Location: UK, South Wales I think I have the calmest stallion ever, he's stabled next to mares, he behaves so well, rides out with other horses, and he's very friendly with people.
She's not one of my favorites, I prefer them to be more laid back. But I know most people only want them because they are pretty to look at.
I also find my Andy's suffer separation anxiety... Whereas none of my other horses have it. That's one thing I find with them and have noticed with other peoples horses at shows.
Location: Goat Country with Tia I find the Andalusian's more sweet with a better temperament and have a better canter (most), and they are super smooth.
:) The reason I wanted one or both is that iv'e seen them ridden before, and they look so talented and athletic, they moved with such a harmonics grace and were elegantly refined and looked completely in-tune with their riders and handlers, now I realize what iv'e seen were experienced show horses and not all are like those, but there's something about them, beyond their majestic appearance, that intrigues me...:) Lipizzaner names Lipizzaner, KarsterCountry of originDeveloped by the House of Habsburg from Arab, Barb, Spanish and Neapolitan stock.
The horses at the Spanish Riding School are trained using traditional methods that date back hundreds of years, based on the principles of classical dressage. Its name derives from one of the earliest stud farms established, which was located near Li pica (spelled “Li pizza” in Italian), a village in present-day Slovenia.
The rescue of the Lipizzaner during World War II by American troops was made famous by the Disney movie Miracle of the White Stallions. The breed has also starred or played supporting roles in many movies, TV shows, books, and other media.
Today, eight stallions are recognized as the classic foundation bloodstock of the breed, all foaled the late 18th and early 19th centuries. All modern Lipizzaner trace their bloodlines to these eight stallions, and all breeding stallions have included in their name the name of the foundation sire of their bloodline.
Also, classic mare lines are known, with up to 35 recognized by various breed registries. The majority of horses are registered through the member organizations of the Lipizzaner International Federation, which covers almost 11,000 horses in 19 countries and at 9 state studs in Europe.
Most Lipizzaner reside in Europe, with smaller numbers in the Americas, South Africa, and Australia. Generally gray, the Lipizzaner is a breed of Baroque type that is powerful, matures slowly, and noted for longevity.
However, horses bred to be closer to the original carriage-horse type are taller, approaching 16.1 hands (65 inches, 165 cm). Lipizzaner have a long head, with a straight or slightly convex profile.
The jaw is deep, the ears small, the eyes large and expressive, and the nostrils flared. They have a neck that is sturdy, yet arched and withers that are low, muscular, and broad.
They are a Baroque horse, with a wide, deep chest, broad croup, and muscular shoulder. Aside from the rare solid-colored horse (usually bay or black), most Lipizzaner are gray.
Until the 18th century, Lipizzaner had other coat colors, including dun, bay, chestnut, black, piebald, and skewbald. The earliest predecessors of the Lipizzaner originated in the seventh century when Barb horses were brought into Spain by the Moors and crossed on native Spanish stock.
By the 16th century, when the Habsburg ruled both Spain and Austria, a powerful but agile horse was desired both for military uses and for use in the fashionable and rapidly growing riding schools for the nobility of Central Europe. Therefore, in 1562, the Habsburg Emperor Maximilian II brought the Spanish Andalusian horse to Austria and founded the court stud at Klaus.
In 1580, his brother, Archduke Charles II, ruler of Inner Austria, established a similar stud at Li pizza (now Li pica), located in modern-day Slovenia, from which the breed obtained its name. When the stud farm was established, Li pizza was located within the municipal limits of Trieste, an autonomous city under Habsburg sovereignty.
The name of the village itself derives from the Slovene word Lisa, meaning linden tree.” Spanish, Barb, and Arabian stock were crossed at Li pizza, and succeeding generations were crossed with the now-extinct Neapolitan breed from Italy and other Baroque horses of Spanish descent obtained from Germany and Denmark.
While breeding stock was exchanged between the two studs, Klaus specialized in producing heavy carriage horses, while riding and light carriage horses came from the Li pizza stud. Breeding became very selective, only allowing stallions that had proved themselves at the Riding School to stand at stud, and only breeding mares that had passed rigorous performance testing.
Today, eight foundation lines for Lipizzaner are recognized by various registries, which refer to them as “dynasties”. Six trace to classical foundation stallions used in the 18th and 19th centuries by the Li pizza stud, and two additional lines were not used at Li pizza, but were used by other studs within the historic boundaries of the Habsburg Empire.
Two additional stallion lines are found in Croatia, Hungary, and other eastern European countries, as well as in North America. They are accepted as equal to the six classical lines by the Lipizzaner International Federation.
Several other stallion lines have died out over the years, but were used in the early breeding of the horses. Traditional naming patterns are used for both stallions and mares, required by Lipizzaner breed registries.
The world-famous Spanish Riding School uses highly trained Lipizzaner stallions in public performances that demonstrate classical dressage movements and training. In 1572, the first Spanish riding hall was built, during the Austrian Empire, and is the oldest of its kind in the world.
In 1729, Charles VI commissioned the building of the Winter Riding School in Vienna and in 1735, the building was completed that remains the home of the Spanish Riding School today. The Lipizzaner endured several wartime relocations throughout their history, each of which saved the breed from extinction.
The first was in March 1797 during the War of the First Coalition, when the horses were evacuated from Li pica. In November 1797, the horses returned to Li pica, but the stables were in ruins.
They were rebuilt, but in 1805, the horses were evacuated again when Napoleon invaded Austria. The horses finally returned to Li pica for good in 1815, where they remained for the rest of the 19th century.
Following the war, the Austro-Hungarian Empire was broken up, with Li pica becoming part of Italy. Thus, the animals were divided between several studs in the new postwar nations of Austria, Italy, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, Romania, and Yugoslavia.
The nation of Austria kept the stallions of the Spanish Riding School and some breeding stock. During World War II, the high command of Nazi Germany transferred most of Europe's Lipizzaner breeding stock to Hos tau, Czechoslovakia.
The breeding stock was taken from Fiber in 1942, and additional mares and foals from other European nations arrived in 1943. The stallions of the Spanish Riding School were evacuated to St. Martins, Austria, from Vienna in January 1945, when bombing raids neared the city and the head of the Spanish Riding School, Colonel Alois Podhajsky, feared the horses were in danger.
The rescue of the Lipizzaner by the United States Army, made famous by the Disney movie Miracle of the White Stallions, occurred in two parts: The Third United States Army, under the command of General George S. Patton, was near St. Martins in the spring of 1945 and learned that the Lipizzaner stallions were in the area. Patton himself was a horseman, and like Podhajsky, had competed in the Olympic Games.
On May 7, 1945, Podhajsky put on an exhibition of the Spanish Riding School stallions for Patton and Undersecretary of War Robert P. Patterson, and at its conclusion requested that Patton take the horses under his protection. Meanwhile, the Third Army's United States Second Cavalry, a tank unit under the command of Colonel Charles Reed, had discovered the horses at Hos tau, where 400 Allied prisoners of war were also being kept, and had occupied it on April 28, 1945.
“Operation Cowboy”, as the rescue was known, resulted in the recovery of 1,200 horses, including 375 Lipizzaner. Patton learned of the raid, and arranged for Podhajsky to fly to Hos tau.
On May 12, American soldiers began riding, trucking, and herding the horses 35 miles across the border into Rotating, Germany. The Lipizzaner were eventually settled in temporary quarters in Impeach, until the breeding stock returned to Fiber in 1952, and the stallions returned to the Spanish Riding School in 1955.
In 2005, the Spanish Riding School celebrated the 60th anniversary of Patton's rescue by touring the United States. The Lipizzaner breed suffered a setback to its population when a viral epidemic hit the Fiber Stud in 1983.
Forty horses and 8% of the expected foal crop were lost. By 1994, 100 mares were at the stud farm and a foal crop of 56 was born in 1993.
In 1994, the rate of successful pregnancy and birth of foals increased from 27 to 82%; the result of a new veterinary center. In 1996, a study funded by the European UnionIndo-Copernicus Project assessed 586 Lipizzaner horses from eight stud farms in Europe, with the goal of developing a “scientifically based description of the Lipizzaner horse”.
A study of the mitochondrial DNA (mt DNA) was performed on 212 of the animals, and those studied were found to contain 37 of the 39 known mt DNA haplotypes known in modern horses, meaning that they show a high degree of genetic diversity. The Lipizzaner International Federation (If) is the international governing organization for the breed, composed of many national and private organizations representing the Lipizzaner.
The organizations work together under the banner of the If to promote the breed and maintain standards. As of 2012, almost 11,000 Lipizzaner were registered with the If; residing with private breeders in 19 countries and at 9 state studs in Europe.
The other two studs are smaller, with Lucia in Bosnia having 130 horses and Karaorevo in Serbia having just 30. Because of the status of Lipizzaner as the only breed of horse developed in Slovenia, via the Li pica stud that is now located within its borders, Lipizzaner are recognized in Slovenia as a national animal.
For example, a pair of Lipizzaner is featured on the 20-cent Slovenian euro coins. In October 2008, during a visit to Slovenia, a Lipizzaner at Li pica, named 085 Favor Carissa XXII, was given to Queen Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom.
She decided to leave the animal in the care of the stud farm. The traditional horse training methods for Lipizzaner were developed at the Spanish Riding School and are based on the principles of classical dressage, which in turn traces to the Ancient Greek writer Xenophon, whose works were rediscovered in the 16th century.
His thoughts on development of horses' mental attitude and psyche are still considered applicable today. Other writers who strongly influenced the training methods of the Spanish Riding School include Federico Gris one, the founder of the first riding academy in Naples, who lived during the 16th century, and Antoine de Pluvinel and François Robinson de la Guarnieri, two Frenchmen from the 17th and 18th centuries.
The methods for training the Lipizzaner stallions at the Spanish Riding School were passed down via an oral tradition until Field Marshal Franz Holbein and Johann Manner, Senior Rider at the School, published the initial guidelines for the training of horse and rider at the school in 1898. In the mid-20th century, Alois Podhajsky wrote a number of works that serve as textbooks for many dressage riders today.
Young stallions come to the Spanish Riding School for training when they are four years old. Full training takes an average of six years for each horse, and schooling is considered complete when they have mastered the skills required to perform the “School Quadrille”.
There are three progressively more difficult skill sets taught to the stallions, which are: Forward riding, also called straight riding or the Remontenschule, is the name given to the skills taught in the first year of training, where a young horse learns to be saddled and bridled, learns basic commands on a long line, and then is taught to be ridden, mostly in an arena in simple straight lines and turns, to teach correct responses to the rider's legs and hands while mounted.
The main goal during this time is to develop free forward movement in as natural a position as possible. Campaign school, Campagneschule or Champagne, is where the horse learns collection and balance through all gaits, turns, and maneuvers.
The horse learns to shorten and lengthen his stride and perform lateral movements to the side, and is introduced to the more complex double bridle. High-school dressage, the hate Cole or Home Schulz, includes riding the horse with greater collection with increased use of the hindquarters, developing increased regularity, skill, and finesse in all natural gaits.
In this period, the horse learns the most advanced movements such as the half-pass, counter-canter, flying change, pirouette, passage, and giraffe. This level emphasizes performance with a high degree of perfection.
Although the Fiber Stud trains mares for driving and under saddle, the Spanish Riding School exclusively uses stallions in its performances. Worldwide, the Lipizzaner today competes in dressage and driving, as well as retaining their classic position at the Spanish Riding School.
The “airs above the ground” are the difficult “high school” dressage movements made famous by the Lipizzaner. The evade is a position wherein the horse raises up both front legs, standing at a 30° angle entirely on its hind legs in a controlled form that requires a great deal of hindquarter strength.
A less difficult but related movement is the decade, where the horse rises up to a 45° angle. In the crusade, the horse jumps with both front and hind legs remaining tucked under the body, and he does not kick out.
The mézair is a series of successive evades in which the horse lowers its forefeet to the ground before rising again on hindquarters, achieving forward motion. Lipizzaner have starred or played supporting roles in many movies, TV shows, books, and other media.
The wife of the film's producer owned the only Lipizzaner in the US at the time the movie was made. The movie was the only live-action, relatively realistic film set against a World War II backdrop that Disney has ever produced.
Hephaestus EU Lippi 1580–1880, Wain 1880 ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n “Lipizzaner Origins”. ^ Bonging, Simon & Schuster's Guide to Horses and Ponies, Entry 37.
^ Podhajsky, The Complete Training of Horse and Rider, p. 249 ^ a b “The Spanish Riding School”. “The 2005 Lipizzaner Tour of the Spanish Riding School” (PDF).
The Perfect Horse: The Daring U.S. Mission to Rescue the Priceless Stallions Kidnapped by the Nazis. ^ “After 15 Year Absence Legendary Lipizzaner Stallions of the Spanish Riding School of Vienna Set Return for U.S. Tour”.
^ Favor, Tatiana; Bred, Gottfried; Have, Franc; Soldier, Johann; Dove, Peter (2002). “History of Lipizzaner horse maternal lines as revealed by mt DNA analysis”.
^ Lipizzaner horses used by Mounted Carabiner Regiments ^ Music, Sneezing (2008-10-22). CS1 main: extra text: authors list (link) Broke, Douglas (2004).
Dozen, Milan (translated by Marco Harvey and Susan Ann Peachy) (1981). Dictionary of American children's fiction, 1960-1984: recent books of recognized merit.
They Rode Into Europe: The Fruitful Exchange in the Arts of Horsemanship between East and West. CS1 main: multiple names: authors list (link) Patton, George S. & Martin Benson (1996).
The Complete Training of Horse and Rider In the Principles of Classic Horsemanship. Wikimedia Commons has media related to Lipizzaner. Horse breed noted for use in the Spanish Riding School in Vienna.