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Are All Horses Domesticated

author
Carole Stephens
• Monday, 10 May, 2021
• 62 min read

The clearest evidence of early use of the horse as a means of transport is from chariot burials dated c. 2000 BCE. However, an increasing amount of evidence supports the hypothesis that horses were domesticated in the Eurasian Steppes approximately 3500 BCE; recent discoveries in the context of the Bowie culture suggest that Bowie settlements in the Akola Province of Kazakhstan are the location of the earliest domestication of the horse.

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(Source: www.yurtopic.com)

Contents

Some zoologists define “domestication” as human control over breeding, which can be detected in ancient skeletal samples by changes in the size and variability of ancient horse populations. Other researchers look at the broader evidence, including skeletal and dental evidence of working activity; weapons, art, and spiritual artifacts; and lifestyle patterns of human cultures.

Attempts to date domestication by genetic study or analysis of physical remains rests on the assumption that there was a separation of the genotypes of domesticated and wild populations. Such a separation appears to have taken place, but dates based on such methods can only produce an estimate of the latest possible date for domestication without excluding the possibility of an unknown period of earlier gene-flow between wild and domestic populations (which will occur naturally as long as the domesticated population is kept within the habitat of the wild population).

Further, all modern horse populations retain the ability to revert to a feral state, and all feral horses are of domestic types; that is, they descend from ancestors that escaped from captivity. Whether one adopts the narrower zoological definition of domestication or the broader cultural definition that rests on an array of zoological and archaeological evidence affects the time frame chosen for domestication of the horse.

The date of 4000 BCE is based on evidence that includes the appearance of dental pathologies associated with batting, changes in butchering practices, changes in human economies and settlement patterns, the depiction of horses as symbols of power in artifacts, and the appearance of horse bones in human graves. On the other hand, measurable changes in size and increases in variability associated with domestication occurred later, about 2500–2000 BCE, as seen in horse remains found at the site of Csepel-Haros in Hungary, a settlement of the Bell Beaker culture.

Replica of a horse painting from a cave in Lascaux 2005 study analyzed the mitochondrial DNA (mt DNA) of a worldwide range of equips, from 53,000-year-old fossils to contemporary horses. Their analysis placed all equips into a single clade, or group with a single common ancestor, consisting of three genetically divergent species: Hippidion, the New World stilt-legged horse, and Equus, the true horse.

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The true horse migrated from the Americas to Eurasia via Bering, becoming broadly distributed from North America to Central Europe, north and south of Pleistocene ice sheets. These horses showed little phylogeographic structure, probably reflecting their high degree of mobility and adaptability.

Therefore, the domestic horse today is classified as Equus ferns Catullus. No genetic originals of native wild horses currently exist.

The Przewalski diverged from the modern horse prior to domestication. It has 66 chromosomes, as opposed to 64 among modern domesticated horses, and their Mitochondrial DNA (mt DNA) forms a distinct cluster.

Genetic evidence suggests that modern Przewalski's horses are descended from a distinct regional gene pool in the eastern part of the Eurasian steppes, not from the same genetic group that gave rise to modern domesticated horses. Nevertheless, evidence such as the cave paintings of Lascaux suggests that the ancient wild horses that some researchers now label the “Tarzan subtype” probably resembled Przewalski horses in their general appearance: big heads, dun coloration, thick necks, stiff upright manes, and relatively short, stout legs.

Equus Catullus Germanic front leg, teeth and upper jaw at the Museum fur Naturkunde, Berlin horses of the Ice Age were hunted for meat in Europe and across the Eurasian steppes and in North America by early modern humans. Numerous kill sites exist and many cave paintings in Europe indicate what they looked like.

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Many of these Ice Age subspecies died out during the rapid climate changes associated with the end of the last Ice Age or were hunted out by humans, particularly in North America, where the horse became completely extinct. Classification based on body types and conformation, absent the availability of DNA for research, once suggested that there were roughly four basic wild prototypes, thought to have developed with adaptations to their environment prior to domestication.

However, more recent study indicates that there was only one wild species and all different body types were entirely a result of selective breeding or land race adaptation after domestication. The “Warm blood subspecies” or Forest Horse (once proposed as Equus ferns silvaticus, also known as the Alluvial Horse), which evolved into a later variety sometimes called Equus ferns Germanic.

The “Draft” subspecies, a small, sturdy, heavyset animal with a heavy hair coat, arising in Northern Europe, adapted to cold, damp climates, somewhat resembling today's draft horse and even the Shetland pony. The Oriental subspecies (once proposed as Equus Giles), a taller, slim, refined and agile animal arising in Western Asia, adapted to hot, dry climates.

Although researchers such as Maria Gimbals theorized that the horses of the Paleolithic period were Przewalski's, more recent genetic studies indicate that Przewalski's horse is not an ancestor to modern domesticated horses. Other now-extinct subspecies of Equus ferns appears to have been the stock from which domesticated horses are descended.

The early stages of domestication were marked by a rapid increase in coat color variation. A 2014 study compared DNA from ancient horse bones that predated domestication and compared them to DNA of modern horses, discovering 125 genes that correlated to domestication.

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Some were physical, affecting muscle and limb development, cardiac strength and balance. Others were linked to cognitive function and most likely were critical to the taming of the horse, including social behavior, learning capabilities, fear response, and agreeableness.

The DNA used in this study came from horse bones 16,000 to 43,000 years ago, and therefore the precise changes that occurred at the time of domestication have yet to be sequenced. The domestication of stallions and mares can be analyzed separately by looking at those portions of the DNA that are passed on exclusively along the maternal (mitochondrial DNA or mt DNA) or paternal line (Y-chromosome or Y-DNA).

DNA studies indicate that there may have been multiple domestication events for mares, as the number of female lines required to account for the genetic diversity of the modern horse suggests a minimum of 77 different ancestral mares, divided into 17 distinct lineages. A study published in 2012 that performed genomic sampling on 300 work horses from local areas as well as a review of previous studies of archaeology, mitochondrial DNA, and Y-DNA suggested that horses were originally domesticated in the western part of the Eurasian steppe.

Most other parts of the world were ruled out as sites for horse domestication, either due to climate unsuitable for an indigenous wild horse population or no evidence of domestication. Genes located in the mitochondrial DNA are passed on along the maternal line from the mother to her offspring.

Multiple analyses of the mitochondrial DNA obtained from modern horses as well as from horse bones and teeth from archaeological and pathological finds consistently shows an increased genetic diversity in the mitochondrial DNA compared to the remaining DNA, showing that many mares has been included into the breeding stock of the originally domesticated horse. A haplogroup is a group of closely related haplotypes that share the same common ancestor.

horses mustang domesticated horse wild animals humans before common looked vs domestic essay history them guff future cheap source
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Several haplogroups are unequally distributed around the world, indicating the addition of local wild mares to the domesticated stock. One of these haplotypes (Luciano group C) is exclusively found in the Iberian Peninsula, leading to a hypothesis that the Iberian Peninsula or North Africa was an independent origin for domestication of the horse.

However, until there is additional analysis of nuclear DNA and a better understanding of the genetic structure of the earliest domestic herds, this theory cannot be confirmed or refuted. It remains possible that a second, independent, domestication site might exist but, as of 2012, research has neither confirmed nor disproven that hypothesis.

Even though horse domestication became widespread in a short period of time, it is still possible that domestication began with a single culture, which passed on techniques and breeding stock. It is possible that the two “wild” subspecies remained when all other groups of once-”wild” horses died out because all others had been, perhaps, more suitable for taming by humans and the selective breeding that gave rise to the modern domestic horse.

The least ancient, but most persuasive, evidence of domestication comes from sites where horse leg bones and skulls, probably originally attached to hides, were interred with the remains of chariots in at least 16 graves of the Sintashta and Petrov cultures. These were located in the steppes southeast of the Ural Mountains, between the upper Ural and upper Tool Rivers, a region today divided between southern Russia and northern Kazakhstan.

Evidence of chariots in these graves was inferred from the impressions of two spoked wheels set in grave floors 1.2–1.6 m apart; in most cases the rest of the vehicle left no trace. In addition, a pair of disk-shaped antler “cheek pieces,” an ancient predecessor to a modern bit shank or bit ring, were placed in pairs beside each horse head-and-hoof sacrifice.

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The inner faces of the disks had protruding prongs or studs that would have pressed against the horse's lips when the reins were pulled on the opposite side. Studded cheek pieces were a new and fairly severe kind of control device that appeared simultaneously with chariots.

All the dated chariot graves contained wheel impressions, horse bones, weapons (arrow and javelin points, axes, daggers, or stone mace-heads), human skeletal remains, and cheek pieces. Because they were buried in teams of two with chariots and studded cheek pieces, the evidence is extremely persuasive that these steppe horses of 2100–1700 BCE were domesticated.

In the space of possibly 500 years, there is evidence of horse-drawn chariots in Greece, Egypt, and Mesopotamia. Some researchers do not consider an animal to be domesticated until it exhibits physical changes consistent with selective breeding, or at least having been born and raised entirely in captivity.

Those who hold to this theory of domestication point to a change in skeletal measurements detected among horse bones recovered from middens dated about 2500 BCE in eastern Hungary in Bell-Beaker sites, and in later Bronze Age sites in the Russian steppes, Spain, and Eastern Europe. Horse bones from these contexts exhibited an increase in variability, thought to reflect the survival under human care of both larger and smaller individuals than appeared in the wild; and a decrease in average size, thought to reflect penning and restriction in diet.

Horse populations that showed this combination of skeletal changes probably were domesticated. Most evidence suggests that horses were increasingly controlled by humans after about 2500 BCE.

horse horses domesticated domestic around whence sott human saddle gathered ancestor scientists genetic europe study data
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However, more recently there have been skeletal remains found at a site in Kazakhstan which display the smaller, more slender limbs characteristic of corralled animals, dated to 3500 BCE. Some of the most intriguing evidence of early domestication comes from the Bowie culture, found in northern Kazakhstan.

The Bowie culture was a culture of foragers who seem to have adopted horseback riding in order to hunt the abundant wild horses of northern Kazakhstan between 3500–3000 BCE. Bowie sites had no cattle or sheep bones; the only domesticated animals, in addition to horses, were dogs.

Bowie settlements in this period contained between 50–150 pit houses. Garbage deposits contained tens to hundreds of thousands of discarded animal bones, 65% to 99% of which had come from horses.

Earlier hunter-gatherers who lived in the same region had not hunted wild horses with such success, and lived for millennia in smaller, more shifting settlements, often containing less than 200 wild animal bones. Entire herds of horses were slaughtered by the Bowie hunters, apparently in hunting drives.

The adoption of horseback riding might explain the emergence of specialized horse-hunting techniques and larger, more permanent settlements. Domesticated horses could have been adopted from neighboring herding societies in the steppes west of the Ural Mountains, where the Khvalynsk culture had herds of cattle and sheep, and perhaps had domesticated horses, as early as 4800 BCE.

horses horse domestic mammals shire dk facts animals true dkfindout hoofed false toed odd domestication pony types zebras ma
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As evidence, they note that zoologists have found no skeletal changes in the Bowie horses that indicate domestication. Moreover, because they were hunted for food, the majority of the horse remains found in Botai-culture settlements indeed probably were wild.

On the other hand, any domesticated riding horses were probably the same size as their wild cousins and cannot now be distinguished by bone measurements. They also note that the age structure of the horses slaughtered at Bowie represents a natural demographic profile for hunted animals, not the pattern expected if they were domesticated and selected for slaughter.

However, these arguments were published prior to the discovery of a corral at Rainy YAR and mats of horse-dung at two other Bowie sites. A study in 2018 revealed that the Bowie horses did not contribute significantly to the genetics of modern domesticated horses, and that therefore a subsequent and separate domestication event must have been responsible for the modern domestic horse.

The presence of bit wear is an indicator that a horse was ridden or driven, and the earliest of such evidence from a site in Kazakhstan dates to 3500 BCE. The absence of bit wear on horse teeth is not conclusive evidence against domestication because horses can be ridden and controlled without bits by using a nose band or a sycamore, but such materials do not produce significant physiological changes nor are they apt to be preserved for millennia.

The regular use of a bit to control a horse can create wear facets or bevels on the anterior corners of the lower second premolars. The bit must be manipulated by a human or the horse must move it with its tongue for it to touch the teeth.

domestication horse ancient horses dna huffpost
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Wear can be caused by the bit abrading the front corners of the premolars if the horse grasps and releases the bit between its teeth ; other wear can be created by the bit striking the vertical front edge of the lower premolars, due to very strong pressure from a human handler. Modern experiments showed that even organic bits of rope or leather can create significant wear facets, and also showed that facets 3 mm (.118 in) deep or more do not appear on the premolars of wild horses.

The Bowie culture premolars are the earliest reported multiple examples of this dental pathology in any archaeological site, and preceded any skeletal change indicators by 1,000 years. While wear facets more than 3 mm deep were discovered on the lower second premolars of a single stallion from Daria in Ukraine, an Neolithic settlement dated about 4000 BCE, dental material from one of the worn teeth later produced a radiocarbon date of 700–200 BCE, indicating that this stallion was actually deposited in a pit dug into the older Neolithic site during the Iron Age.

Soil scientists working with Sandra Olsen of the Carnegie Museum of Natural History at the Paleolithic (also called Neolithic, or “Copper Age”) settlements of Bowie and Rainy YAR in northern Kazakhstan found layers of horse dung, discarded in unused house pits in both settlements. An actual corral, dated to 3500–3000 BCE was identified at Rainy YAR by a pattern of post holes for a circular fence, with the soils inside the fence yielding ten times more phosphorus than the soils outside.

The appearance of horse remains in human settlements in regions where they had not previously been present is another indicator of domestication. Although images of horses appear as early as the Upper Paleolithic period in places such as the caves of Lascaux, France, suggesting that wild horses lived in regions outside the Eurasian steppes prior to domestication and may have even been hunted by early humans, concentration of remains suggests animals being deliberately captured and contained, an indicator of domestication, at least for food, if not necessarily use as a working animal.

Around 3500–3000 BCE, horse bones began to appear more frequently in archaeological sites beyond their center of distribution in the Eurasian steppes and were seen in Central Europe, the middle and lower Danube valley, and the North Caucasus and Transcaucasia. This expansion in range was contemporary with the Bowie culture, where there are indications that horses were corralled and ridden.

horses human domestication horse years domestic ancient did comparison wild modern dna genetic favors expressions facial science genomes damaged companions
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This geographic expansion is interpreted by many zoologists as an early phase in the spread of domesticated horses. European wild horses were hunted for up to 10% of the animal bones in a handful of Mesolithic and Neolithic settlements scattered across Spain, France, and the marshlands of northern Germany, but in many other parts of Europe, including Greece, the Balkans, the British Isles, and much of Central Europe, horse bones do not occur or occur very rarely in Mesolithic, Neolithic or Paleolithic sites.

In contrast, wild horse bones regularly exceeded 40% of the identified animal bones in Mesolithic and Neolithic camps in the Eurasian steppes, west of the Ural Mountains. Horse bones were rare or absent in Neolithic and Paleolithic kitchen garbage in western Turkey, Mesopotamia, most of Iran, South and Central Asia, and much of Europe.

Managers were the most common native wild equips of the Near East. They were hunted in Syria, Anatolia, Mesopotamia, Iran, and Central Asia; and domesticated asses (Equus sinus) were imported into Mesopotamia, probably from Egypt, but wild horses apparently did not live there.

Other evidence of geographic expansion In Northern Caucasus, the Markup culture settlements and burials of c. 3300 BC contain both horse bones and images of horses. A frieze of nineteen horses painted in black and red colors is found in one of the Markup graves.

Later, images of horses, identified by their short ears, flowing manes, and tails that bushed out at the dock, began to appear in artistic media in Mesopotamia during the Akkadian period, 2300–2100 BCE. The word for “horse”, literally translated as ass of the mountains, first appeared in Sumerian documents during the Third dynasty of Ur, about 2100–2000 BCE.

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Horses were imported into Mesopotamia and the lowland Near East in larger numbers after 2000 BCE in connection with the beginning of chariot warfare. A further expansion, into the lowland Near East and northwestern China, also happened around 2000 BCE, again apparently in conjunction with the chariot.

Although Equus bones of uncertain species are found in some Late Neolithic sites in China dated before 2000 BCE, Equus Catullus or Equus ferns bones first appeared in multiple sites and in significant numbers in sites of the Fiji and SBA cultures, 2000–1600 BCE, in Gansu and the northwestern provinces of China. The Fiji culture was in contact with cultures of the Eurasian steppes, as shown through similarities between Fiji and Late Bronze Age steppe metallurgy, so it was probably through these contacts that domesticated horses first became frequent in northwestern China.

In 2008, archaeologists announced the discovery of rock art in Somalia's northern Champlain region, which the researchers suggest is one of the earliest known depictions of a hunter on horseback. About 4200-4000 BCE, more than 500 years before the geographic expansion evidenced by the presence of horse bones, new kinds of graves, named after a grave at Suvorovo, appeared north of the Danube delta in the coastal steppes of Ukraine near Ismail.

Suvorovo graves were similar to and probably derived from earlier funeral traditions in the steppes around the Deeper River. Earlier steppe graves also had contained polished stone mace-heads, some of them carved in the shape of animal heads.

Settlements in the steppes contemporary with Suvorovo, such as Sedna Stop II and Daria on the Deeper River, contained 12–52% horse bones. When Suvorovo graves appeared in the Danube delta grasslands, horse-head maces also appeared in some indigenous farming towns of the Triple and Gumelnitsa cultures in present-day Romania and Moldova, near the Suvorovo graves.

horse horses herders early pasture kazakhstan domesticated researchers study western botai steppe husbandry advertisement
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These agricultural cultures had not previously used polished-stone maces, and horse bones were rare or absent in their settlement sites. The Suvorovo people in turn acquired many copper ornaments from the Triple and Gumelnitsa towns.

After this episode of contact and trade, but still during the period 4200–4000 BCE, about 600 agricultural towns in the Balkans and the lower Danube valley, some of which had been occupied for 2000 years, were abandoned. Copper mining ceased in the Balkan copper mines, and the cultural traditions associated with the agricultural towns were terminated in the Balkans and the lower Danube valley.

This collapse of “Old Europe” has been attributed to the immigration of mounted Indo-European warriors. The collapse could have been caused by intensified warfare, for which there is some evidence; and warfare could have been worsened by mounted raiding; and the horse-head maces have been interpreted as indicating the introduction of domesticated horses and riding just before the collapse.

Environmental deterioration, ecological degradation from millennia of farming, and the exhaustion of easily mined oxide copper ores also are cited as causal factors. Perforated antler objects discovered at Daria and other sites contemporary with Suvorovo have been identified as cheek pieces or saliva for horse bits.

This identification is no longer widely accepted, as the objects in question have not been found associated with horse bones, and could have had a variety of other functions. The oldest possible archaeological indicator of a changed relationship between horses and humans is the appearance about 4800–4400 BCE of horse bones and carved images of horses in Paleolithic graves of the early Khvalynsk culture and the Samara culture in the middle Volga region of Russia.

horse domestication evolution history britannica tracing horses origin map encyclopaedia inc region evidence
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Of these, 26 graves contained parts of sacrificed domestic animals, and additional sacrifices occurred in ritual deposits on the original ground surface above the graves. At S'yeah, a contemporary cemetery of the Samara culture, parts of two horses were placed above a group of human graves.

Horse images carved from bone were placed in the above-ground ocher deposit at S’yeah and occurred at several other sites of the same period in the middle and lower Volga region. Together these archaeological clues suggest that horses had a symbolic importance in the Khvalynsk and Samara cultures that they had lacked earlier, and that they were associated with humans, domesticated cattle, and domesticated sheep.

Thus, the earliest phase in the domestication of the horse might have begun during the period 4800-4400 BCE. Equine died out in the Western Hemisphere at the end of the last glacial period.

A question raised is why and how horses avoided this fate on the Eurasian continent. While the environmental conditions for equine survival in Europe were somewhat more favorable in Eurasia than in the Americas, the same stressors that led to extinction for the Mammoth had an effect upon horse populations.

Thus, some time after 8000 BCE, the approximate date of extinction in the Americas, humans in Eurasia may have begun to keep horses as a livestock food source, and by keeping them in captivity, may have helped to preserve the species. Horses also fit the six core criteria for livestock domestication, and thus, it could be argued, “chose” to live in proximity to humans.

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Horses behave as herd animals and need companionship to thrive. Both historic and modern data shows that foals can and will bond to humans and other domestic animals to meet their social needs.

It has been noted that traditional peoples worldwide (both hunter-gatherers and horticulturists) routinely tame individuals from wild species, typically by hand-rearing infants whose parents have been killed, and these animals are not necessarily domesticated.” On the other hand, some researchers look to examples from historical times to hypothesize how domestication occurred.

For example, while Native American cultures captured and rode horses from the 16th century onwards, most tribes did not exert significant control over their breeding, thus their horses developed a genotype and phenotype adapted to the uses and climatological conditions in which they were kept, making them more of a land race than a planned breed as defined by modern standards, but nonetheless domesticated “. A bit wear may correlate to riding, though, as the modern sycamore demonstrates, horses can be ridden without a bit by using rope and other evanescent materials to make equipment that fastens around the nose.

So the absence of unequivocal evidence of early riding in the record does not settle the question. Thus, on one hand, logic suggests that horses would have been ridden long before they were driven.

Some theorists speculate that a horse could have been controlled from the ground by placing a bit in the mouth, connected to a lead rope, and leading the animal while pulling a primitive wagon or plow. Since oxen were usually relegated to this duty in Mesopotamia, it is possible that early plows might have been attempted with the horse, and a bit may indeed have been significant as part of agrarian development rather than as warfare technology.

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While riding may have been practiced during the 4th and 3rd millennia BCE, and the disappearance of “Old European” settlements may be related to attacks by horseback-mounted warriors, the clearest influence by horses on ancient warfare was by pulling chariots, introduced around 2000 BCE. Horses in the Bronze Age were relatively small by modern standards, which led some theorists to believe the ancient horses were too small to be ridden and so must have been driven.

Herodotus' description of the Signal, a steppe people who bred horses too small to ride but extremely efficient at drawing chariots, illustrates this stage. However, as horses remained generally smaller than modern equines well into the Middle Ages, this theory is highly questionable.

The horse of the Iron Age was still relatively small, perhaps 12.2 to 14.2 hands (50 to 58 inches, 127 to 147 cm) high (measured at the withers.) This was shorter overall than the average height of modern riding horses, which range from about 14.2 to 17.2 hands (58 to 70 inches, 147 to 178 cm).

For example, Fell ponies, believed to be descended from Roman cavalry horses, are comfortably able to carry fully grown adults (although with rather limited ground clearance) at an average height of 13.2 hands (54 inches, 137 cm) Likewise, the Arabian horse is noted for a short back and dense bone, and the successes of the Muslims against the heavy mounted knights of Europe demonstrated that a horse standing 14.2 hands (58 inches, 147 cm) can easily carry a full-grown human adult into battle. ^ a b c d “Horsey-aeology, Binary Black Holes, Tracking Red Tides, Fish Re-evolution, Walk Like a Man, Fact or Fiction”.

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domestic horse wildlife animals wild
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horses botai domesticated were kazakhstan horse history professor says north bronze age inform kz credit
(Source: astanatimes.com)

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horse origin domestic research theories competing horses reconciles steppes commons wiki heritagedaily originated west
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breeding horse early horses into chromosome domesticated insight gives breed dna diversity humans domestication stud stallions domestic type selective example
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In Levine, Marsha; Renfrew, Colin; Boyle, Katie (eds.). Geochemical evidence of possible horse domestication at the Copper Age Bowie settlement of Rainy YAR, Kazakhstan.

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domestication history ancient map horses horse dna wild scientists helps wikimedia commons sa cc via own
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^ “Early Attempts at Riding: The Soft Bit and Bridle”. The modern domesticated horse (Equus Catullus) is today spread throughout the world and among the most diverse creatures on the planet.

The earliest possible hints for domestication would be the presence of what appears to be a set of post molds with lots of animal dung within the area defined by the posts, which scholars interpret as representing a horse pen. That evidence has been found at Rainy YAR in Kazakhstan, in portions of the site dating to as early as 3600 BC.

horse domestication history dna domesticated horses banff reveals town cbc poo residents social trails
(Source: cbc.ca)

At least 77 wild mares would be required to explain the diversity of the mitochondrial DNA (mt DNA) in current horse populations, which probably means quite a few more. In a paper published in Science in 2009, Alan K. Outran and colleagues looked at three strands of evidence supporting horse domestication at Bowie culture sites: shin-bones, milk consumption, and bittier.

These stallions are all of Arab, Barb and Turk origin; their descendants are from one of only 74 British and imported mares. In 2013, researchers led by Ludovic Orlando and ESE Wellesley of the Center for Genetics, Natural History Museum of Denmark and University of Copenhagen (and reported in Orlando et al. 2013) reported on a metaphorical horse fossil which had been found in permafrost within a Middle Pleistocene context in the Yukon territory of Canada and dated between 560,00-780,000 years ago.

Amazingly, the researchers found that there were sufficiently intact molecules of collagen within the matrix of the bone to enable them to map the Thistle Creek horse's genome. Further, using the Thistle Creek DNA as a baseline, they were able to determine that all modern existing equips (donkeys, horses, and zebras) originated from a common ancestor some 4-4.5 million years ago.

Domestication is the process by which humans take wild species and acclimatize them to breeding and surviving in captivity. In many cases, domesticated animals serve some purpose for humans (food source, labor, companionship).

It is thought that the horses depicted in the Paleolithic cave paintings were hunted for their meat by humans. Evidence from mitochondrial DNA studies suggests that the domestication of horses occurred in multiple locations and at various times.

horse heck tarpan dun horses domestication wikipedia ancient wild humans bce riding bred lutz animals botai primitive paleolithic cave wikimedia
(Source: en.wikipedia.org)

Although horses began appearing in cave art as early as 30,000 years ago, Paleolithic humans probably hunted them for their meat, a staple protein in Eurasia and later in North America. The earliest archaeological evidence of horses transition from prey to pets, unearthed several years ago at a site in Kazakhstan associated with the prehistoric Bowie culture, dates back to 3500 B.C.

This theory implies that horses were domesticated similarly to other modern livestock, such as cattle, sheep and goats, said Alessandro Chili, a geneticist at the University of Pa via in Italy. But when Chili and a team of fellow researchers collected maternally inherited mitochondrial genomes from living horses in Asia, Europe, the Middle East and the Americas, a strikingly different picture emerged.

“Taming these animals could generate the food surplus necessary to support the growth of human populations and the capability to expand and adapt into new environments or facilitate transportation.” “Now that many horse lineages have been defined, they could be easily employed not only to analyze other modern breeds, including thoroughbreds, but also to classify ancient remains,” he explained.

No horse wants to be treated harshly and aggressively, or laxly and indifferently. Like your kids, they will take over if you don’t establish clear boundaries and limits.

Wild horses haven’t been abused, spoiled or taught bad behaviors by you or anyone else. A horse who has spent time in a social setting is smarter, has a stronger sense of self, and is more “in the know” than one who has grown up an in a stall.

horses mongolia mongolian horse culture domestication naadam riders wild did history mongolians central flickr thaller bernd mongols warriors transform festival
(Source: www.sapiens.org)

Horse society requires good manners, respect and the ability to get on with others. Perhaps, most importantly, horses understand that there must be a leader in order for the community to work well.

It makes sense to become the good leader that inspires your mustang (or domestic for that matter). Wild horses, with their keen senses, read and understand their environment and the beings that move through it.

They have a profound ability to spot and understand body language, energy, movement and purpose. All horses are naturally honest, and will give you true and genuine feedback.

Calming and training your wild horse will make you a better trainer and handler of all equines. The company combines industry knowledge with an understanding of the veterinary practice.

The owner will not be liable for any losses, injuries, or damages from the display or use of this information. Asian nomads probably domesticated the first horses some 4,000 years ago, and the animals remained essential to many human societies until the advent of the engine.

horses domestic upi abandoned being
(Source: www.upi.com)

Horses still hold a place of honor in many cultures, often linked to heroic exploits in war. There is only one species of domestic horse, but around 400 different breeds that specialize in everything from pulling wagons to racing.

Free-roaming North American mustangs, for example, are the descendants of horses brought by Europeans more than 400 years ago. A stallion (mature male) leads the group, which consists of mares (females) and young foals.

When young males become colts, at around two years of age, the stallion drives them away. The colts then roam with other young males until they can gather their own band of females.

Horses have lived on Earth for more than 50 million years, according the American Museum of Natural History. According to Scientific American, the first horses originated in North America and then spread to Asia and Europe.

The horses left in North America became extinct about 10,000 years ago and were re-introduced by colonizing Europeans. It is believed that horses were first domesticated in Asia between 3000 and 4000 B.C., according to Oklahoma State University.

(Source: allhorsesgotoheaven.wordpress.com)

Eventually, horses joined oxen as a form of animal transportation. Horses can be as big as 69 inches (175 centimeters) from hoof to shoulder and weigh as much as 2,200 lbs.

The smallest breeds of horses can be as small as 30 inches (76 centimeters) from hoof to shoulder and weigh only 120 lbs. For example, the Abyssinian is found in Ethiopia, the Buoyancy comes from Russia, Delibes is from Georgia and Armenia, the Egyptian came from Egypt and the Colorado Ranger bred comes from the Colorado plains, according to Oklahoma State University.

In the wild, horses will live in herds that consist of three to 20 animals and are lead by a mature male, which is called a stallion, according to National Geographic. Typically, horses eat grass, but domesticated horses are often fed bran, rolled oats, barley and hay, as well.

A well-fed horse eats 1 to 2 percent of its body weight in roughage, such as grass or hay, every day, according to The Humane Society. This wallpaper shows Assateague Island in Maryland and Virginia.

(Image credit: National Park Service) Horses have live births after around 11 months of gestation. Ponies are adult horses that are shorter than 56 inches (147 cm), according to Encyclopedia Britannica.

horses domestication horse ago years bc steppe researchers relief assyrian russian steppes plains herd descended generally date
(Source: www.dailymail.co.uk)

Shetland and Welsh horses are common pony breeds. The foal is able to stand soon after birth and becomes mature at 3 to 5 years of age.

Kingdom: Animalia Subkingdom: Bilateral Infra kingdom: Deuterostomia Phylum: Chordata Sub phylum: Vertebrata Infra phylum: Gnathostomata Super class: Tetrapoda Class: Mammalian Subclass: Their Infra class: Eutheria Order: Perissodactyla Family: Equine Genus: Equus Species: Equus Catullus Populations have been reintroduced to China, Mongolia and Kazakhstan, according to the San Diego Zoo.

The Hungarian Warm blood was bred to be a sport horse breed. Jump to navigationJump to search This page gives a list of domestic animals, also including a list of animals which are or may be currently undergoing the process of domestication and animals that have an extensive relationship with humans beyond simple predation.

This includes species which are semi- domesticated, undomesticated but captive-bred on a commercial scale, or commonly wild-caught, at least occasionally captive-bred, and nameable. In order to be considered fully domesticated, most species have undergone significant genetic, behavioral and morphological changes from their wild ancestors, while others have changed very little from their wild ancestors despite hundreds or thousands of years of potential selective breeding.

A number of factors determine how quickly any changes may occur in a species, but there is not always a desire to improve a species from its wild form. Domestication is a gradual process, so there is no precise moment in the history of a given species when it can be considered to have become fully domesticated.

horse domestication history eurasia happened study across shows updated
(Source: www.history.com)

Beasts of burden (horses, camels, donkeys, etc.) To sort the tables chronologically by date of domestication, refresh your browser window, as clicking the Date column heading will mix CE and BCE dates.

Some physical and psychological changes Somewhat common in the wild and in captivity 1c Carnivora Domesticated silver fox (Vulpes minus) Red fox (Vulpes) the 1950s the Soviet Union, Russia fur, pelts, research, pets Tame, some physical changes Very small domestic population, wild relatives fairly common 1c Carnivora Domesticated hedgehog (Athletic albiventris) Four-toed hedgehog (Athletic albiventris) the 1980s Central and Eastern Africa pets Slight physical changes Common in the wild, somewhat rare in captivity 1e Other mammals Domesticated striped skunk (Mephitis) Striped skunk (Mephitis) the 19th century CE North America pets, pest control, pelts Tame when captive-bred, significant physical changes Somewhat common in the wild and in captivity 1c Carnivora Due to the somewhat unclear outlines of what precisely constitutes domestication, there are some species that may or may not be fully domesticated. There are also species that are extensively used or kept as pets by humans, but are not significantly altered from wild-type animals.

Most animals on this second table are at least somewhat altered from wild animals by their extensive interactions with humans, albeit not to the point that they are regarded as distinct forms (therefore no separate wild ancestors are noted). Many could not be released into the wild, or are in some way dependent on humans.

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horse timeline horses agriculture animal modern humans domesticated age journey together
(Source: equineguelph.ca)

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A.; Gains, L.; Schlitz, R. W.; Worthington, B.; Bookstore, J. E.; Druzhkova, A.; Graphodatsky, A. S.; Volvo, N. D.; Weinberg, N.; Freedman, A. H.; Schweitzer, R. M.; Nepali, K. -P.; Leonard, J. A.; Meyer, M.; Krause, J.; Piano, S.; et al. (2013).

“Complete Mitochondrial Genomes of Ancient Can ids Suggest a European Origin of Domestic Dogs”. ^ ^ Wang, Gordon; Thai, Water; Yang, He-Chuan; Wang, Lu; Thong, Li; Liu, Manchu; Fan, Roxy; Yin, Ting-Ting; AHU, Chuckling; Poyarkov, Andrei D.; Irwin, David M. (January 2016).

“Out of southern East Asia: the natural history of domestic dogs across the world”. ^ Crayon de Caprona, Marie-Dominique; Havoline, Peter (2013).

“Extensive Phenotypic Diversity among South Chinese Dogs”. Dogs: a Startling New Understanding of Canine Origin, Behavior and Evolution.

horses botai horse domesticated wild extinct leopard genetic turns species actually orlando study iflscience modern underground secrets disney going eurekalert
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“Reproductive and behavioral aspects of red-winged infamous (Rhonchus quiescent) in groups with different sex ratios”. Re vista Brasilia de Ciência Viola.

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“Overdue recognition: owl issued library card after solving university's gull woes”. ^ “Strip also (tawny owl)”.

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2 www.nissanusa.com - https://www.nissanusa.com/experience-nissan/news-and-events/nissan-xtrail.html
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4 www.lastcarreviews.com - https://www.lastcarreviews.com/nissan-x-trail-2021/
5 www.autoexpress.co.uk - https://www.autoexpress.co.uk/nissan/x-trail/351992/new-2021-nissan-x-trail-revealed-us-only-nissan-rogue-form
6 www.suvdrive.com - https://www.suvdrive.com/comparison/nissan-rogue-sl-2018-vs-nissan-x-trail-ti-2018