These coins, called dinars, were inscribed in both Latin and Arabic. The region's history and culture have been influenced by the Harnesses, Iberian's, Phoenicians, Carthaginians, Greeks, Romans, Vandals, Visigoths, Byzantines, Berbers of North Africa, Jews, Roman, Arab Umayyads, and Moors.
During the Islamic Golden Age, Córdoba surpassed Constantinople to be Europe's biggest city, and became the capital of Al Annals and a prominent center of education and learning in the world, producing numerous philosophers and scientists. The Castilian and other Christian North Iberian nationalities reconquered and settled the area in the latter phases of the Reconquista.
The region has a rich culture and a strong ethnic identity. Many cultural phenomena that are seen internationally as distinctively Spanish are largely or entirely Andalusian in origin.
These include flamenco and, to a lesser extent, bullfighting and Hispano-Moorisharchitectural styles, both of which are also prevalent in some other regions of Spain. Andalusia's hinterland is the hottest area of Europe, with cities like Córdoba and Seville averaging above 36 °C (97 °F) in summer high temperatures.
Late evening temperatures can sometimes stay around 35 °C (95 °F) until close to midnight and daytime highs of over 40 °C (104 °F) are common. Its present form is derived from the Arabic name for Muslim Iberia, “Landaus”.
The Spanish place name Andalusia (immediate source of the English Andalusia) was introduced into the Spanish languages in the 13th century under the form El Andalusia. The name was adopted to refer to those territories still under Moorish rule, and generally south of Castilla Neva and Valencia, and corresponding with the former Roman province hitherto called Baltic in Latin sources.
The etymology of landaus is itself somewhat debated (see landaus), but in fact it entered the Arabic language before this area came under Moorish rule. Initially, the term referred exclusively to territories under Muslim control.
To designate the territories the Christians had regained by that time in the Guadalquivir valley and in the Kingdoms of Granada and Murcia. In a document from 1253, Alfonso X styled himself Rey de Castilla, León y DE today Andalusia (“King of Castile, León and all of Andalusia”).
From an administrative point of view, Granada remained separate for many years even after the completion of the Reconquista due, above all, to its emblematic character as the last territory regained, and as the seat of the important Real Chancellery de Granada, a court of last resort. Still, the reconquest and depopulation of Granada was accomplished largely by people from the three preexisting Christian kingdoms of Andalusia, and Granada came to be considered a fourth kingdom of Andalusia.
The often-used expression Four Kingdoms of Andalusia dates back in Spanish at least to the mid-18th century. An inscription below, superimposed on an image of the flag of Andalusia reads Andalusia POR SI, para España y la Humanized (“Andalusia for herself, Spain and Humanity”).
Over the two columns is a semicircular arch in the colors of the flag of Andalusia, with the Latin words Dominator Hercules Functor (Lord Hercules is the Founder) superimposed. The official flag of Andalusia consists of three equal horizontal stripes, colored green, white, and green respectively; the Andalusian coat of arms is superimposed on the central stripe.
According to him, the green came in particular from the standard of the Umayyad Caliphate and represented the call for a gathering of the populace. The white symbolized pardon in the Almohad dynasty, interpreted in European heraldry as parliament or peace.
Other writers have justified the colors differently, with some Andalusian nationalists referring to them as the Antonieta, meaning white-and-green in Arabic, a Romance language that was spoken in the region in Muslim times. An instrumental version of the Andalusian anthem. The anthem of Andalusia was composed by José del Castillo Díaz (director of the Municipal Band of Seville, commonly known as Maestro Castillo) with lyrics by Bias Infant.
The music was inspired by Santa Dies, a popular religious song sung at harvest time by peasants and day laborers in the provinces of Málaga, Seville, and Huelva. Bias Infant brought the song to Maestro Castillo's attention; Maestro Castillo adapted and harmonized the traditional melody.
The lyrics appeal to the Andalusian's to mobilize and demand Terra y liberal (“land and liberty”) by way of agrarian reform and a statute of autonomy within Spain. The Parliament of Andalusia voted unanimously in 1983 that the preamble to the Statute of Autonomy recognize Bias Infant as the Father of the Andalusian Nation (Padre de la Atria Andalusia), which was reaffirmed in the reformed Statute of Autonomy submitted to popular referendum 18 February 2007.
Later, in its articulation, it speaks of Andalusia as a “historic nationality” (Spanish: nationalized historical). It also cites the 1919 Andalusian Manifesto of Córdoba describing Andalusia as a “national reality” (realized national), but does not endorse that formulation.
Article 1 of the earlier 1981 Statute of Autonomy defined it simply as a “nationality” (nationalized). The national holiday, the Did de Andalucía, is celebrated on 28 February, commemorating the 1980 autonomy referendum.
In spite of this, nationalist groups celebrate the holiday on 4 December, commemorating the 1977 demonstrations to demand autonomy. The honorific title of Hilo Predilection de Andalucía (“Favorite Son of Andalusia”) is granted by the Autonomous Government of Andalusia to those whose exceptional merits benefited Andalusia, for work or achievements in natural, social, or political science.
One must seek the essence of Andalusia in its geographic reality on the one hand, and on the other in the awareness of its inhabitants. From the geographic point of view, the whole of the southern lands is too vast and varied to be embraced as a single unit.
In reality there are not two, but three Andalusia's: the Sierra Moreno, the Valley and the Penibética Locations of the principal Andalusian climate types. Andalusia is home to the hottest and driest summers in Spain, but in the west, weather systems sweeping in from the Atlantic ensure that it is relatively wet in the winter, with some areas receiving copious amounts.
Contrary to what many people think, as a whole, the region enjoys above-average yearly rainfall in the context of Spain. In general, it experiences a hot-summer Mediterranean climate, with dry summers influenced by the Azores High, but subject to occasional torrential rains and extremely hot temperatures.
In the winter, the tropical anticyclones move south, allowing cold polar fronts to penetrate the region. From the extensive coastal plains one may pass to the valley of the Guadalquivir, barely above sea level, then to the highest altitudes in the Iberian Peninsula in the peaks of the Sierra Nevada.
In a mere 50 km (31 mi) one can pass from the subtropical coast of the province of Granada to the snowy peaks of Mullen. Andalusia also includes both the dry Tabernas Desert in the province of Almería and the Sierra de Grazalema Natural Park in the province of Cádiz, which experiences Spain's greatest rainfall.
Annual rainfall in the Sierra de Grazalema has been measured as high as 4,346 millimeters (171.1 in) in 1963, the highest ever recorded for any location in Iberia. Andalusia is also home to the driest place in continental Europe, the Cab ode Data, with only 117 millimeters (4.6 in) of rain per year.
“Wet Andalusia” includes most of the highest points in the region, above all the Sierra de Grazalema but also the Serrano de Ronda in western Málaga. The coldest month is January when Granada at the foot of the Sierra Nevada experiences an average temperature of 6.4 °C (43.5 °F).
The hottest are July and August, with an average temperature of 28.5 °C (83.3 °F) for Andalusia as a whole. Córdoba is the hottest provincial capital, followed by Seville.
Sierra Nevada Natural Park has Iberia's lowest average annual temperature, (3.9 °C or 39.0 °F at Prado llano) and its peaks remain snowy practically year-round. Average daily maximum and minimum temperatures for selected cities in AndalusiaLocation The Coldest month April Warmest month October Almería 16.9 °C (62.4 °F)/ 8.3 °C (46.9 °F) 24.1 °C (75.4 °F)/ 15.3 °C (59.5 °F) 31.0 °C (87.8 °F)/ 22.4 °C (72.3 °F) 24.5 °C (76.1 °F)/ 16.3 °C (61.3 °F) Cádiz 16.0 °C (60.8 °F)/ 9.4 °C (48.9 °F) 19.9 °C (67.8 °F)/ 13.7 °C (56.7 °F) 27.9 °C (82.2 °F)/ 22.0 °C (71.6 °F) 23.4 °C (74.1 °F)/ 17.3 °C (63.1 °F) Córdoba 14.9 °C (58.8 °F)/ 3.6 °C (38.5 °F) 22.8 °C (73.0 °F)/ 9.3 °C (48.7 °F) 36.9 °C (98.4 °F)/ 19.0 °C (66.2 °F) 25.1 °C (77.2 °F)/ 13.0 °C (55.4 °F) Granada 12.6 °C (54.7 °F)/ 1.1 °C (34.0 °F) 19.5 °C (67.1 °F)/ 6.8 °C (44.2 °F) 34.2 °C (93.6 °F)/ 17.7 °C (63.9 °F) 22.6 °C (72.7 °F)/ 10.1 °C (50.2 °F) Huelva 16.2 °C (61.2 °F)/ 5.9 °C (42.6 °F) 22.0 °C (71.6 °F)/ 10.3 °C (50.5 °F) 32.7 °C (90.9 °F)/ 18.9 °C (66.0 °F) 24.9 °C (76.8 °F)/ 14.1 °C (57.4 °F) Jerez 16.2 °C (61.2 °F)/ 5.2 °C (41.4 °F) 22.2 °C (72.0 °F)/ 9.8 °C (49.6 °F) 33.5 °C (92.3 °F)/ 18.7 °C (65.7 °F) 25.5 °C (77.9 °F)/ 13.7 °C (56.7 °F) Málaga 16.8 °C (62.2 °F)/ 7.4 °C (45.3 °F) 21.4 °C (70.5 °F)/ 11.1 °C (52.0 °F) 30.8 °C (87.4 °F)/ 21.1 °C (70.0 °F) 24.1 °C (75.4 °F)/ 15.0 °C (59.0 °F) Seville 16.0 °C (60.8 °F)/ 5.7 °C (42.3 °F) 23.4 °C (74.1 °F)/ 11.1 °C (52.0 °F) 36.0 °C (96.8 °F)/ 20.3 °C (68.5 °F) 26.0 °C (78.8 °F)/ 14.4 °C (57.9 °F) Tariff 15.1 °C (59.2 °F)/ 10.9 °C (51.6 °F) 17.3 °C (63.1 °F)/ 13.0 °C (55.4 °F) 24.5 °C (76.1 °F)/ 20.0 °C (68.0 °F) 20.6 °C (69.1 °F)/ 16.7 °C (62.1 °F) Locations of the principal features of the Andalusian terrain.
Mullen peak is the highest point of continental Europe outside the Caucasus Mountains and the Alps. It is part of the Sierra Nevada range. Mountain ranges affect climate, the network of rivers, soils and their erosion, bioregions, and even human economies insofar as they rely on natural resources.
Andalusia has the Iberian Peninsula's highest mountains and nearly 15 percent of its terrain over 1,000 meters (3,300 ft). The picture is similar for areas under 100 meters (330 ft) (with the Baltic Depression), and for the variety of slopes.
The Sierra Moreno separates Andalusia from the plains of Extremaduran and Castile–La Manchu on Spain's Peseta Central. Although sparsely populated, this is not a particularly high range, and its highest point, the 1,323-metre (4,341 ft) peak of La Manuela in the Sierra Madroño, lies outside of Andalusia.
Within the Sierra Moreno, the gorge of Despeñaperros forms a natural frontier between Castile and Andalusia. The Cordillera Sabbatical is quite discontinuous, offering many passes that facilitate transportation, but the Penibético forms a strong barrier between the Mediterranean coast and the interior.
The Sierra Nevada, part of the Cordillera Penibética in the Province of Granada, has the highest peaks in Iberia: El Mullen at 3,478 meters (11,411 ft) and El Delta at 3,392 meters (11,129 ft). Lower Andalusia, the Baltic Depression, the basin of the Guadalquivir, lies between these two mountainous areas.
Flowing to the Mediterranean are the Guardian, Guadalhorce, Guadalmedina, Guadalupe, Ankara (also known as the Almería) and Alcántara. The Guadalquivir as it passes through Córdoba. The rivers of the Atlantic basin are characteristically long, run through mostly flat terrain, and have broad river valleys.
In contrast, the rivers of the Mediterranean Basin are shorter, more seasonal, and make a precipitous descent from the mountains of the Baltic Cordillera. Also, being in the rain shadow of the Baltic Cordillera means that they receive a lesser volume of water.
The Sierra Moreno, due to its morphology and the acidic content of its rocks, developed principally relatively poor, shallow soils, suitable only for forests. In the valleys and in some areas where limestone is present, deeper soils allowed farming of cereals suitable for livestock.
Very roughly, in contrast to the Sierra Moreno, a predominance of basic (alkaline) materials in the Cordillera Sabbatical, combined with a hilly landscape, generates deeper soils with greater agricultural capacity, suitable to the cultivation of olives. Finally, the Baltic Depression and the Such Intrabético have deep, rich soils, with great agricultural capacity.
In particular, the alluvial soils of the Guadalquivir valley and plain of Granada have a loamy texture and are particularly suitable for intensive irrigated crops. In the hilly areas of the countryside, there is a double dynamic: the depressions have filled with older lime-rich material, developing the deep, rich, dark clay soils the Spanish call buses, or Sierras Negros analyzes, excellent for dryland farming.
In other zones, the whiter Albania provides an excellent soil for vineyards. Despite their marginal quality, the poorly consolidated soils of the sandy coastline of Huelva and Almería have been successfully used in recent decades for hothouse cultivation under clear plastic of strawberries, raspberries, blueberries, and other fruits.
Five logistic provinces lie, in whole or in part, within Andalusia: along much of the Atlantic coast, the Lusitania- Andalusian littoral or Andalusian Atlantic littoral; in the north, the southern portion of the Luso-Extremaduran logistic province; covering roughly half of the region, the Baltic logistic province; and in the extreme east, the Algerian portion of the Almerian-Murcian logistic province and (coinciding roughly with the upper Segura basin) a small portion of the Castilian-Maestrazgan-Manchegan logistic province. These names derive primarily from past or present political geography: “Lush” and “Lusitania” from Lusitania, one of three Roman provinces in Iberia, most of the others from present-day Spanish provinces, and Maestro being a historical region of northern Valencia.
In broad terms, the typical vegetation of Andalusia is Mediterranean woodland, characterized by leafyxerophilicperennials, adapted to the long, dry summers. The dominant species of the climax community is the holly oak (Quercus Alex).
Also, abundant are cork oak (Quercus super), various pines, and Spanish fir (Babies Pissaro). Due to cultivation, olive (Flea European) and almond (Prunes ducks) trees also abound.
The dominant understory is composed of thorny and aromatic woody species, such as rosemary (Rosaries officials), thyme (Thymus), and Costs. In the woodlands, leafy hardwoods of genus Populous (poplars, aspens, cottonwoods) and Plus (elms) are also abundant; poplars are cultivated in the plains of Granada.
The Andalusian woodlands have been much altered by human settlement, the use of nearly all the best land for farming, and frequent wildfires. Extensive areas have been planted with non- climax trees such as pines.
There is now a clear conservation policy for the remaining forests, which survive almost exclusively in the mountains. More than 400 of the 630 vertebrate species extant in Spain can be found in Andalusia.
Spanning the Mediterranean and Atlantic basins, and adjacent to the Strait of Gibraltar, Andalusia is on the migratory route of many of the numerous flocks of birds that travel annually from Europe to Africa and back. Among the herbivores, are several deer (Cervical) species, notably the fallow deer (Dama) and roe deer (Capreolus); the European mouflon (Ovis orientalist Simon), a type of sheep; and the Spanish ibex (Capra Prentice, which despite its scientific name is no longer found in the Pyrenees).
The large carnivores such as the Iberian wolf (Cans lupus signals) and the Iberian lynx (Lynx pardons) are quite threatened, and are limited to the Sierra de Andújar, inside of Sierra Moreno, Donna and Despeñaperros. Stocks of the wild boar (SUS scrota), on the other hand, have been well-preserved because they are popular with hunters.
More abundant and in varied situations of conservation are such smaller carnivores as otters, dogs, foxes, the European badger (Meles), the European polecat (Muster stories), the least weasel (Muster rivals), the wildcat (Felix silvers), the common Genet (Genetta), and the Egyptian mongoose (Heresies ichneumon). In order to preserve these areas in a manner compatible with both conservation and economic exploitation, many of the most representative ecosystems have been given protected status.
The various levels of protection are encompassed within the Network of Protected Natural Spaces of Andalusia (Red de Espacios Naturals Proteins de Andalucía, Rena) which integrates all protected natural spaces located in Andalusia, whether they are protected at the level of the local community, the autonomous community of Andalusia, the Spanish state, or by international conventions. Under the international ambit are the nine Biosphere Reserves, 20 Ramsay wetland sites, four Specially Protected Areas of Mediterranean Importance and two UNESCOGeoparks.
In total, nearly 20 percent of the territory of Andalusia lies in one of these protected areas, which constitute roughly 30 percent of the protected territory of Spain. In the Caves of Era there are paintings of seals, possibly made by Neanderthals, that are dated to 42,000 years ago; they are the oldest known works of art by humans.
The geostrategic position of Andalusia in the extreme south of Europe, providing (along with Morocco) a gateway between Europe and Africa, added to its position between the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea, as well as its rich deposits of minerals and its agricultural wealth, have made Andalusia a tempting prize for civilizations since prehistoric times. Add to this its area of 87,268 square kilometers (33,694 sq mi) (larger than many European countries), and it can be no surprise that Andalusia has figured prominently in the history of Europe and the Mediterranean.
Several theories postulate that the first hominids in Europe were in Andalusia, having passed across the Strait of Gibraltar ; the earliest known paintings of humanity have been found in the Caves of Era, Málaga. The first settlers, based on artifacts from the archaeological sites at Los Pillars, El Agar, and Harnesses, were clearly influenced by cultures of the Eastern Mediterranean who arrived at the Andalusian coast.
Andalusia then went through a period of protohistory, when the region did not have a written language of its own, but its existence was known to and documented by literate cultures, principally the Phoenicians and Ancient Greeks, wide historical moment in which Cádiz was founded, regarded by many as the oldest city still standing in Western Europe ; another city among the oldest is Málaga. During the second millennium BCE, the kingdom of Harnesses developed in Andalusia.
Between the First and Second Punic Wars, Carthage extended its control beyond Andalusia to include all of Iberia except the Basque Country. Andalusia was the major staging ground for the war with Rome led by the Carthaginian general Hannibal.
The Romans defeated the Carthaginians and conquered Andalusia, the region being renamed Baltic. The Visigothic era came to an abrupt end in 711 with the Umayyad conquest of Hispanic by the MuslimUmayyad general Tariq in Jihad.
In the 750s, they forcibly rented half of Córdoba's Cathedral of San Vicente (Visigothic) to use as a mosque. The mosque's hypo style plan, consisting of a rectangular prayer hall and an enclosed courtyard, followed a tradition established in the Umayyad and Abbasid mosques of Syria and Iraq while the dramatic articulation of the interior of the prayer hall was unprecedented.
The system of columns supporting double arcades of piers and arches with alternating red and white boudoirs is an unusual treatment that, structurally, combined striking visual effect with the practical advantage of providing greater height within the hall. Alternating red and white boudoirs are associated with Umayyad monuments such as the Great Mosque of Damascus and the Dome of the Rock.
Their use in the Great Mosque of Córdoba manages to create a stunningly original visual composition even as it emphases 'ABD Brahman's connection to the established Umayyad tradition. In this period, the name Landaus was applied to the Iberian Peninsula, and later it referred to the parts not controlled by the Gothic states in the North.
The Muslim rulers in Landaus were economic invaders and interested in collecting taxes; social changes imposed on the native populace were mainly confined to geographical, political and legal conveniences. Landaus remained connected to other states under Muslim rule; also trade routes between it and Constantinople and Alexandria remained open, while many cultural features of the Roman Empire were transmitted throughout Europe and the Near East by its successor state, the Byzantine Empire.
Byzantine architecture is an example of such cultural diffusion continuing even after the collapse of the empire. Under these rulers, Córdoba was the center of economic and cultural significance.
By the 10th century, the northern Kingdoms of Spain and other European Crowns had begun what would eventually become the Reconquista : the reconquest of the Iberian Peninsula for Christendom. Caliph Abdel-Rahman suffered some minor military defeats, but often managed to manipulate the Gothic northern kingdoms to act against each other's interests.
Al-Hakam achieved military successes, but at the expense of uniting the north against him. The main Taigas therefore had to resort to assistance from various other powers across the Mediterranean.
After the victory at the Battle of Barajas (1086) put a temporary stop to Castile expansion, the Almoravid dynasty reunified Landaus with its capital in Granada, ruling until the mid-12th century. The victory at the Battle of Las Naval de Tolosa (1212) marked the beginning of the end of the Almohad dynasty.
The weakness caused by the collapse of Almohad power and the subsequent creation of new Taigas, each with its own ruler, led to the rapid Castile reconquest of the valley of the Guadalquivir. The fall of Granada on 2 January 1492 put an end to the Madrid rule, event that marks the beginning of Andalusia, the southern four territories of the Crown of Castile in the Iberian Peninsula.
Seven months later, on 3 August 1492 Christopher Columbus left the town of Palms de la Frontera, Huelva, with the first expedition that resulted in the Discovery of the Americas, that would end the Middle Ages and signal the beginning of modernity. Many Castilian's participated in this and other expeditions that followed, some of them known as the Minor or Andalusian Journeys.
Contacts between Spain and the Americas, including royal administration and the shipping trade from Asia and America for over three hundred years, came almost exclusively through the south of Spain, specially Seville and Cadiz ports. For example, the Habsburg diverted much of this trade wealth to control its European territories.
Andalusia profited from the Spanish overseas empire, although much trade and finance eventually came to be controlled by other parts of Europe to where it was ultimately destined. In the 18th century, commerce from other parts of Spain began to displace Andalusian commerce when the Spanish government ended Andalusia's trading monopoly with the colonies in the Americas.
The loss of the empire in the 1820s hurt the economy of the region, particularly the cities that had benefited from the trade and ship building. The construction of railways in the latter part of the 19th century enabled Andalusia to better develop its agricultural potential and it became an exporter of food.
While industrialization was taking off in the northern Spanish regions of Catalonia and the Basque Country, Andalusia remained traditional and displayed a deep social division between a small class of wealthy landowners and a population made up largely of poor agricultural laborers and tradesmen. Andalusia was one of the worst affected regions of Spain by Francisco Franco's brutal campaign of mass-murder and political suppression called the White Terror during and after the Spanish Civil War.
The city of Málaga, occupied by the Nationalists in February 1937 following the Battle of Málaga, experienced one of the harshest repressions following Francoist victory with an estimated total of 17,000 people summarily executed. Carlos Arias Navarro, then a young lawyer who as public prosecutor signed thousands of execution warrants in the trials set up by the triumphant rightists, became known as “The Butcher of Málaga” (Cancer de Málaga).
Paul Preston estimates the total number of victims of deliberately killed by the Nationalists in Andalusia at 55,000. The Autonomous Community of Andalusia was formed in accord with a referendum of 28 February 1980 and became an autonomous community under the 1981 Statute of Autonomy known as the Statute de Carmona.
The process followed the Spanish Constitution of 1978, still current as of 2009, which recognizes and guarantees the right of autonomy for the various regions and nationalities of Spain. The process to establish Andalusia as an autonomous region followed Article 151 of the Constitution, making Andalusia the only autonomous community to take that particular course.
That article was set out for regions like Andalusia that had been prevented by the outbreak of the Spanish Civil War from adopting a statute of autonomy during the period of the Second Spanish Republic. Article 1 of the 1981 Statute of Autonomy justifies autonomy based on the region's “historical identity, on the self-government that the Constitution permits every nationality, on outright equality to the rest of the nationalities and regions that compose Spain, and with a power that emanates from the Andalusian Constitution and people, reflected in its Statute of Autonomy”.
The Andalusian Manifesto of Córdoba described Andalusia as a national reality in 1919, whose spirit the Andalusian's took up outright through the process of self-government recognized in our Magna Carta. On 2 November 2006 the Spanish Chamber Deputies ratified the text of the Constitutional Commission with 306 votes in favor, none opposed, and 2 abstentions.
This was the first time a Spanish Organic Law adopting a Statute of Autonomy was approved with no opposing votes. The Senate, in a plenary session of 20 December 2006, ratified the referendum to be voted upon by the Andalusian public 18 February 2007.
The Statute of Autonomy spells out Andalusia's distinct institutions of government and administration. Chief among This is the Andalusian Autonomous Government (Junta de Andalucía).
Other institutions specified in the Statute are the Defense del Pueblo Analog (literally “Defender of the Andalusian People”, basically an ombudsperson), the Consultative Council, the Chamber of Accounts, the Audiovisual Council of Andalusia, and the Economic and Social Council. Within the government, the President of the Regional Government of Andalusia is the supreme representative of the autonomous community, and the ordinary representative of the Spanish state in the autonomous community.
The president is formally named to the position by the Monarch of Spain and then confirmed by a majority vote of the Parliament of Andalusia. The Council of Government, the highest political and administrative organ of the Community, exercises regulatory and executive power.
In order of precedence, they are Presidency, Governance, Economy and Treasury, Education, Justice and Public Administration, Innovation, Science and Business, Public Works and Transportation, Employment, Health, Agriculture and Fishing, Housing and Territorial Planning, Tourism, Commerce and Sports, Equality and Social Welfare, Culture, and Environment. The Parliament of Andalusia, its Autonomic Legislative Assembly, develops and approves laws and elects and removes the President.
After the approval of the Statute of Autonomy through Organic Law 6/1981 on 20 December 1981, the first elections to the autonomic parliament took place 23 May 1982. Within the various autonomous communities of Spain, cameras are comparable to shires (or, in some countries, counties) in the English-speaking world.
Unlike in some of Spain's other autonomous communities, under the original 1981 Statute of Autonomy, the cameras of Andalusia had no formal recognition, but, in practice, they still had informal recognition as geographic, cultural, historical, or in some cases administrative entities. The 2007 Statute of Autonomy echoes this practice, and mentions cameras in Article 97 of Title III, which defines the significance of cameras and establishes a basis for formal recognition in future legislation.
The current statutory entity that most closely resembles a Comerica is the mancomunidad, a freely chosen, bottom-up association of municipalities intended as an instrument of socioeconomic development and coordination between municipal governments in specific areas. The municipalities of Andalusia are regulated by Title III of the Statute of Autonomy, Articles 91–95, which establishes the municipality as the basic territorial entity of Andalusia, each of which has legal personhood and autonomy in many aspects of its internal affairs.
In conformity with the intent to devolve control as locally as possible, in many cases, separate nuclei of population within municipal borders each administer their own interests. Ranking Municipality Province Population 1 Seville Seville 689,434 2 Málaga Málaga 569,002 3 Córdoba Córdoba 325,916 4 Granada Granada 232,770 5 Jerez de la Frontera Cádiz 212,915 6 Almería Almería 195,389 7 Huelva Huelva 145,115 8 Marbella Málaga 141,172 9 Dos HermanasSeville 132,551 10 AlgecirasCádiz 121,133 11 Cádiz Cádiz 118,048 12 Jaén Jaén 114,238 Andalusia ranks first by population among the 17 autonomous communities of Spain.
The population is concentrated, above all, in the provincial capitals and along the coasts, so that the level of urbanization is quite high; half the population is concentrated in the 28 cities of more than 50,000 inhabitants. Historical populationYear Pop.±% 19003,544,769 – 19103,800,299+7.2%19204,221,686+11.1%19304,627,148+9.6%19405,255,120+13.6%19505,647,244+7.5%19605,940,067+5.2%19705,991,076+0.9%19816,441,149+7.5%19916,940,542+7.8%20017,357,558+6.0%20118,371,270+13.8%20178,409,657+0.5%Source: INE At the end of the 20th century, Andalusia was in the last phase of demographic transition.
The death rate stagnated at around 8–9 per thousand, and the population came to be influenced mainly by birth and migration. Although the Andalusian population was not declining in absolute terms, these relative losses were due to emigration great enough to nearly counterbalance having the highest birth rate in Spain.
Since the 1980s, this process has reversed on all counts, and as of 2009, Andalusia has 17.82 percent of the Spanish population. The birth rate is sharply down, as is typical in developed economies, although it has lagged behind much of the rest of the world in this respect.
At the beginning of the 21st century, statistics show a slight increase in the birth rate, due in large part to the higher birth rate among immigrants. The result is that as of 2009, the trend toward rejuvenation of the population is among the strongest of any autonomous community of Spain, or of any comparable region in Europe.
2008 data 2008; 1986 data in red for comparison. At the beginning of the 21st century, the population structure of Andalusia shows a clear inversion of the population pyramid, with the largest cohorts falling between ages 25 and 50. A clear decrease in the population under the age of 25, due to a declining birth rate.
An increase in the adult population, as the earlier, larger cohort born in the “baby boom” of the 1960s and 1970s reach adulthood. As far as composition by sex, two aspects stand out: the higher percentage of women in the elderly population, owing to women's longer life expectancy, and, on the other hand, the higher percentage of men of working age, due in large part to a predominantly male immigrant population.
This is a relatively low number for a Spanish region, the national average being three percentage points higher. When comparing world regions rather than individual countries, the single largest immigrant block is from the region of Latin America, outnumbering not only all North Africans, but also all non-Spanish Western Europeans.
Demographically, this group has provided an important addition to the Andalusian labor force. Andalusia is traditionally an agricultural area, but the service sector (particularly tourism, retail sales, and transportation) now predominates.
The once booming construction sector, hit hard by the 2009 recession, was also important to the region's economy. Still, according to the Spanish Institute Nacional de Estadística (INE), the GDP per capita of Andalusia (€17,401; 2006) remains the second lowest in Spain, with only Extremaduran lagging behind.
The Gross domestic product (GDP) of the autonomous community was 160.6 billion euros in 2018, accounting for 13.4% of Spanish economic output. GDP per capita adjusted for purchasing power was 20,500 euros or 68% of the EU27 average in the same year.
In monetary terms it could be considered a rather competitive sector, given its level of productivity compared to other Spanish regions. In addition to its numeric importance relative to other regions, agriculture and other primary sector activities have strong roots in local culture and identity.
Agriculture, husbandry, hunting, and forestry For many centuries, agriculture dominated Andalusian society, and, with 44.3 percent of its territory cultivated and 8.4 percent of its workforce in agriculture as of 2016 it remains an integral part of Andalusia's economy. The primary cultivation is dryland farming of cereals and sunflowers without artificial irrigation, especially in the vast countryside of the Guadalquivir valley and the high plains of Granada and Almería-with a considerably lesser and more geographically focused cultivation of barley and oats.
Using irrigation, maize, cotton and rice are also grown on the banks of the Guadalquivir and Genial. In monetary terms, by far the most productive and competitive agriculture in Andalusia is the intensive forced cultivation of strawberries, raspberries, blueberries, and other fruits grown under hothouse conditions under clear plastic, often in sandy zones, on the coasts, in Almería and Huelva.
Organic farming has recently undergone rapid expansion in Andalusia, mainly for export to European markets but with increasing demand developing in Spain. Andalusia has a long tradition of animal husbandry and livestock farming, but it is now restricted mainly to mountain meadows, where there is less pressure from other potential uses.
Andalusian's have a long and colorful history of dog breeding that can be observed throughout the region today. The raising of livestock now plays a semi-marginal role in the Andalusian economy, constituting only 15 percent of the primary sector, half the number for Spain taken as a whole.
“Extensive” raising of livestock grazes the animals on natural or cultivated pastures, whereas “intensive” raising of livestock is based in fodder rather than pasture. Although the productivity is higher than with extensive techniques, the economics are quite different.
While intensive techniques now dominate in Europe and even in other regions of Spain, most of Andalusia's cattle, virtually all of its sheep and goats, and a good portion of its pigs are raised by extensive farming in mountain pastures. This includes the Black Iberian pigs that are the source of Jason Iberian.
Andalusia's native sheep and goats present a great economic opportunity in a Europe where animal products are generally in strong supply, but the sheep and goat meat, milk, and leather (and the products derived from these) are relatively scarce. Hunting remains relatively important in Andalusia, but has largely lost its character as a means of obtaining food.
It is now more of a leisure activity linked to the mountain areas and complementary to forestry and the raising of livestock. Dogs are frequently used as hunting companions to retrieve killed game.
In the province of Huelva it constitutes 20 percent of the primary sector, and locally in Junta Umbra 70 percent of the work force is involved in commercial fishing. Failure to comply with fisheries laws regarding the use of trawling, urban pollution of the seacoast, destruction of habitats by coastal construction (for example, alteration of the mouths of rivers, construction of ports), and diminution of fisheries by overexploitation have created a permanent crisis in the Andalusian fisheries, justifying attempts to convert the fishing fleet.
Despite the general poor returns in recent years, mining retains a certain importance in Andalusia. Andalusia produces half of Spain's mining product by value.
Of Andalusia's production, roughly half comes from the province of Huelva. Mining for precious metals at Mines de Riotinto in Huelva (see Rio Tinto Group) dates back to pre-Roman times; the mines were abandoned in the Middle Ages and rediscovered in 1556.
In addition, limestone, clay, and other materials used in construction are well distributed throughout Andalusia. Nevertheless, in 2007, Andalusian industry earned 11.979 million euros and employed more than 290,000 workers.
Lies far behind the manufacturing sector of shipping materials just over 10% of the Spanish economy. Companies like Cruzado (Heineken Group), Plea, Dome, Santana Motors or Renault-Andalusia, are exponents of these two subsectors.
Of note is the Andalusian aeronautical sector, which is second nationally only behind Madrid and represents approximately 21% of total turnover in terms of employment, highlighting companies like Airbus, Airbus Military, or the newly formed Aerospace Alcestis. On the contrary it is symptomatic of how little weight the regional economy in such important sectors such as textiles or electronics at the national level.
This is largely done by small enterprises without the public or foreign investment more typical of a high level of industrialization. Castle of Anti Petra, located in San Fernando, Cádiz.
One of the largest components of the service sector is “sun and sand” tourism. In recent decades the Andalusian tertiary (service) sector has grown greatly, and has come to constitute the majority of the regional economy, as is typical of contemporary economies in developed nations. This process of “fertilization” of the economy has followed a somewhat unusual course in Andalusia.
There were two principal reasons that “fertilization” followed a different course in Andalusia than elsewhere: Andalusian capital found it impossible to compete in the industrial sector against more developed regions, and was obligated to invest in sectors that were easier to enter.
The absence of an industrial sector that could absorb displaced agricultural workers and artisans led to the proliferation of services with rather low productivity. This unequal development compared to other regions led to a hypertrophied and unproductive service sector, which has tended to reinforce underdevelopment, because it has not led to large accumulations of capital.
Tourism in Andalusia Royal Collegiate Church of Santa María la Mayor in Antique.Do in part to the relatively mild winter and spring climate, the south of Spain is attractive to overseas visitors–especially tourists from Northern Europe. While inland areas such as Jaén, Córdoba and the hill villages and towns remain relatively untouched by tourism, the coastal areas of Andalusia have heavy visitor traffic for much of the year.
Among the autonomous communities, Andalusia is second only to Catalonia in tourism, with nearly 30 million visitors every year. The principal tourist destinations in Andalusia are the Costa del Sol and (secondarily) the Sierra Nevada.
As discussed above, Andalusia is one of the sunniest and warmest places in Europe, making it a center of “sun and sand” tourism, but not only it. As for cultural tourism, there are hundreds of cultural tourist destinations: cathedrals, castles, forts, monasteries, and historic city centers and a wide variety of museums.
It can be highlighted that Spain has seven of its 42 cultural UNESCO World Heritage Sites in Andalusia: There are numerous other significant museums around the region, both of paintings and of archeological artifacts such as gold jewelry, pottery and other ceramics, and other works that demonstrate the region's artisanal traditions.
The unemployment rate stood at 25.5% in 2017 and was one of the highest in Spain and Europe. Year 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 unemployment rate (in %) 12.6% 12.8% 17.7% 25.2% 27.8% 30.1% 34.4% 36.2% 34.8% 31.5% 28.9% 25.5% First order roads of Andalusia As in any modern society, transport systems are an essential structural element of the functioning of Andalusia.
Cercaníascommuter rail networks operate in Seville, Málaga and Cádiz. High-speed AVE trains run from Madrid via Córdoba to Seville and Málaga, from which a branch from Antique to Granada opened in 2019.
Other principal routes are the one from Algebras to Seville and from Almería via Granada to Madrid. As of 2008 Andalusia has six public airports, all of which can legally handle international flights.
It has a daily link with twenty cities in Spain and over a hundred cities in Europe (mainly in Great Britain, Central Europe and the Nordic countries but also the main cities of Eastern Europe: Moscow, Saint Petersburg, Sofia, Riga or Bucharest), North Africa, Middle East (Riyadh, Jeddah and Kuwait) and North America (New York, Toronto and Montreal). The main ports are Algebras (for freight and container traffic) and Málaga for cruise ships.
Algebras is Spain's leading commercial port, with 60,000,000 tonnes (66,000,000 short tons) of cargo in 2004. The Council of Government has approved a Plan of Infrastructures for the Sustainability of Transport in Andalusia (Pasta) 2007–2013, which plans an investment of 30 billion euros during that period.
The lack of high-quality fossil fuels in Andalusia has led to a strong dependency on petroleum imports. As throughout Spain, basic education in Andalusia is free and compulsory.
Students are required to complete ten years of schooling, and may not leave school before the age of 16, after which students may continue on to a baccalaureate, to intermediate vocational education, to intermediate-level schooling in arts and design, to intermediate sports studies, or to the working world. University studies are structured in cycles, awarding degrees based on ECTS credits in accord with the Bologna process, which the Andalusian universities are adopting in accord with the other universities of the European Higher Education Area.
Thus, the Andalusian Health Service (Service Analog de Salud) currently manages almost all public health resources of the Community, with such exceptions as health resources for prisoners and members of the military, which remain under central administration. According to the Outreach Program for Science in Andalusia, Andalusia contributes 14 percent of Spain's scientific production behind only Madrid and Catalonia among the autonomous communities, even though regional investment in research and development (R&D) as a proportion of GDP is below the national average.
The lack of research capacity in business and the low participation of the private sector in research has resulted in R&D taking place largely in the public sector. The Council of Innovation, Science and Business is the organ of the autonomous government responsible for universities, research, technological development, industry, and energy.
The council coordinates and initiates scientific and technical innovation through specialized centers an initiative such as the Andalusian Center for Marine Science and Technology (CENTR Analog de Ciencia y Technology Marina) and Technological Corporation of Andalusia (Corporación Technological de Andalucía). Within the private sphere, although also promoted by public administration, technology parks have been established throughout the Community, such as the Technological Park of Andalusia (Marque Technologies de Andalucía) in Campaniles on the outskirts of Málaga, and CARTA 93 in Seville.
Some of these parks specialize in specific sector, such as Acropolis in aerospace or Geo lit in food technology. The Andalusian government deployed 600,000 Ubuntu desktop computers in their schools.
Andalusia has international, national, regional, and local media organizations, which are active gathering and disseminating information (as well as creating and disseminating entertainment). Different newspapers are published for each Andalusian provincial capital, Comerica, or important city.
There are also popular papers distributed without charge, again typically with local editions that share much of their content. No single Andalusian newspaper is distributed throughout the region, not even with local editions.
In eastern Andalusia the Dario Ideal has editions tailored for the provinces of Almería, Granada, and Jaén. Group July is based in Andalusia, backed by Andalusian capital, and publishes eight daily newspapers there.
Efforts to create a newspaper for the entire autonomous region have not succeeded (the most recent as of 2009 was the Dario de Andalucía). Canal SUR first broadcast on 28 February 1989 (Did de Andalucía).
There are four public radio stations in the region, all operated by RTA: Flamenco dance and music is native to Andalusia. The patrimony of Andalusia has been shaped by its particular history and geography, as well as its complex flows of population.
Andalusia has been home to a succession of peoples and civilizations, many very different from one another, each impacting the settled inhabitants. The ancient Iberian's were followed by Celts, Phoenicians and other Eastern Mediterranean traders, Romans, migrating Germanic tribes, Arabs or Berbers.
All have shaped the Spanish patrimony in Andalusia, which was already diffused widely in the literary and pictorial genre of the costumbrismo analog. In the 19th century, Andalusian culture came to be widely viewed as the Spanish culture par excellence, in part thanks to the perceptions of romantic travelers.
Andalusia, which has never shown the swagger nor petulance of particular ism; that has never pretended to the status of a State apart, is, of all the Spanish regions, the one that possesses a culture most radically its own. Throughout the 19th century, Spain has submitted itself to the hegemonic influence of Andalusia.
That century began with the Cortes of Cádiz ; it ended with the assassination of Canvas del Castillo, jalapeno , and the exaltation of Silver, no less jalapeno. One speaks at all times of the “land of the Most Holy Virgin Mary”.
The thief from the Sierra Moreno and the smuggler are national heroes. All Spain feels its existence justified by the honor of having on its flanks the Andalusian piece of the planet.
A patio analog in Córdoba. The traditional architecture of Andalusia retains its Roman with added Persian and Egyptian influences brought by Arabs, with a marked Mediterranean character strongly conditioned by the climate. Traditional urban houses are constructed with shared walls to minimize exposure to high exterior temperatures.
Solid exterior walls are painted with lime to minimize the heating effects of the sun. In accord with the climate and tradition of each area, the roofs may be terraces or tiled in the Roman imbued and regular style.
Beyond these general elements, there are also specific local architectural styles, such as the flat roofs, roofed chimneys, and radically extended balconies of the Alpujarra, the cave dwellings of Spadix and of Granada's Sacramento, or the traditional architecture of the Marquisate of Senate. Some of the greatest Renaissance buildings in Andalusia are from the then-kingdom of Jaén : the Jaén Cathedral, designed in part by Andrés de Vandelvira, served as a model for the Cathedral of Malaga and Spadix ; the centers of Used and Baez, dating largely from this era, are UNESCO World Heritage Sites.
The Palace of Charles V in Granada is uniquely important for its Italianate purism. Andalusia also has such Baroque -era buildings as the Palace of San Elmo in Seville (seat of the current autonomic presidency), the Church of Our Lady of Repose in Compilers, and the Granada Charter house.
Academic ism gave the region the Royal Tobacco Factory in Seville and Neoclassicism the nucleus of Cádiz, such as its city hall, Royal Prison, and the Oratorio de la Santa Cuevas. A fine example from the Renaissance era is the decoration of the Casa de Pilatos in Seville.
Nonetheless, non-religious sculpture played a relatively minor role until such 19th-century sculptors as Antonio Murillo. Its most illustrious representative was Pablo Picasso, one of the most influential artists of the 20th century.
The city has a Museum and Natal House Foundation, dedicated to the painter. In Guzman, of the 12th century, crafted poems in the colloquial Andalusian language.
As in most regions of Spain, the principal form of popular verse is the romance, although there are also strophes specific to Andalusia, such as the sole or the solaria. Ballads, lullabies, street vendor's cries, nursery rhymes, and work songs are plentiful.
Conversely, certain metric, melodic and harmonic characteristics are considered Andalusian even when written or performed by musicians from elsewhere. Flamenco, perhaps the most characteristically Andalusian genre of music and dance, originated in the 18th century, but is based in earlier forms from the region.
Guiding principles of public policy: 18th The preservation and enhancement of the cultural, historic and artistic heritage of Andalusia, especially flamenco. Also, within the Autonomous Community (of Andalusia) is the exclusive competence in knowledge, conservation, research, training, promotion and dissemination of flamenco as a unique element of the Andalusian cultural heritage.
Fundamental in the history of Andalusian music are the composers Cristóbal DE Morales, Francisco Guerrero, Francisco Cornea de Arauxo, Manuel García, Manuel de Falla, Joaquín Turin, and Manuel Castillo, as well as one of the fathers of modern classical guitar, the guitarist Andrés Segovia. Mention should also be made of the great folk artists of the Copley (music) and the caste Honda, such as Rocco Jurado, Lola Flores (La Parana, “the pharaoh “), Juanito Valderrama and the revolutionary Cameron de la Islam.
The portrayal of Andalusia in film is often reduced to archetypes: flamenco, bullfighting, Catholic pageantry, brigands, the property-rich and cash-poor senorita analog and emigrants. During the dictatorship of Francisco Franco, this was the extent of the film industry in Andalusia.
Counting together feature films, documentaries, television programs, music videos etc., Andalusia has boomed from 37 projects shooting in 1999 to 1,054 in 2007, with the figure for 2007 including 19 feature films. Although feature films are the most prestigious, commercials and television are currently more economically important to the region.
Cities like Almería have been influenced historically by both Granada and Murcia in the use of traditional head coverings. The sombrero DE Labrador, a worker's hat made of black velvet, is a signature style of the region.
In Cádiz, traditional costumes with rural origins are worn at bullfights and at parties on the large estates. The tabla flamenco dance and the accompanying caste condo vocal style originated in Andalusia and traditionally most often performed by the gypsy Roman.
One of the most distinctive cultural events in Andalusia is the Romania de El Rocco in May. It consists of a pilgrimage to the Hermitage of El Rocco in the countryside near Almost, in honor of the Virgin of El Rocco, an image of the Virgin and Child.
In recent times the Romania has attracted roughly a million pilgrims each year. Seats evoke strong emotion and are sung most often during public processions.
Verdi ales, based upon the fandango, are a flamenco music style and song form originating in Ammonia, near Málaga. The region also has a rich musical tradition of flamenco songs, or palms called Cartagena.
Seville celebrates Demand Santa, one of the better known religious events within Spain. During the festival, religious fraternities dress as penitents and carry large floats of lifelike wooden sculptures representing scenes of the Passion, and images of the Virgin Mary.
Sevillanas, a type of old folk music sung and written in Seville and still very popular, are performed in fairs and festivals, along with an associated dance for the music, the Bailey POR sevillanas. In some mostly southerly areas, shown here in red, all three letters are pronounced //, which is known as CECEI.
Rather than a single dialect, it is really a range of dialects sharing some common features; among This is the retention of more Arabic words than elsewhere in Spain, as well as some phonological differences compared with Standard Spanish. The glosses that mark the borders of Andalusian Spanish overlap to form a network of divergent boundaries, so there is no clear border for the linguistic region.
Religion Procession with statue of the Blessed Virgin Mary of the Love of Saint Ferdinand (Maria fantasia Del armor DE San Fernando), Cádiz. Bullfighting While some trace the lineage of the Spanish Fighting Bull back to Roman times, today's fighting bulls in the Iberian Peninsula and in the former Spanish Empire trace back to Andalusia in the 15th and 16th centuries.
Andalusia remains a center of bull-rearing and bullfighting : its 227 Incas DE Canada where fighting bulls are raised cover 146,917 hectares (363,040 acres). In the year 2000, Andalusia's roughly 100 bullrings hosted 1,139 corridor.
The oldest bullring still in use in Spain is the neoclassical Plaza DE torso in Ronda, built in 1784. The Andalusian Autonomous Government sponsors the Ruts de Andalucía touring, a touristic route through the region centered on bullfighting.
An annual pilgrimage brings a million visitors to the Hermitage of El Rocco in Almost (population 16,914 in 2008); similarly large crowds visit the Ontario de Nuestra Señora de la Camera in Angular every April. Andalusia hosts an annual festival for the dance of flamenco in the summer.
Cuisine Gazpacho served with trope zones (chopped vegetables). The mountainous regions of the Sierra Moreno and Sierra Nevada produce cured hams, notably including Jason Serrano and Jason Iberian. There are several denominations DE origin, each with its own specifications including in just which microclimate region ham of a particular denomination must be cured.
Plato alpujarreño is another mountain specialty, a dish combining ham, sausage, sometimes other pork, egg, potatoes, and olive oil. Cereal-based dishes include Midas DE marina in eastern Andalusia (a similar dish to couscous rather than the fried breadcrumb based Midas elsewhere in Spain) and a sweeter, more aromatic oatmeal called pole in western Andalusia.
These are enormously varied; for example, dry sherry may be the very distinct fine, Manzanillo, amontillado, colors, or Pale Tornado and each of these varieties can each be sweetened with Pedro Jimenez or Muscatel to produce a different variety of sweet sherry. Besides sherry, Andalusia has five other denominations DE origin for wine: D.O.
The archetype of the major and Maya was that of a bold, pure Spaniard from a lower-class background, somewhat flamboyant in his or her style of dress. This emulation of lower-class dress also extended to imitating the clothes of brigands and Roman (“Gypsy”) women.
Andalusian, in “Major” dress Andalusia has a great artisan tradition in tile, leather (see Shell cordovan), weaving (especially of the heavy Tarawa cloth), marquetry, and ceramics (especially in Jaén, Granada, and Almería), lace (especially Granada and Huelva), embroidery (in Arévalo), ironwork, woodworking, and basketry in wicker, many of these traditions a heritage of the long period of Muslim rule. Andalusia is also known for its dogs, particularly the Andalusian Hound, which was originally bred in the region.
Introduced to Spain by British men who worked in mining for Rio Tinto in the province of Huelva, the sport soon became popular with the local population. As Spain's oldest existing football club, Recreation de Huelva, founded 1889, is known as El Delano (“the Dean”).
The Andalusia autonomous football team is not in any league, and plays only friendly matches. In recent years, they have played mostly during the Christmas break of the football leagues.
They play mostly against national teams from other countries, but would not be eligible for international league play, where Spain is represented by a single national team. Andalusia's strongest showing in sports has been in table tennis.
There are two professional teams: Caesar Praise TM and CAA Granada TM, the latter being Spain's leading table tennis team, with more than 20 league championships in nearly consecutive years and 14 consecutive Cops del Rey, dominating the Lisa Enemy. The ski resort of Sierra Nevada, near Granada, has however hosted the 1996 Alpine World Ski Championships, and Granada hosted the 2015 Winter University.
^ Quench del Guadalquivir ^ Reinhardt Anne Peter Dozy (2009). Recherche SUR L'History ET la Literature DE L'España Pendant Le Doyen Age.
Islamic And Christian Spain in the Early Middle Ages. Only a few years after the Islamic conquest of Spain, Landaus appears in coin inscriptions as the Arabic equivalent of Hispanic.
The traditionally held view that the etymology of this name has to do with the Vandals is shown to have no serious foundation. The phonetic, morphosyntactic, and also historical problems connected with this etymology are too numerous.
Moreover, the existence of this name in various parts of central and northern Spain proves that Landaus cannot be derived from this Germanic tribe. It was the original name of the Junta Marroquín cape near Tariff; very soon, it became generalized to designate the whole Peninsula.
The parts of this compound (and and Luz) are frequent in the indigenous toponym of the Iberian Peninsula. ^ J. Bradford De Long and Andrei Shear (October 1993), “Princes and Merchants: European City Growth before the Industrial Revolution” (PDF), The Journal of Law and Economics, 36 (2): 671–702 , Cutesier 10.1.1.164.4092, DOI : 10.1086/467294, S2CID 13961320, archived from the original (PDF) on 29 July 2018, retrieved 7 December 2019 ^ Simon Barton (30 June 2009).
^ http://es.climate-data.org/location/2933/ ^ Mokhtar, G (1981), Ancient Civilizations of Africa, 2, University of California Press, p. 281, ISBN 978-0-520-06697-7 ^ Burke, Click Ralph (1900), A History of Spain from the Earliest Times to the Death of Ferdinand the Catholic, 1, Year Books, p. 410, ISBN 978-1-4437-4054-8, archived from the original on 21 August 2014, retrieved 21 August 2014 ^ González Jiménez, Manuel (2012). “Sober Los origins historical DE Andalusia” (PDF).
“Representing and Remembering landaus: Some Historical Considerations Regarding the End of Time and the Making of Nostalgia”. Medieval Jewish, Christian and Muslim Culture Encounters in Confluence and Dialogue.
Biographic Archived 1 January 2010 at the Payback Machine, Foundation Pablo de Olavide. ^ In Gel Del Cabrillo's 1751 Requests generals, part of the write-up of the census Castro of Ensenada, José María de Mendoza y Guzmán is described as visitor general of the Rental Provincials DE Los Cairo Ranks de Andalucía.
See the digitization of the relevant document on the site of the Spanish Ministry of Culture. Enter “Gel” in the search box “Tuscarora Localities” and look at image number 3.
La Casey DE Bias Infant en Curia del Rio. ^ a b El Manifesto Andalusia DE Córdoba described an Andalusia Como realized national en 1919, CUO spirit Los analyses encauzaron Clemente a travel Del process DE autogobierno record en Questran CARTA Magma.
En 1978 Los analyses deacon UN ample Reinaldo all consensus constitutional. How, la Constitution, en SU article 2, economy an Andalusia Como RNA nationalized en El Marco DE la uni dad indissoluble DE la nation Espinoza.
^ Noble, John; Forsyth, Susan; Magic, Vesta (2007). DESE El punt ode vista geographic, El conj unto DE leis Sierras meridional BS demasiado ample y variant para englobarlas a today en RNA uni dad.
En realized hay no dos, sing tree Andalusia: la Sierra Moreno, El Valley la Penibética ^ Rodriguez, Vicente (22 July 1998). Gibraltar is an overseas territory of the United Kingdom and is self-governing in all matters but defense.
“Los grand teams Del system físico-ambiental DE Andalusia y SUS implications humans”. ^ “Bases para la Ordination del Territory de Andalucía”, 1990, p. 126, in Spanish.
Carl: Cardona: Re vista DE studios locales (in Spanish) (3): 971–986. Atlas Agrarian y Esquire de Andalucía (in Spanish).
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Silver, trade, and war: Spain and America in the making of early modern Europe. ^ It is even said that in 1641, the local nobility staged an alleged conspiracy in 1641 against the policies of Count-Duke of Olivares ^ Kohn, George C. (2008).
Encyclopedia of plague and pestilence: from ancient times to the present. “Reconquering Andalusia: The Muslim Cities of the West” (PDF).
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p.410 ^ Antony Beer, The Battle for Spain; The Spanish Civil War 1936–1939. “San Rafael: la mayor ghost Del pass”.
^ Hugh Thomas: Historian de la Guerra Civil Espinoza ; 1976; p. 636 ^ Preston, Paul. ...identical historical, en El autogobierno Que la Constitution permit a today nationalized, en Elena Iguala all rest ode nacionalidades y regions Que component España, y con UN power Que MANA DE la Constitution y El pueblo analog, reflejado en SU Statute de Autonomía ^ Statute de Autonomía Art.
La Comerica SE configure Como la agrupación voluntary DE municipals limítrofes con characteristics geographical, economics, socials e historical fines. POR La Del Parliament de Andalucía poor regulars la creation DE cameras, Que establecerá, ambient, SUS competencies.
Se require en to-do case El acted DE Los Ayuntamientos avocados y la probation Del Consent de Gobierno.” ^ Mancomunidades Archived 1 July 2010 at the Payback Machine (map), deal.map.BS.
This often occurs in developed countries as birth rates decline. “Characteristics Del desarrollo urban recent en Andalusia.
“La dynamic DE la oblation en Andalusia: transition y cam bios en El silo XX”. “El envejecimiento demographic en Andalusia y leis characteristics sociodemographic DE la oblation mayor DE 64 ants”.
^ “Regional GDP per capita ranged from 30% to 263% of the EU average in 2018”. “Internal Market, Industry, Entrepreneurship and SMEs: Andalusia”.
^ IEA data for 2007 ^ CIRCE and CE FIC Consultants and Bioeconomía en Andalusia (September 2016). ^ Junta de Andalucía, Impact ode la Audi à la production sober El Oliver analog Archived 19 April 2009 at the Payback Machine, in El Oliver Analog Archived 12 December 2009 at the Payback Machine, Began.
^ II PLAN Analog DE Agricultural Ecological (2007–2013) (PDF) (in Spanish). FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations).
^ “Pellagra la supervivencia DE lacunas plants marinas en El literal jalapeno” (in Spanish). “Energy y minerals: Precursor naturals DE Andalusia” (PDF) (in Spanish).
^ IEA: Contabilidad Regional de Andalucía ^ Carapace, I. Acts Del I Congress de Ciencia Regional de Andalucía: Andalusia en El umbra Del silo XX (in Spanish).
Archived 27 September 2007 at the Payback Machine ^ “Pablo Picasso, Andalusia | Southern Spain”. “Los systems DE transport, leis infrastructural y El territory”.
La bicycle Como media DE transport en Andalusia (in Spanish). ^ Products Alta Velocity Archived 8 December 2009 at the Payback Machine, RENFE/AVE.
^ a b “Informed sober la utilization DE Los aeropuertos DE España en Los ultimo ants” (in Spanish). ^ Barrage Muñoz, Juan Manuel; China Ruiz, Adolfo; Pérez Camaro, Maria Luisa.
El Plan de Infraestructuras para El transport ostensible prove RNA inversion DE 30.000 mill ones”. ^ Arena opens the first EU commercial concentrating Solar Power Tower Archived 9 June 2009 at the Payback Machine, RenewableEnergyMagazine.com, 2 April 2007.
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^ www.andaluciainvestiga.com Archived 24 February 2013 at the Payback Machine ^ Plan Analog de Investigación, Desarrollo e Innovation. “Medics DE communication en Red Andalusia”.
That web page gives a rather complete listing of Andalusian media organizations. “Questions sober la identical cultural DE Andalusia”.
^ José Ortega y Asset, Peoria de Andalucía Archived 19 May 2011 at the Payback Machine, 1927, online at Wiki source in Spanish. “Reflexives America DE leis actuation leads a cab en la see administrative y access Del Conj unto Arqueológico de Itálica” (PDF).
“Architecture traditional en El Marques ado del Senate”. “Punter para RNA breve historian DE la architecture modern en Andalusia”.
^ “Iconic Cultural Image Heads Selection of Works by Top Spanish Artists” (PDF). “Historian DE la picture Seville, silos XIII all XX.
Albums reflexives America DE la identical Andalusia en El discuss flamencológico” (PDF). Massacre: Re vista dragons DE musicologist (in Spanish).
^ From Article 37.1.18 of the Andalusian Statute of Autonomy: Principles rectors DE leis political publican: 18º La conservation y guest en valor Del patrimony cultural, historic y artistic DE Andalusia, especialmente Del flamenco. ^ From Article 68 of the Andalusian Statute of Autonomy: Correspond animism à la Communized Autonomy (Andalusia) la competence exclusive en material DE conocimiento, conservation, investigation, formation, promotion y diffusion Del flamenco Como elements singular Del patrimony cultural analog.
^ “David Visual recipe 5 discos DE Latino en España y UN disc ode or en USA y Puerto Rico”. El Rocco Pilgrimage Archived 31 October 2015 at the Payback Machine, visithuelva.com.
Reduce: Re vista Electronica de Didáctica Eye (6). ^ Interactive: Credentials y practices religious en España ^ See la Terra DE María Fantasia in the dictionary of the Real Academia Espinoza.
^ a b c Ceded Carrion, Gabriel; Del Milagros Martín López, María. “Products Americans y gastronomic Andalusia: El gazpacho”.
Islam de Arriarán: Re vista cultural y scientific (in Spanish) (11): 423–440. Historian y cultural Del vino en Andalusia (in Spanish).
Historian y cultural Del vino en Andalusia (in Spanish). ^ Real Estela Andalusia de Arte Chester Archived 15 December 2009 at the Payback Machine, official site.
^ “ANO foundation Del Recreation de Huelva” (in Spanish). ^ 2006: Seville win big in Monaco Archived 8 January 2010 at the Payback Machine, 25 August 2006, UEFA.com.
^ For a detailed history of basketball in Andalusia, see: Gallardo Rodríguez, Miguel (2006). 75 ants DE historian Del balances analog (in Spanish).
^ IGAS Nationals / Lisa “Areal Pentanes” Supervision Masculine, Real Federation Espinoza de Tenis DE Mesa. Retrieved 2009-12-17 cites for the current prominent status of these teams.
Box 611 Jefferson, North Carolina, U.S.A.: McFarland & Company, Inc., Publishers. CS1 main: location (link) ^ “Andalusia en Los Judges Olympics”.