, in current Maghreb dialects? Like words (I'm not counting the Spanish borrowing during the protectorate) grammar characteristics, pronunciation, etc.
Then it would exist in Morocco Algeria, but it's in existent (it is in Mauritania though). The “n” for 1rst person also exist in Libya, Western Egypt, Chad (and not sure), in Sudan too, thus I don't think it was particular to Andalusian. There might be leftovers of Andalusian in some Moroccan/Algerian dialects but I don't know which one of them were introduced in Morocco/Algeria after the immigration from Iberian Peninsula.
I'm also aware that my question is quite difficult, but who don't try, obtain nothing (French expression) You are welcome be honest I don't really know... But there are some words mentioned in that file that we can find in Tunisian Arabic as well.
When this breed was crossed with imported English thoroughbred and Arabian stallions, the resulting horse was named after the main stud it came from: Tradesmen. In the early 18th century, King Friedrich Wilhelm I realized that a new type of cavalry mount was needed as war tactics had changed and demanded a faster, lighter horse that also possessed power and endurance.
The new cavalry mounts had to be attractive enough to be a representative horse for his officers, but additionally had to be tough enough to survive harsh situations and come out sound. At the same time, East Prussian farmers were breeding the same base of horses, but for the daily work in the fields.
Soil in East Prussia was always heavy and deep, and from today's point of view it might seem strange that noble Takeover horses were pulling plows through thick mud, but from the standpoint of breed selection, it is a major reason the Takeover soon had the reputation of a hard-working animal with little need for maintenance. The main stud Tradesmen was a huge compound, a city of its own, covering some 15.000 acres.
Apart from the main complex, sixteen “Vorwerke” (more distant barns) were home to the famous mare herds. The black herd at Garden for example consisted of mares that had the most substance and were very strong and outstanding “workers”.
Famous stallions like Ararat and Handheld were crossed with these mares, mainly to maintain a balance to the otherwise very refined Trainers. Even today, these “heavier” genes can come through in the descendants of this great herd. The chestnut mares were collected at Tradesmen itself.
Descending from famous thoroughbreds like Thunderclap xx, the chestnut mares were elegant, sensitive and exhibited the greatest performance potential. One of the most successful dressage lines of all time in warm blood breeding, the Hanoverian A-line, founded by the Takeover stallion England, originated from the chestnut herd.
The stall was a stone house, open to one side, built like a round pen with a luxury roof and beautiful steel ornaments. Each stallion was assigned a private groom, always older and proven men that had spent their lives at Tradesmen and had that special “6th horse sense” built in. It must have been a special view each morning when the men opened the giant barn doors at Tradesmen and waves of gleaming horses made their way along the paths to the pastures.
The colts were driven, raced, used for hard fox hunting and evening, trained in dressage and tested over jumps. By far more mares were distributed among the smaller breeding farms of the East Prussian farmers than at Tradesmen.
Their quality improved as Tradesmen and the bigger private studs raised many their foals. This consistency of breeding helps maintain the “Takeover look”, “freshens” the bloodlines and adds great ride ability and sensitivity.
Perfectionist xx was purchased in 1903 by Count Georg on Sendoff and stood as chief stallion in Tradesmen for three seasons from 1904-1906. He was most influential through his sons Tempelhüter, Handheld, Irrlehrer, and his daughter, Posthalterin, dam of the foundation sire Parsifal.
Tempelhüter, who was chief sire in Tradesmen 1916-1931 was considered as the perfect example of the Takeover horse. An exact replica of it was made possible in the early 1970s by efforts from Hans-Joachim Kohler, and in a very special moment, was introduced to the public in front of the Horse Museum in Verde, Germany.
Dampers, who came from the private stud farm of Faustus in Stepponaten, county Reignite in East Prussia, was born in 1913 and was acquired by Tradesmen as a chief sire in 1923, where he remained active until 1933. Dampers was the prototype of the warm blood horse, well-tempered, with an impeccable mind, outstanding, powerful movement, excellent health and high general athleticism.
In Hanover, it was Temper Idem who redefined the meaning of “athletic show jumper”, even to this day: his descendant Staccato stands at stud in Cell in 2006. Pythagoras' daughters Hansastadt, Sold Made and Alkane were of importance for establishing strong dam lines, and in addition to the above mentioned stallions, his sons Keith, Mark wart, Sport, Summer and Pilgrim made sure the line stands on a strong foundation.
Cascara was born in Tradesmen in 1917, sired by Master Magpie xx out of Cymbal by Nana Sahib x. A remarkable horse, Cascara was an untiring performer under saddle, qualities which he transmitted very dominantly to his progeny.
His daughters Donna and Rosette were two of the most outstanding broodmares in the history of West German Takeover breeding. Fetes was foaled at the world-famous Jan ow Stud in Poland in 1927 and was acquired by Tradesmen in 1936 for the mixed herd.
Fetes ox was tragically shot by the invading Russian Army, but nevertheless left his legacy as even Olympic competitors today carry his valuable blood. During World War I, the population of the Takeover horse was halved and it took great efforts of the breeders to bring the breed back to its former numbers and famous standard of quality.
In the harsh winter, as the Russian Army broke across the front lines and invaded East Prussia, people were forced to leave their land and belongings behind to save not much more than their lives. Thousands of lives were lost, horses that wouldn't make it any further had to be left behind, the horror of these months is hard to describe in words.
Of the 1.100 once beautiful and proud horses from the main stud Tradesmen, only some 100 individuals survived, many with tremendous injuries. Additionally, the East Prussian horses that belonged to the private breeders and had made the trek, were scattered all over what remained of Germany.
The Verb and's first president, Baron on Schroeder and his manager, Dr. Fritz Schalke, spent most of their time in the years following the war finding and relocating the horses. The last original Takeover brood mares from the main stud were collected here and used to breed future generations.
Great foundation mares like Cassette, Polarfahrt, Donna, Tape, Lenses, Herbstzeit and others found a last home in these Takeover farms, together with some last sires rescued from the main stud, like the Pythagoras -son Totals, who was most important to establish the Takeover breed in West Germany. It was due to yet another outstanding personality, Dietrich on Len ski, who originated in one East Prussia's biggest private stud farms, Watteau, that the “Takeover Förderverein” was established.
Also, young talents are spotted and the owners are funded to maintain a high training standard for these horses. The most prominent example of such a Förderverein-owned horse was the black Takeover stallion Habitat (by Burns AAH out of Hall by Golden).
Habitat was given to the Takeover Verb and stud at Hunsrück for breeding purposes and yet, at the same time, the Förderverein provided the young German rider Martin Plea with this incredible stallion. The results on both sides were outstanding: Habitat won the international CCI*** at Achselschwang and also established a famous stallion line, today represented for example by his elite son Sixths and the German premium stallion Windfall, Germany's horse of the Year in 1999 and now an Olympic bronze medal winner for the USA.
In the 1980s, the Takeover Verb and owned three breeding operations: Hunsrück, Santa and Birdhouse, a wonderful farm in the state of Rhineland-Palatinate. In addition to Birdhouse, several private breeders established new breeding farms, some of them gaining world stature.
Webelsgrund for example, founded by Fritz Bare in the 1950s, was home to the legendary sire Impulse. Also, Hämelschenburg of the Angels family in Immortal must be mentioned here, they provided several high studbook and elite mares and outstanding stallions like Kostolany.
Gottfried Huizen's Vogelsangshof was the origin of the best Takeover dressage sire of all time, Macaroni, who later moved to yet another famous farm, Orem of Hubert us Poll, who in later years stood such incredible individuals as EH Consul, EH Rockefeller and today, Buddenbrock. And of course Holstein, founded by Adam Dealer in 1962 and today run by his daughter Christa and her husband Wolfgang Diem always stood out, both nationally and internationally, and was Habitat's home for many years.
Still today, offspring of these individuals are present in the ATA books and the first three of the stallions were highly important for the establishment of Trainers in North America. But just like the West German counterpart in the early 1950s, the American Takeover friends faced the problem of having many people interested in the breed, but scattered throughout a country.
On May 23, 1974, the “American Takeover Association” was incorporated in Ohio as a public, nonprofit corporation and in 1979, an Agreement of Cooperation was signed between the ATA and the German Takeover Verb and, assuring the ATA the help and support of the German association according to its own guidelines. This agreement also granted the ATA use of the double moose antler, this world-famous symbol of East Prussia and its people, as the official brand for all purebred Takeover horses in North America.
It is since these early days that Takeover horses in North America are registered, approved and inspected according to the West German standards. One of the highlights the ATA has to offer is an exciting annual awards system for member-owned, registered performance horses.
Besides North America, the Takeover Verb and has several international secondary registries, the most influential ones in Denmark, Great Britain, the Netherlands, Russia and Austria.