The number of speakers is estimated to have peaked at around 5–7 million speakers around the 11th and 12th centuries before dwindling as a consequence of the Reconquista, the gradual but relentless takeover by the Christians. In 1502, the Muslims of Granada were forced to choose between conversion and exile; those who converted became known as the Morison.
Still, Andalusian Arabic remained in use in certain areas of Spain (particularly the inner regions of the Kingdom of Valencia) until the final expulsion of the Morison at the beginning of the 17th century. Like other Maghreb Arabic dialects, Andalusian does not differentiate between sedentary and Bedouin varieties.
By contrast, Andalusian does not show any detectable difference between religious communities, such as MuslimMuladis, ChristianMozarabs, and, unlike in North Africa where Judo- Arabic dialects were common. The oldest evidence of Andalusian Arabic utterances can be dated from the 10th and 11th century, in isolated quotes, both in prose and stanza Classical Andalusia poems (muwashahat), and then, from the 11th century on, in stanza dialectal poems (naval) and dialectal proverb collections, while its last documents are a few business records and one letter written at the beginning of the 17th century in Valencia.
Andalusian Arabic is still used in Andalusian classical music and has significantly influenced the dialects of such towns as Fax in Tunisia, Return and Tangier in Morocco, Neuroma, Element, Blimey, and Churchill in Algeria, and Alexandria in Egypt. The first complete linguistic description of Andalusia Arabic was given by the Spanish Arabist Federico Lorraine, who drew on the Appendix Probe, naval poetry, proverbs and aphorisms, the work of the 16th century lexicographer Pedro de Alcalá , and Andalusia letters found in the Cairo Genera.
/p/ “behaved most of the time as an “emphaticised” phoneme, resistant to Malay or palatalization” thus possibly being pronounced as . In lower registers, was occasionally an allophone of /day/ in word-final position by speakers of Hispanic origin.
In most other instances, would cause an adjacent vowel to be stressed or would disappear altogether, leaving no trace. ^ Under Berber and Romance influence, would sometimes turn into a bilabial aspirant (fricative) , especially intravocalically.
^ Contrasting pairs of words differing only by a plain or an emphatic pronunciation of their respective
The vowel system was subject to a heavy amount of fronting and raising, a phenomenon known as impala, causing /a()/ to be raised, probably to or and, particularly with short vowels, in certain circumstances, particularly when i-mutation was possible. Alternatively in higher registers, and were only allophones of / i / and / u / respectively, while diphthongs were mostly resistant to monophthongization.
In the presence of velar or pharyngeal contour, / a / was backed into and sometimes even rounded into or , or even . The -an which, in Classical Arabic, marked a noun as indefinite accusative case (see nu nation), became an indefinable conjunctive particle, as in in Guzman's expression Julian 'ship.
The conjugated preposition negative particle is developed out of the classical verb lays-a. Whence the initial n- on verbs in the first-person singular, a feature shared by many Maghreb varieties.
Similar, if not identical, to the varieties spoken in the Arabian Peninsula before the emergence of Islam. Variety thought to underlie the Urania Consonant Text and in its later iteration was the prestige spoken and written register of Arabic in the Umayyad Caliphate.
Variety of Arabic spoken in the Al Hagar Mountains of Oman and in a few neighboring coastal regions. Dialect derived from a variety of the Arabic language spoken in northern Algeria.
The Earliest attested stage of the Arabic language, beginning with the first attestation of personal names in the 9th century BC, and culminating in the codification of Classical Arabic beginning in the 7th century AD. Variety of Arabic spoken throughout Sudan and in parts of Eritrea.
Some tribes in Sudan still have similar accents to the ones in Saudi Arabia. Spoken by the Ben Hassan Bedouin tribes, who extended their authority over most of Mauritania and Morocco's southeastern and Western Sahara between the 15th and 17th centuries.
Variety of Arabic spoken by the Madurai people living in the Hadhramaut. Also spoken by many emigrants, who migrated from the Hadhramaut to the Horn of Africa, East Africa (Comoros, Zanzibar, Kenya, Tanzania, and Mozambique), Southeast Asia (Indonesia, Malaysia, Brunei and Singapore) and, recently, to the other Arab states of the Persian Gulf.
Variety of Arabic spoken in the Head region in Saudi Arabia. Strictly speaking, there are two main groups of dialects spoken in the Head region, one by the urban population, originally spoken in the major cities of Jeddah, Mecca and Medina, and another by the Bedouin or rural populations.
Variety of North Byzantine Arabic, indigenous to and spoken primarily in Lebanon, with significant linguistic influences borrowed from other Middle Eastern and European languages and is in some ways unique from other varieties of Arabic. Cluster of varieties of Arabic spoken in Yemen, southwestern Saudi Arabia, Somalia, and Djibouti.
Generally considered a very conservative dialect cluster, having many classical features not found across most of the Arabic -speaking world. Variety of Arabic, spoken in Allah, Oman, Yemen, and the surrounding coastal regions (the Hofer Governorate).
Nomadic and sedentary communities live in the area, and for them Dofri Neo- Arabic can be a first language or a second language or lingua franca, spoken with varying degrees of fluency. Upon a corpus of poetic texts, in addition to the Qur'an and Bedouin informants whom he considered to be reliable speakers of the Arabia.
Group of Arabic varieties originating from the NAD region of Saudi Arabia. Continuum of closely related Romance dialects spoken in the Muslim-controlled areas of the Iberian Peninsula, known as Landaus.
Standardized and Latinized variety of Arabic spoken by the Maltese people of Malta. Speakers are older adults, and the younger generation has only a passive knowledge of the language.
Variety of Arabic spoken by the Said people south of Cairo, Egypt, to the border of Sudan. Mashing Arabic (Eastern Arabic), or Mashing Jamaica, encompasses the varieties of Arabic spoken in the Maghrib, including the countries of Egypt, Lebanon, Palestine, Israel, Kuwait, Jordan, Syria, Cyprus, Turkey, Iraq, Sudan, Saudi Arabia, UAE, Oman, Bahrain and Qatar.
Member of the Maghreb Arabic dialect continuum spoken in Morocco. Variety of Arabic spoken in the Miranda Governorate of Oman and Ra's all Khadijah emirate of the UAE.
The English word guitar, the German Bizarre, and the French guitar were all adopted from the Spanish guitar, which comes from the Andalusian Arabic () and the Latin Ithaca, which in turn came from the Ancient Greek . The word arcade originally was used for simple judges, as in Andalusian Arabic.
This Romance variety had a significant impact in the formation of Spanish, especially Andalusian Spanish, which explains why this language has numerous words of Andalusian Arabic origin. The Andalusian Arabic language was spoken in Iberia during Islamic rule.
The Maladies had spoken in a Romance dialect of Latin called Arabic while increasingly adopting the Arabic language, which eventually evolved into the Andalusia Arabic in which Muslims, Jews, and Christians became monolingual in the last surviving Muslim state in the Iberian Peninsula, the Emirate of Granada (1230–1492). The lexicon of Galician is predominantly of Latin extraction, although it also contains a moderate number of words of Germanic and Celtic origin, among other substrates and castrates, having also received, mainly via Spanish, a number of nouns from Andalusian Arabic.
Some loans might have come through Andalusia Arabic brought by Morison when they were expelled from Spain following the Christian Reconquest or, alternatively, they date from the time of the Spanish Protectorate in Morocco. Mozart had a significant impact in the formation of Portuguese, Spanish and Catalan, transmitting to these many words of Andalusia Arabic origin.
The father of such a movement, Bias Infant, in his book Origins DE lo flamenco y secret Del caste condo, etymologically, went as far as alleging that the word flamenco derives from Andalusian Arabic fella menu, supposedly meaning “escapee peasant”. The term originates from the Middle Greek slaves/slaves (Slav), which in Hispano- Arabic came to designate first Slavic slaves and then, similarly to the semantic development of the term in other West-European languages, foreign slaves in general.
In Mexico, piggy banks are called Albania, a term originating from Andalusian Arabic. A few words of Andalusia Arabic origin that have become archaisms or unknown in general Spanish can be found, together with multitude of sayings: e.g. hacienda morisquetas (from the word Morocco, meaning pulling faces and gesticulating, historically associated with Muslim prayers).
The Ballads primarily spoke Andalusian Arabic, along with a wide variety of Iberian Romance languages. It contains Berber and Latin (African Romance) substrates and numerous loanwords from French, Andalusian Arabic, Ottoman Turkish and Spanish.
It often meant the use of interpreters in lawsuits, which could tilt the outcome of the case one side or the other, e.g. the Basque witch trials, and the increased use of Castilian in assemblies and decision-making bodies, and documents, despite not being the commonly understood language in a number of areas, like most of the Basque districts (Navarre, Álava, etc. ), Catalonia, Galicia, Asturias, parts of Aragon, etc. As Dragons retreated to the sub-Pyrenean valleys, Arabic vanished by the early 17th century, when forced cultural assimilation of the Morison was coupled with expulsion (completed in 1614).
One hypothesis suggests the common Spanish word for the dish, ceviche, has its origin in the Latin word CIUS, which translates to English as “food” Another hypothesis, supported by the Royal Spanish Academy, is that ceviche has the same etymology as escapee, which derives from Arabic izkebêch, in turn descending from Andalusian Arabic assukkabá, which also derives from Classical Arabic samba (, meaning meat cooked in vinegar). As Canadian Spanish was influenced by Andalusian Spanish, a few words of Andalusia Arabic origin are found, and there are some doublets of Arabic laminate synonyms with the Arabic form being more common in Canadian like Alcoa for standard habitation or dormitory ('bedroom'), Lhasa for standard joy ('jewel'), or Alaskan for standard scorpion (scorpion); Arabic influence in Canadian Spanish was even brought by returning Canadian settlers and their children from Spanish Sahara after its independence.