The term piano evolved from the word Egyptian (“Egyptian”), which was the Old Spanish demonym for someone from Egypt (Egypt). “Egyptian” was the regular adjective in Old Spanish for someone from Egypt, however, in Middle and Modern Spanish the irregular adjective Emilio supplanted Egyptian to mean Egyptian, probably to differentiate Egyptians proper from Gypsy's.
The two peoples are now unambiguously differentiated in modern Spanish, “elicits” for Egyptians and “Titans” for Roma in Spain, with “Egyptian” being obsolete for either. Some Romania, a people originating in the northern regions of the Indian Subcontinent, upon their first arrivals to Europe, either claimed to be Egyptians for a more favorable treatment by local Europeans, or were mistaken as Egyptians by local Europeans.
While it is now widely known that Romania are ultimately of northwestern Hindustani origin (an area today shared between India and Pakistan), and are unrelated to the Egyptian people proper, many Romania did enter Europe via a generations-long migration which included Egypt as one of their last stops before their arrival into Europe. This group of Romania in Albania are likewise of northwestern Hindustani origin, and are not related to the people of Egypt.
Piano identity is particularly complex in Spain for a variety of reasons which are examined below. A confusing element is the thorough hybridization of Andalusian and Roma culture (and some would say identity) at a popular level.
This has occurred to the point where Spaniards from other regions of Spain can commonly mistake elements of one for the other. The mistake can be commonly attributed to her being a Flamenco singer of humble origin, with a strong Andalusian accent, her vaguely South Asian features as well as to her having married into a Piano family.
On the other hand, the exaltation of Roma culture and heritage is a large element of wider Andalusian folklore and Spanish identity. This is largely the result of the period of romantic nationalism which followed the Spanish war of independence, during which the values of the Enlightenment arriving from Western Europe were rejected and Gypsies became the symbol of Spanish traditionalism, independence and racial consciousness.
It shares many phonetic features with Malware, while its grammar is closest to Bengali. Linguistic evaluation carried out in the nineteenth century by Post (1845) and Miklowitz (1882–1888) showed that the Roman language is to be classed as a New Indo-Aryan language (NIA), not a Middle Indo-Aryan (MIA), establishing that the ancestors of the Roman could not have left the Indian subcontinent significantly earlier than AD 1000, then finally reaching Europe several hundred years later.
Genetic findings in 2012 suggest the Roman originated in the northwestern region of the Indian subcontinent and migrated as a group. According to a genetic study in 2012, the ancestors of present scheduled tribes and scheduled caste populations of northern India, traditionally referred to collectively as the Dome “, are the likely ancestral populations of modern Roma in Europe.
How and when the Roman arrived in the Iberian Peninsula from Northern India is a question whose consensus is far from being reached. A popular theory, although without any documentation, claims they came from North Africa, from where they would have crossed the Strait of Gibraltar to meet again in France with the northern migratory route.
Another, more consistent theory, and well documented, is that they entered the Iberian Peninsula from France. Although, there is controversy of the date of the first arrival, since there is evidence of a safe conduct granted in Perpignan in 1415 by the infant Alfonso of Aragon to one Tomás, son of Bartolomé de Sanno, who is said to be “Indie Majors”.
Or instead, could be the so-called Juan de Egipto Minor, who entered through France, who in 1425 Alfonso V granted him a letter of insurance, which is mostly accepted as the first gypsy to reach the peninsula. ... As our beloved and devoted Don Juan de Egipto Minor ... understands that he must pass through some parts of our kingdoms and lands, and we want him to be well treated and welcomed ... under pain of our wrath and indignation ... the mentioned Don Juan de Egipto and those who will go with him and accompany him, with all their horses, clothes, goods, gold, silver, saddlebags and whatever else they bring with them, let them go, stay and go through any city, town, place and other parts of our lordship safe and secure ... and giving those safe passage and being driven when the aforementioned don Juan requires it through this present safe conduct ...
Delivered in Zaragoza with our seal on January 12 of the year of birth of our Lord 1425. In 1435, they were seen in Santiago de Compostela, Titans were recorded in Barcelona and Zaragoza by 1447 , and in 1462 they were received with honors in Jaén.
Years later, to the Titans, the Grecian, pilgrims who penetrated the Mediterranean shore in the 1480s, were added to them, probably because of the fall of Constantinople. Both of them continued to wander throughout the peninsula, being well-received at least until 1493, year in which a group of Titans arrived at Madrid, where the Council agreed to ... give alms to the Titans because at the request of the City passed ahead, ten reals, to avoid the damages that could be done by three hundred people who came ... ".
The number of Roman that entered or inhabited the Peninsula in the 15th-century is estimated at approximately 3,000 individuals. The Roma traveled in variable groups, of 80-150 people, led by a man.
The most common survival strategy was to present as Christian pilgrims to seek the protection of a noble. Titans have a low and little politically committed role, with some particular exceptions, in Andalusian nationalism and identity, which is strongly based on a belief in the oriental basis of Andalusia heritage acted as a bridge between occidental-western and oriental-eastern Andalusian culture at a popular level.
The father of such a movement, Bias Infant, in his book Origins DE lo flamenco y secret Del caste condo, etymologically, went as far as alleging that the word flamenco derives from Andalusian Arabic fella menu, supposedly meaning “escapee peasant”. Infant believed that numerous Muslim Andalusian's became Morison, who were obliged to convert, dispersed and eventually ordered to leave Spain stayed and mixed with the Roman newcomers instead of abandoning their land.
These claims have been rejected by many historians and genetic research papers. In 1749 A major effort to get rid of the gypsy population in Spain was carried out through a raid organized by the government.
It arrested all gypsies (Roman) in the realm, and imprisoned them in jails, eventually releasing them due to the widespread discontent that the measure caused. During the Spanish Civil War, Titans were not persecuted for their ethnicity by either side.
Under the regime of Francisco Franco, Titans were often harassed or simply ignored, although their children were educated, sometimes forcibly, much as all Spaniards are nowadays. However, the country's industrialization negatively affected Titans as the migration of rural Spaniards to major cities led to the growth of shanty towns around urban areas with a consequent explosion in birth rates and a drastic fall in the quality of living and an abandonment of traditional professions.
In 1977, the last anti-Romani laws were repealed, an action promoted by Juan de Dios Ramírez Hardin, the first Roman deputy. Although the size of shanty towns has been vastly reduced in Madrid, they remain significant in other major cities such as Seville, Huelva and Almería.
Nevertheless, Spain is still considered a model for integration of piano communities when compared to other countries with Roman populations in Eastern Europe. Historically, Titans spoke Calo fluently, often alongside the language spoken in the region they inhabited.
Calo is a type of pre-Roman, combining the phonology and grammar of the Catalan or Castilian, with a lexicon derived from Roman. A study on the actual usage patterns of Calo among a group of mainly Andalusian Titans concluded that the language currently consists of between 350 and 400 unique terms, the knowledge of which varies considerably among Titans.
This would exclude a similar number of Calo words which have entered mainstream Spanish slang. They rarely go to folk healers , and they participate fully in Spain's state-supported medical system.
Titans have a special involvement with recently dead kin and visit their graves frequently. They spend more money than non-Gitanos of equivalent economic classes in adorning grave sites.
The Spanish Evangelical Federation (mostly composed by members of the Assemblies of God and Pentecostal) claims that 150,000 Titans have joined their faith in Spain. The Roman Evangelical Assembly is the only religious institution entirely led and composed by Roma.
The traditional Spanish Roman place a high value on the extended family. A traditional piano wedding requires a pediment (similar to an engagement party) followed by the casement (wedding ceremony), where El yell must be sung to the bride to celebrate the virginity and honor of the bride (proven by the ritual of the panel).
In the panel ritual, a group consisting of an ajuntaora (a professional who is skilled in performing the ritual and is paid by the family), along with the married women of the family, take the bride into a separate room during the wedding and examine her to ascertain that she is a virgin. The ajuntaora wraps a white, decoratively embroidered cloth (the panel) around her index finger and inserts it shallowly into the vaginal canal of the bride.
During this process, the Bartholdi's glands are depressed, causing them to secrete a liquid that stains the cloth. This action is repeated with three different sections of the cloth to produce three stains, known as “Ross”.
This process is conceived by the women as the retrieval of the bride's “Honda”, her honor, contained within a “grape” inside her genitals which is popped during the examination, and the spillage collected onto the panel. When finished with the exam, the women come out of the room and sing El yell to the couple.
During this, the men at the wedding rip their shirts and lift the wife onto their shoulders and do the same with the husband, as they sing “El yell” to them. Titans may also marry by elopement, an event that garners less approval than a wedding ceremony.
The 2016 Pew Research poll found that 49% of Spaniards held unfavorable views of Roma. Titans continue to experience discrimination on an interpersonal level, such as by being refused entry to bars and clubs or losing their jobs if their ethnicity is made known to their employer.
Marginalization occurs on an institutional level; Piano children are regularly segregated from their non-gitano peers and have poorer academic outcomes as a result. The Roma is the most basic, most profound, the most aristocratic of my country, as representative of their way and whoever keeps the flame, blood, and the alphabet of the universal Andalusian truth.
The 2019 Pew Research poll found that 40% of Spaniards held unfavorable views of Roma ; 57% of Spaniards held favorable views, the fourth most favorable among the countries surveyed, only behind Sweden, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom. Trina, Seville, a neighborhood traditionally linked to Piano history.
George Borrow, an English missionary and traveler who studied the Gypsies of Spain and other parts of Europe. Quintus, a nomad community of Spain with a similar lifestyle, but of unrelated origin.
^ Recent Migration of Roma in Europe, A study by Mr. Claude Can and Professor Else Guild, page 87-8 (09.2010 figures) ^ Gay y Blanco, Paloma (20 December 2002). “ “The Politics of Evangelism: Hierarchy, Masculinity and Religious Conversion Among Titans”.
^ K. Mara Goldberg; Anouchka Deborah Bentham; Michelle Hefner Hayes (2015-09-28). Flamenco on the Global Stage: Historical, Critical and Theoretical Perspectives.
Ratio Rosa lexical JE bliss sandstone, margarine, pandžábštin ATD., v dramatic sphere Nathalie Moho shod s východoindickým jacket, s bengálštinou. ^ RAI, N; Chamber, G; Taming, R; Kathak, AK; Singh, VK (2012), “The Paleogeography of Y-Chromosome Haplogroup H1a1a-M82 Reveals the Likely Indian Origin of the European Roman Populations”, Los ONE, 7 (11): e48477, Bib code : 2012PLoSO...748477R, DOI : 10.1371/journal.pone.0048477, PMC 3509117, Mid 23209554 ^ http://dialnet.unirioja.es/servlet/articulo?codigo=1110754&orden=33593&info=link ^ Jeanne Billiard, Peering d'España à la fin DE Molten age (PDF), archived from (PDF) on 2016-08-20, retrieved 2018-05-20 ^ Union Roman Archived 2008-05-09 at the Payback Machine.
^ Alejandro Martínez Hear, La condition social y juridical DE Los Titans en la legislation historical Espinoza (PDF), Universidad de Granada, p. 53 ^ Gustav, A.; Gustav, L.; Gomes, V.; Alves, C.; Caldwell, F.; Morin, A.; Pratt, M. J. (2008), “A perspective on the history of the Iberian gypsies provided by phylogeographic analysis of Y-chromosome lineages”, Annals of Human Genetics, Annals of Human Genetics: Wiley Publishing, 72 (Pt 2): 215–27, DOI : 10.1111/j.1469-1809.2007.00421.x, Mid 18205888, S2CID 36365458 ^ a b c d Library of Congress Federal Research Division (December 1988).
^ Pamela, Juan F; Fernández, Caetano; Into, Magdalena; Diego, Ignasi-Xavier (December 2011). Lo Que Queen Del Calo en El tabla DE Los Titans.
^ “Evangelic fish faithful in catholic crisis” ; Free, October 2008 (in Spanish) ^ Gay y Blanco 2002 p. 634 ^ “Murals Titans Document”. ^ Gay y Blanco 1997, p. 528 ^ Informed sober El System de Información “Red Bastien” ".
^ Dictionary DE spellings spangles, Roberto Fare, María Asunción Tribes, Antonio García, Editorial España, Madrid 2001.