The Missouri Horse Council maintains that horses are livestock and “supports the legal definition of all domesticated equines to remain as livestock and opposes the current social trend of referring to them as pets or companion animals.” This is a stance taken by many similar associations in the United States and Canada. Those who make their living as trainers, breeders, dealers and running boarding stables and schools may lose the benefit of being an agricultural endeavor if a horse were regarded solely as a companion animal.
A good deal of research into equine diseases, vaccines and husbandry is government funded. Husbandry and humane treatment laws might not apply if horses were designated companion animals.
Many states are passing limited liability laws, which protect livestock owners and livestock event organizers (like cattle and horse shows) from lawsuits from anyone who is injured by a potentially large and dangerous animal such as a cattle-beast or horse. Considering that most of us do regard our horses not just as companions, but family members, our ultimate goal should be the best possible care, in addition to protecting ourselves.
It is important for social animals to be sensitive to others’ emotional cues, because they can process and react to valuable social and environmental information more efficiently if they can understand others’ emotional states. Previous studies have demonstrated that dogs are very sensitive to human cues, such as pointing and facial or vocal expressions.
In this study, we investigated whether horses are sensitive to human emotional cues and adjust their behavior accordingly. These findings support our hypothesis that horses exhibit sensitivity to negative human emotional cues.
Emotions are important for social animals because animals emotions function as beneficial cues to identify valuable resources such as food or to avoid danger by providing environmental information. Emotions also enable animals to predict individuals’ behavior and determine how to behave in a specific context.
Recently, several studies have reported that dogs are highly sensitive to not only nonspecific but also human emotional cues. However, there are still few studies that examine whether other domesticated animals, in addition to dogs, exhibit sensitivity to human emotional cues.
In this study, we used a gaze-following task to investigate whether horses (Equus Catullus) are sensitive to human emotional cues (happy, neutral, disgust) and if they adjust their behavior accordingly. In the study, the experimenter suddenly turned her head to either right or left and showed emotional cues.
The results revealed that horses significantly decreased the frequency with which they followed the experimenter’s gaze and the total looking time during the gaze-emotional cue presentation in the Disgust condition compared to the Neutral condition. These results suggest the possibility that horses are sensitive to human emotional cues and behave on the basis of the meaning implied by negative human emotional cues.
Emotions aid in social animals survival because others’ emotions provide environmental information and allow an individual to find valuable resources or avoid threats . Moreover, reading others’ emotional cues is necessary for animals to maintain their social bonds with group members , because emotional cues enable individuals to predict other individuals’ behavior and determine situation-appropriate behaviors .
In fact, some researchers reported that social animals such as chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), dogs (Cans familiars), and horses (Equus Catullus) are sensitive to other nonspecific emotional cues . Furthermore, recent studies have revealed that dogs are very sensitive to human emotional cues.
For example, dogs can discriminate their owner’s and unfamiliar humans’ positive facial expressions from neutral ones . It is also reported that dogs can match human facial and vocal expressions that exhibit similar emotional valence as well as nonspecific emotions and can refer their owner’s expression when they face a novel object .
It is also demonstrated that dogs who were presented with two boxes choose the one that the human experimenter reacted toward with a happy expression significantly more often than the one that the experimenter reacted toward with an expression of disgust . These studies suggest that dogs are very sensitive to both nonspecific and human emotional cues and change their behaviors accordingly as a function of human emotional cues.
Dogs’ ability to use human communicative cues such as pointing and eye gaze was compared with wolves’ (Cans lupus), the closest relative species of dogs, by the object choice task . In this task, the experimenter expressed communicative cues indicating that the opaque bowl contained food, and the subjects were tested on whether they chose the bowl with food.
The dogs were able to discern the correct bowl with greater frequency than the wolves. These results indicate that sensitivity to human social cues is not shared among most can ids and it is peculiar to dogs.
Furthermore, the ability to use human social cues in object-choice tasks is reported in domestic horses and pigs (SUS scrota domestic) . These studies suggest that adaptive responsiveness to various human social cues may be shared with domesticated animals.
Therefore, it is necessary to study whether other domestic animals are also sensitive to human emotional cues. Horses have lived with humans as cooperative working animals for transfer and transportation for approximately 5500 years .
Recently, they also have played active roles in leisure and therapy as a companion animal similar to dogs. Thus, horses may have built close and cooperative relationships with humans similarly to dogs.
Therefore, it is considered that horses have developed sensitivity to emotional human social cues, which is supported by some studies. For example, they can use human cues to select an opaque bucket containing food in an object-choice task .
Horses are also able to perceive whether a person is attending to their specific needs and decide how they request food and from whom . Furthermore, it has been reported that horses heart rate rose faster when they were exposed to an angry face of unfamiliar human male than when they were exposed to his smiling face .
A recent study found that horses remember past facial expressions of specific people and use this emotional memory to guide future interactions . Moreover, it has been reported that horses are sensitive to emotional human vocal expressions, and they notably show a freeze posture for significantly longer periods of time immediately following negative human vocalizations .
However, the neutral condition was not set in all these previous studies in horses , which suggests that horses evaluate angry human faces relatively as negative, not absolutely by comparing the basis of human neutral faces. Thus, it is possible that either horses evaluation of human emotional cues is biased to be positive and both human positive and negative emotional cues are generally recognized as more positive than neutral or horses evaluation of human emotional cues is biased to be negative and both human positive and negative emotional cues are generally recognized as more negative than neutral.
By adding a neutral condition to the study, we would be able to test whether horses have the ability to absolutely evaluate human positive or negative emotional cues in comparison with the neutral condition. In this study, we investigated whether horses are sensitive to human emotional cues (happy/neutral/disgust) using a gaze-following task.
In this task, the experimenter suddenly turned her head to the right or left side and displayed an emotional cue in front of a subject horse. We used an expression of disgust rather than anger, which has been used in previous studies to investigate whether horses are sensitive to other negative emotions.
In a previous study of pointing-following behavior, human disgust facial expressions and voices delayed dogs’ exploration toward the baited bowl, although dogs followed the experimenter’s pointing gesture . Therefore, in fact, this basic co-orienting response, gaze following, is phylogenetically widespread and is found in primates, domestic animals, and so on .
Previous research explored long-tailed macaques’ (Maraca fascicularis) sensitivity to human facial expression with a gaze-following task . The research suggests that gaze-following tasks may be used to reliably investigate animals sensitivity to human emotions.
In the mentioned gaze-following task study , long-tailed macaques changed their frequency of gaze following depending on the human experimenter’s facial expressions. Moreover, the looking time has been used as an index of horses attention toward conspecifics and humans .
More concretely, we predicted that horses would follow the human experimenter’s gaze more frequently and look in that direction longer in the Happy condition than in the Neutral condition, because we assumed that when the experimenter shifts her gaze and shows positive emotion, the subject horses will willingly look in that direction. Moreover, we predicted that horses would follow the experimenter’s gaze less frequently and look in that direction for a shorter period of time when disgust was expressed, rather than neutrality.
It is reported that horses experience stress as a result of human anger and of conspecifics’ negative (agonistic) expressions and exhibit avoidant behaviors . The horses lived at the Sinai Livestock Farm of Field Science Center for Northern Biosphere, Hokkaido University, and they were pastured in a herd through the year.
In the experiments, a lead was used to control the horses, and a stopwatch (SEIKO-watch, ALBA-pico mulch-timer ADME0029, Tokyo, Japan) was used to measure the time limit. All trials were recorded on two video cameras (SONY HDR-CX670, Tokyo, Japan) attached to a tripod.
The experimenter’s facial expressions were based on the classical textbook of human facial emotion and a previous study of sensitivity to human emotional cues in dogs . As the happy emotional cue, the experimenter smiled, lowering the corner of her eyes, showing her teeth, and vocalizing “Wow!” with a high-pitched and mild voice.
As the disgust emotional cue, the experimenter frowned, crinkling her nose, and vocalized “Ewe!” shortly with a low-pitched voice. The facial expressions and voices were validated by a third-party individual who was one of our laboratory’s members.
She evaluated the three emotional cues as being appropriate by referring to the previous study on dog sensitivity to human facial and vocal expressions . Procedure We used a slightly modified version of the test paradigms used in the previous dog gaze-following study and the effects of facial emotional expressions in a monkey gaze-following task .
The experimenter waited to bend down and look down outside the sliding doors before the trial started. After the horse calmed down, the assistant looked at the floor (Figure 1 b) and gave the vocal cue “Yes” to indicate the start of a trial to the experimenter.
The assistant was blind to the order of the emotional condition and the direction where the human experimenter would turn her head. When the trial began, the experimenter stood up and captured the horse’s attention by waving a hand, calling its name, and clicking.
When the horse faced the experimenter, she quickly exhibited a gaze cue by turning her head to the backspace of either the right or the left barrier. She displayed one of the described emotional facial expressions and matched vocalization one second after the gaze shifting and continued to display the emotional facial expression for two seconds.
Experiment Design Three experimental conditions were established as a function of emotional cues. During the inter-trial interval, the horses were allowed to feed freely around the waiting space in order to relax.
We measured the total frequency of gaze following during two gaze-emotional cue presentations per trial of each experimental condition. The “looking time” began when the horse began turning its nose bridge toward the direction of the experimenter’s gaze and ended when the horse began changing the nose bridge direction or the experimenter started to turn her head back to the front before the horse changed direction.
We measured the total looking time of the horses during two gaze-emotional cue presentations per trial of each experimental condition. We also tested the effect of the trial order on the total frequency of gaze following and the total looking time according to the condition by the Wilcox on’s signed rank test.
Another observer who was blind to the study’s purpose coded a randomly selected sample of trials (20%) to assess inter-observer reliability for the total frequency of gaze following and looking time during two gaze-emotional cue presentations. Reliability between the two coders (total frequency of gaze following: Spearman (9) = 1.00, p < 0.001; total looking time: Spearman (9) = 0.982, p < 0.001) was sufficient.
The caretakers of subject horses gave permission prior to their participation. Total Frequency of Gaze Following The responses to emotional cues were significant (Friedman’s test: n = 13, of = 2, 2 = 8.86, p = 0.012), as shown in Figure 3.
The result of the postdoc comparisons revealed a significant difference only between the Neutral and the Disgust conditions (Wilcox on’s signed rank test: p = 0.014). However, there was not a significant difference between the first and the second trial in all conditions for the total frequency of gaze following (Happy: p = 0.564, Neutral: p = 1.000, Disgust: p = 0.157).
Total Looking Time The main effect of the emotional cue was significant (Friedman’s test: n = 13, of = 2, 2 = 11.66, p = 0.003), as shown in Figure 4. The result of the postdoc comparison revealed a significant difference only between the Neutral and the Disgust conditions (Wilcox on’s signed rank test: p = 0.012).
However, there was not a significant difference between the first and the second trial in all conditions for the total looking time of the horses (Happy: p = 1.000, Neutral: p = 0.674, Disgust: p = 0.180). In this study, we investigated whether horses are sensitive to human emotional cues using a gaze-following task.
We predicted that the human experimenter’s emotional cues would influence the horses behavioral responses and that the total frequency of gaze following and the total looking time would change among three conditions. More concretely, the horses would follow the human experimenter’s gaze more frequently and look in the direction toward which the experimenter shifted her gaze for a longer period of time in the Happy condition than in the Neutral condition.
The horses would also follow her gaze less frequently and look in the direction toward which the experimenter shifted her gaze for a shorter period of time in the Disgust condition than in the Neutral condition. In fact, we found that the horses looked in the direction toward which the experimenter expressed disgust for a shorter period of time compared to the other conditions.
These results indicate that the total frequency of gaze following and total looking time decreased in the Disgust condition compared with the Neutral condition. One possible explanation for this phenomenon is that the emotional cue displayed by the experimenter in the Disgust condition caused the horses avoidance behavior.
In a previous study, the horses heart rate rose faster when they looked at an angry human face than when they looked at a smiling human face . Thus, in our study, it may be possible that horses experienced stress resulting from the disgust emotional cues and avoided it similarly to how they would react to angry expressions.
Simply, horses exhibited decreased gaze following and total looking time only in the Disgust condition because they were stressed by the experimenter’s disgust emotional cue and attempted to avoid it, though we need to investigate whether horses attempt to avoid the item behind the opaque screen because it produced disgust in the human experimenter, or they avoid the experimenter and her gaze because of her expression of disgust. This result corresponds to a previous study’s result in which dogs showed more difficulty in distinguishing positive human emotional cues from neutral ones than in distinguishing positive human emotional cues from disgust ones .
There are two possible explanations for the lack of horses differential responses between these conditions. Simply, the difference of the total frequency of gaze following and total looking time between the Happy and the Neutral conditions were not significant because responding to positive emotional cues was not urgent or necessary for the horses.
Second, the particularity of the horses living environment may affect the results. The subject horses in this study were usually pastured in a herd and did not have many chances to interact with and share positive emotions with humans, although they had been trained for riding.
This possibility may explain the lack of significant difference between the Happy and the Disgust conditions. To explore this possibility, horses that spend ample time in individual stalls and often interact with humans, such as those in horse-riding clubs, should be studied under the same conditions.
The results of this study support our hypothesis of horses sensitivity to negative human emotional cues. The study is relevant in that it suggests the possibility that horses not only are sensitive to human emotional cues but also change in their behaviors.
It may be beneficial to repeat this experiment with a vocal cue added in the Neutral condition. Therefore, so far, we cannot generalize our results unless we can replicate them with more than one human experimenters’ emotional cues, and we have to discuss our data carefully.
Further, testing using other methods, such as the social reference and object choice tasks, should be conducted in order to obtain more robust evidence that horses are sensitive to human emotional cues. It has also been reported that they can use human emotional cues to select one of two alternatives in an object-choice task .
By using these methods, horses ability to use human emotional cues can be clarified. Furthermore, studies on other domesticated animals, such as cattle and sheep, and comparisons among breeds or roles in dogs or horses are necessary to reveal which factors affect their sensitivity to human emotional cues.
Through these investigations, we can obtain more insight about the context that has facilitated the development of animal sensitivity to human emotional cues and whether domestication has affected this response. The results suggest the possibility that horses are sensitive to negative human emotional cues and behave on the basis of the meaning implied by negative human emotional cues.
In the future, studies on other domesticated animals, such as cattle and sheep, and comparisons among breeds or roles in dogs or horses are necessary to reveal which factors affect animals sensitivity to human emotional cues. Through these investigations, we can obtain more insight about the context that has facilitated the development of animal sensitivity to human emotional cues and whether domestication has affected this response.
All horses in this study were provided by the Sinai Livestock Farm of Field Science Center for Northern Biosphere, Hokkaido University, and we are grateful to all farm staffs for their cooperation. Cognitive bias as an indicator of animal emotion and welfare: Emerging evidence and underlying mechanisms.
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Total frequency of gaze following during two gaze-emotional cue presentations per trial of each experimental condition. Total frequency of gaze following during two gaze-emotional cue presentations per trial of each experimental condition.
Total looking time of the horses during two gaze-emotional cue presentations per trial of each experimental condition. Total looking time of the horses during two gaze-emotional cue presentations per trial of each experimental condition.
Horse Scientific classification Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Class: Mammalian Order: Perissodactyla Family: Equine Genus: Equus Species: Subspecies: Trinomial name Equus ferns Catullus Synonyms The horse (Equus ferns Catullus) is one of two extant subspecies of Equus ferns. It is an odd-toed ungulate mammal belonging to the taxonomic family Equine.
The horse has evolved over the past 45 to 55 million years from a small multi-toed creature, Phipps, into the large, single-toed animal of today. Horses in the subspecies Catullus are domesticated, although some domesticated populations live in the wild as feral horses.
There is an extensive, specialized vocabulary used to describe equine-related concepts, covering everything from anatomy to life stages, size, colors, markings, breeds, locomotion, and behavior. Horses are adapted to run, allowing them to quickly escape predators, possessing an excellent sense of balance and a strong fight-or-flight response.
Related to this need to flee from predators in the wild is an unusual trait: horses are able to sleep both standing up and lying down, with younger horses tending to sleep significantly more than adults. Female horses, called mares, carry their young for approximately 11 months, and a young horse, called a foal, can stand and run shortly following birth.
Most domesticated horses begin training under a saddle or in a harness between the ages of two and four. They reach full adult development by age five, and have an average lifespan of between 25 and 30 years.
Horse breeds are loosely divided into three categories based on general temperament: spirited “hot bloods” with speed and endurance; “cold bloods”, such as draft horses and some ponies, suitable for slow, heavy work; and warm bloods “, developed from crosses between hot bloods and cold bloods, often focusing on creating breeds for specific riding purposes, particularly in Europe. There are more than 300 breeds of horse in the world today, developed for many uses.
Horses and humans interact in a wide variety of sport competitions and non-competitive recreational pursuits, as well as in working activities such as police work, agriculture, entertainment, and therapy. Horses were historically used in warfare, from which a wide variety of riding and driving techniques developed, using many styles of equipment and methods of control.
Many products are derived from horses, including meat, milk, hide, hair, bone, and pharmaceuticals extracted from the urine of pregnant mares. Humans provide domesticated horses with food, water, and shelter, as well as attention from specialists such as veterinarians and farriers.
Specific terms and specialized language are used to describe equine anatomy, different life stages, and colors and breeds. Depending on breed, management and environment, the modern domestic horse has a life expectancy of 25 to 30 years.
Uncommonly, a few animals live into their 40s and, occasionally, beyond. The oldest verifiable record was Old Billy “, a 19th-century horse that lived to the age of 62.
In modern times, Sugar Puff, who had been listed in Guinness World Records as the world's oldest living pony, died in 2007 at age 56. Regardless of a horse or pony's actual birthdate, for most competition purposes a year is added to its age each January 1 of each year in the Northern Hemisphere and each August 1 in the Southern Hemisphere.
The exception is in endurance riding, where the minimum age to compete is based on the animal's actual calendar age. Most domesticated foals are weaned at five to seven months of age, although foals can be weaned at four months with no adverse physical effects.
Colt : A male horse under the age of four. A common terminology error is to call any young horse a “colt”, when the term actually only refers to young male horses.
Stallion : A non-castrated male horse four years old and older. The term “horse” is sometimes used colloquially to refer specifically to a stallion.
Gelding : A castrated male horse of any age. In horse racing, these definitions may differ: For example, in the British Isles, Thoroughbred horse racing defines colts and fillies as less than five years old.
However, Australian Thoroughbred racing defines colts and fillies as less than four years old. The height of horses is measured at the highest point of the withers, where the neck meets the back.
This point is used because it is a stable point of the anatomy, unlike the head or neck, which move up and down in relation to the body of the horse. In English-speaking countries, the height of horses is often stated in units of hands and inches: one hand is equal to 4 inches (101.6 mm).
The height is expressed as the number of full hands, followed by a point, then the number of additional inches, and ending with the abbreviation “h” or “HH” (for “hands high”). Light riding horses usually range in height from 14 to 16 hands (56 to 64 inches, 142 to 163 cm) and can weigh from 380 to 550 kilograms (840 to 1,210 lb).
Larger riding horses usually start at about 15.2 hands (62 inches, 157 cm) and often are as tall as 17 hands (68 inches, 173 cm), weighing from 500 to 600 kilograms (1,100 to 1,320 lb). Heavy or draft horses are usually at least 16 hands (64 inches, 163 cm) high and can be as tall as 18 hands (72 inches, 183 cm) high.
He stood 21.2 1 4 hands (86.25 inches, 219 cm) high and his peak weight was estimated at 1,524 kilograms (3,360 lb). The current record holder for the world's smallest horse is Tumbling, a fully mature miniature horse affected by dwarfism.
She is 17 in (43 cm) tall and weighs 57 lb (26 kg). The distinction between a horse and pony is commonly drawn on the basis of height, especially for competition purposes.
However, height alone is not dispositive; the difference between horses and ponies may also include aspects of phenotype, including conformation and temperament. The traditional standard for height of a horse or a pony at maturity is 14.2 hands (58 inches, 147 cm).
An animal 14.2 h or over is usually considered to be a horse and one less than 14.2 h a pony, but there are many exceptions to the traditional standard. In Australia, ponies are considered to be those under 14 hands (56 inches, 142 cm).
For competition in the Western division of the United States Equestrian Federation, the cutoff is 14.1 hands (57 inches, 145 cm). The International Federation for Equestrian Sports, the world governing body for horse sport, uses metric measurements and defines a pony as being any horse measuring less than 148 centimeters (58.27 in) at the withers without shoes, which is just over 14.2 h, and 149 centimeters (58.66 in), or just over 14.2 1 2 h, with shoes.
Height is not the sole criterion for distinguishing horses from ponies. Breed registries for horses that typically produce individuals both under and over 14.2 h consider all animals of that breed to be horses regardless of their height.
Conversely, some pony breeds may have features in common with horses, and individual animals may occasionally mature at over 14.2 h, but are still considered to be ponies. Ponies often exhibit thicker manes, tails, and overall coat.
They also have proportionally shorter legs, wider barrels, heavier bone, shorter and thicker necks, and short heads with broad foreheads. They may have calmer temperaments than horses and also a high level of intelligence that may or may not be used to cooperate with human handlers.
Conversely, breeds such as the Flagella and other miniature horses, which can be no taller than 30 inches (76 cm), are classified by their registries as very small horses, not ponies. Bay (left) and chestnut (sometimes called “sorrel”) are two of the most common coat colors, seen in almost all breeds.
Horses exhibit a diverse array of coat colors and distinctive markings, described by a specialized vocabulary. Often, a horse is classified first by its coat color, before breed or sex.
Horses of the same color may be distinguished from one another by white markings, which, along with various spotting patterns, are inherited separately from coat color. Many genes that create horse coat colors and patterns have been identified.
Current genetic tests can identify at least 13 different alleles influencing coat color, and research continues to discover new genes linked to specific traits. The basic coat colors of chestnut and black are determined by the gene controlled by the Melanocortin 1 receptor, also known as the “extension gene” or “red factor,” as its recessive form is “red” (chestnut) and its dominant form is black.
Additional genes control suppression of black color to point coloration that results in a bay, spotting patterns such as pinto or leopard, dilution genes such as palomino or dun, as well as graying, and all the other factors that create the many possible coat colors found in horses. Grays are born a darker shade, get lighter as they age, but usually keep black skin underneath their white hair coat (except pink skin under white markings).
The only horses properly called white are born with a predominantly white hair coat and pink skin, a fairly rare occurrence. Different and unrelated genetic factors can produce white coat colors in horses, including several alleles of dominant white and the sabino-1 gene.
However, there are no albino horses, defined as having both pink skin and red eyes. Gestation lasts approximately 340 days, with an average range 320–370 days, and usually results in one foal ; twins are rare.
Horses are a precocity species, and foals are capable of standing and running within a short time following birth. The estrous cycle of a mare occurs roughly every 19–22 days and occurs from early spring into autumn.
Foals are generally weaned from their mothers between four and six months of age. Horses, particularly colts, sometimes are physically capable of reproduction at about 18 months, but domesticated horses are rarely allowed to breed before the age of three, especially females.
Horses four years old are considered mature, although the skeleton normally continues to develop until the age of six; maturation also depends on the horse's size, breed, sex, and quality of care. These plates convert after the other parts of the bones, and are crucial to development.
Depending on maturity, breed, and work expected, horses are usually put under saddle and trained to be ridden between the ages of two and four. Although Thoroughbred race horses are put on the track as young as the age of two in some countries, horses specifically bred for sports such as dressage are generally not put under saddle until they are three or four years old, because their bones and muscles are not solidly developed.
For endurance riding competition, horses are not deemed mature enough to compete until they are a full 60 calendar months (five years) old. Skeletal system The skeletal system of a modern horseshoe horse skeleton averages 205 bones.
Their leg bones are proportioned differently from those of a human. For example, the body part that is called a horse's “knee” is actually made up of the carpal bones that correspond to the human wrist.
Similarly, the hock contains bones equivalent to those in the human ankle and heel. The lower leg bones of a horse correspond to the bones of the human hand or foot, and the fetlock (incorrectly called the “ankle”) is actually the proximal sesamoid bones between the cannon bones (a single equivalent to the human metacarpal or metatarsal bones) and the proximal phalanges, located where one finds the “knuckles” of a human.
A horse also has no muscles in its legs below the knees and hocks, only skin, hair, bone, tendons, ligaments, cartilage, and the assorted specialized tissues that make up the hoof. Hooves The critical importance of the feet and legs is summed up by the traditional adage, “no foot, no horse”.
The horse hoof begins with the distal phalanges, the equivalent of the human fingertip or tip of the toe, surrounded by cartilage and other specialized, blood-rich soft tissues such as the laminae. The exterior hoof wall and horn of the sole is made of keratin, the same material as a human fingernail.
The end result is that a horse, weighing on average 500 kilograms (1,100 lb), travels on the same bones as would a human on tiptoe. For the protection of the hoof under certain conditions, some horses have horseshoes placed on their feet by a professional farrier.
The hoof continually grows, and in most domesticated horses needs to be trimmed (and horseshoes reset, if used) every five to eight weeks, though the hooves of horses in the wild wear down and regrow at a rate suitable for their terrain. In an adult horse, there are 12 incisors at the front of the mouth, adapted to biting off the grass or other vegetation.
There are 24 teeth adapted for chewing, the premolars and molars, at the back of the mouth. Stallions and geldings have four additional teeth just behind the incisors, a type of canine teeth called “tushes”.
Some horses, both male and female, will also develop one to four very small vestigial teeth in front of the molars, known as “wolf” teeth, which are generally removed because they can interfere with the bit. There is an empty interdental space between the incisors and the molars where the bit rests directly on the gums, or “bars” of the horse's mouth when the horse is bridled.
An estimate of a horse's age can be made from looking at its teeth. The teeth continue to erupt throughout life and are worn down by grazing.
Therefore, the incisors show changes as the horse ages; they develop a distinct wear pattern, changes in tooth shape, and changes in the angle at which the chewing surfaces meet. This allows a very rough estimate of a horse's age, although diet and veterinary care can also affect the rate of tooth wear.
Digestion Horses are herbivores with a digestive system adapted to a forage diet of grasses and other plant material, consumed steadily throughout the day. Therefore, compared to humans, they have a relatively small stomach but very long intestines to facilitate a steady flow of nutrients.
A 450-kilogram (990 lb) horse will eat 7 to 11 kilograms (15 to 24 lb) of food per day and, under normal use, drink 38 to 45 liters (8.4 to 9.9 imp gal; 10 to 12 US gal) of water. Horses are not ruminants, they have only one stomach, like humans, but unlike humans, they can utilize cellulose, a major component of grass.
Cellulose fermentation by symbiotic bacteria occurs in the cecum, or “water gut”, which food goes through before reaching the large intestine. Horses cannot vomit, so digestion problems can quickly cause colic, a leading cause of death.
Senses The horses senses are based on their status as prey animals, where they must be aware of their surroundings at all times. Their sense of smell, while much better than that of humans, is not quite as good as that of a dog.
It is believed to play a key role in the social interactions of horses as well as detecting other key scents in the environment. The first system is in the nostrils and nasal cavity, which analyze a wide range of odors.
These have a separate nerve pathway to the brain and appear to primarily analyze pheromones. A horse's hearing is good, and the Penna of each ear can rotate up to 180°, giving the potential for 360° hearing without having to move the head.
Noise impacts the behavior of horses and certain kinds of noise may contribute to stress: A 2013 study in the UK indicated that stabled horses were calmest in a quiet setting, or if listening to country or classical music, but displayed signs of nervousness when listening to jazz or rock music. This study also recommended keeping music under a volume of 21 decibels.
The most sensitive areas are around the eyes, ears, and nose. Horses are able to sense contact as subtle as an insect landing anywhere on the body.
Horses have an advanced sense of taste, which allows them to sort through fodder and choose what they would most like to eat, and their prehensile lips can easily sort even small grains. Horses generally will not eat poisonous plants, however, there are exceptions; horses will occasionally eat toxic amounts of poisonous plants even when there is adequate healthy food.
All horses move naturally with four basic gaits : the four-beat walk, which averages 6.4 kilometers per hour (4.0 mph); the two-beat trot or jog at 13 to 19 kilometers per hour (8.1 to 11.8 mph) (faster for harness racing horses); the canter or lope, a three-beat gait that is 19 to 24 kilometers per hour (12 to 15 mph); and the gallop. The gallop averages 40 to 48 kilometers per hour (25 to 30 mph), but the world record for a horse galloping over a short, sprint distance is 70.76 kilometers per hour (43.97 mph).
Besides these basic gaits, some horses perform a two-beat pace, instead of the trot. There also are several four-beat ambling gaits that are approximately the speed of a trot or pace, though smoother to ride.
These include the lateral rack, running walk, and told as well as the diagonal fox trot. Horses are prey animals with a strong fight-or-flight response.
Their first reaction to a threat is to startle and usually flee, although they will stand their ground and defend themselves when flight is impossible or if their young are threatened. They also tend to be curious; when startled, they will often hesitate an instant to ascertain the cause of their fright, and may not always flee from something that they perceive as non-threatening.
Most light horse riding breeds were developed for speed, agility, alertness and endurance; natural qualities that extend from their wild ancestors. Horses are herd animals, with a clear hierarchy of rank, led by a dominant individual, usually a mare.
They are also social creatures that are able to form companionship attachments to their own species and to other animals, including humans. They communicate in various ways, including vocalizations such as nickering or whinnying, mutual grooming, and body language.
However, when confined with insufficient companionship, exercise, or stimulation, individuals may develop stable vices, an assortment of bad habits, mostly stereotypes of psychological origin, that include wood chewing, wall kicking, “weaving” (rocking back and forth), and other problems. Intelligence and learning Domesticated horses may face greater mental challenges than wild horses, because they live in artificial environments that prevent instinctive behavior whilst also learning tasks that are not natural.
One trainer believes that “intelligent” horses are reflections of intelligent trainers who effectively use response conditioning techniques and positive reinforcement to train in the style that best fits with an individual animal's natural inclinations. Temperament Horses are mammals, and as such are warm-blooded, or endothermic creatures, as opposed to cold-blooded, or poikilothermic animals.
However, these words have developed a separate meaning in the context of equine terminology, used to describe temperament, not body temperature. For example, the “hot-bloods”, such as many race horses, exhibit more sensitivity and energy, while the “cold-bloods”, such as most draft breeds, are quieter and calmer.
Illustration of assorted breeds; slim, light hot bloods, medium-sized warm bloods and draft and pony-type cold blood breeds”Hot blooded” breeds include oriental horses such as the Akhal-Teke, Arabian horse, Barb and now-extinct Turbofan horse, as well as the Thoroughbred, a breed developed in England from the older oriental breeds. Hot bloods tend to be spirited, bold, and learn quickly.
The original oriental breeds were brought to Europe from the Middle East and North Africa when European breeders wished to infuse these traits into racing and light cavalry horses. Muscular, heavy draft horses are known as “cold bloods”, as they are bred not only for strength, but also to have the calm, patient temperament needed to pull a plow or a heavy carriage full of people.
Well-known draft breeds include the Belgian and the Clydesdale. Some, like the Percheron, are lighter and livelier, developed to pull carriages or to plow large fields in drier climates.
Others, such as the Shire, are slower and more powerful, bred to plow fields with heavy, clay-based soils. “ Warm blood breeds, such as the Takeover or Hanoverian, developed when European carriage and war horses were crossed with Arabians or Thoroughbreds, producing a riding horse with more refinement than a draft horse, but greater size and milder temperament than a lighter breed.
Certain pony breeds with warm blood characteristics have been developed for smaller riders. Sleep patterns When horses lie down to sleep, others in the herd remain standing, awake or in a light doze, keeping watch.
In an adaptation from life in the wild, horses are able to enter light sleep by using a stay apparatus in their legs, allowing them to doze without collapsing. A horse kept alone will not sleep well because its instincts are to keep a constant eye out for danger.
Unlike humans, horses do not sleep in a solid, unbroken period of time, but take many short periods of rest. Horses spend four to fifteen hours a day in standing rest, and from a few minutes to several hours lying down.
Total sleep time in a 24-hour period may range from several minutes to a couple of hours, mostly in short intervals of about 15 minutes each. The average sleep time of a domestic horse is said to be 2.9 hours per day.
Horses must lie down to reach REM sleep. They only have to lie down for an hour or two every few days to meet their minimum REM sleep requirements.
However, if a horse is never allowed to lie down, after several days it will become sleep-deprived, and in rare cases may suddenly collapse as it involuntarily slips into REM sleep while still standing. This condition differs from narcolepsy, although horses may also suffer from that disorder.
From left to right: Size development, biometrical changes in the cranium, reduction of toes (left forefoot)The horse adapted to survive in areas of wide-open terrain with sparse vegetation, surviving in an ecosystem where other large grazing animals, especially ruminants, could not. Horses and other equips are odd-toed ungulates of the order Perissodactyla, a group of mammals that was dominant during the Tertiary period.
The extra toe on the front feet soon disappeared with the Mesohippus, which lived 32 to 37 million years ago. Over time, the extra side toes shrank in size until they vanished.
All that remains of them in modern horses is a set of small vestigial bones on the leg below the knee, known informally as splint bones. Their legs also lengthened as their toes disappeared until they were a hooked animal capable of running at great speed.
By about 5 million years ago, the modern Equus had evolved. Equip teeth also evolved from browsing on soft, tropical plants to adapt to browsing of drier plant material, then to grazing of tougher plains grasses.
Thus, photo- horses changed from leaf-eating forest-dwellers to grass-eating inhabitants of semi-arid regions worldwide, including the steppes of Eurasia and the Great Plains of North America. By about 15,000 years ago, Equus ferns was a widespread Arctic species.
Horse bones from this time period, the late Pleistocene, are found in Europe, Eurasia, Bering, and North America. Yet between 10,000 and 7,600 years ago, the horse became extinct in North America and rare elsewhere.
The reasons for this extinction are not fully known, but one theory notes that extinction in North America paralleled human arrival. Another theory points to climate change, noting that approximately 12,500 years ago, the grasses characteristic of a steppe ecosystem gave way to shrub tundra, which was covered with unpalatable plants.
A small herd of Przewalski's Horses A truly wild horse is a species or subspecies with no ancestors that were ever domesticated. Therefore, most “wild” horses today are actually feral horses, animals that escaped or were turned loose from domestic herds and the descendants of those animals.
The Przewalski's horse (Equus ferns przewalskii), named after the Russian explorer Nikolai Przhevalsky, is a rare Asian animal. It is also known as the Mongolian wild horse; Mongolian people know it as the take, and the Kerry people call it a airbag.
The subspecies was presumed extinct in the wild between 1969 and 1992, while a small breeding population survived in zoos around the world. In 1992, it was reestablished in the wild due to the conservation efforts of numerous zoos.
Today, a small wild breeding population exists in Mongolia. There are additional animals still maintained at zoos throughout the world.
The Tarzan or European wild horse (Equus ferus) was found in Europe and much of Asia. It survived into the historical era, but became extinct in 1909, when the last captive died in a Russian zoo.
Attempts to have been made to recreate the Tarzan, which resulted in horses with outward physical similarities, but nonetheless descended from domesticated ancestors and not true wild horses. Periodically, populations of horses in isolated areas are speculated to be relict populations of wild horses, but generally have been proven to be feral or domestic.
For example, the Roche horse of Tibet was proposed as such, but testing did not reveal genetic differences from domesticated horses. Similarly, the Sorrier of Portugal was proposed as a direct descendant of the Tarzan based on shared characteristics, but genetic studies have shown that the Sorrier is more closely related to other horse breeds and that the outward similarity is an unreliable measure of relatedness.
The most common hybrid is the mule, a cross between a “jack” (male donkey) and a mare. A related hybrid, a Ginny, is a cross between a stallion and a jenny (female donkey).
Other hybrids include the horse, a cross between a zebra and a horse. With rare exceptions, most hybrids are sterile and cannot reproduce.
Bhimbetka rock painting showing a man riding on a horse, IndiaDomestication of the horse most likely took place in Central Asia prior to 3500 BC. Two major sources of information are used to determine where and when the horse was first domesticated and how the domesticated horse spread around the world.
The first source is based on pathological and archaeological discoveries; the second source is a comparison of DNA obtained from modern horses to that from bones and teeth of ancient horse remains. The earliest archaeological evidence for the domestication of the horse comes from sites in Ukraine and Kazakhstan, dating to approximately 3500–4000 BC.
By 3000 BC, the horse was completely domesticated and by 2000 BC there was a sharp increase in the number of horse bones found in human settlements in northwestern Europe, indicating the spread of domesticated horses throughout the continent. The most recent, but most irrefutable evidence of domestication comes from sites where horse remains were interred with chariots in graves of the Sintashta and Petrov cultures c. 2100 BC.
Domestication is also studied by using the genetic material of present-day horses and comparing it with the genetic material present in the bones and teeth of horse remains found in archaeological and pathological excavations. The variation in the genetic material shows that very few wild stallions contributed to the domestic horse, while many mares were part of early domesticated herds.
This is reflected in the difference in genetic variation between the DNA that is passed on along the paternal, or sire line (Y-chromosome) versus that passed on along the maternal, or dam line (mitochondrial DNA). There are very low levels of Y-chromosome variability, but a great deal of genetic variation in mitochondrial DNA.
There is also regional variation in mitochondrial DNA due to the inclusion of wild mares in domestic herds. Another characteristic of domestication is an increase in coat color variation.
In horses, this increased dramatically between 5000 and 3000 BC. Before the availability of DNA techniques to resolve the questions related to the domestication of the horse, various hypotheses were proposed.
One classification was based on body types and conformation, suggesting the presence of four basic prototypes that had adapted to their environment prior to domestication. Another hypothesis held that the four prototypes originated from a single wild species and that all different body types were entirely a result of selective breeding after domestication.
However, the lack of a detectable substructure in the horse has resulted in a rejection of both hypotheses. Feral horses are born and live in the wild, but are descended from domesticated animals.
Many populations of feral horses exist throughout the world. Studies of feral herds have provided useful insights into the behavior of prehistoric horses, as well as greater understanding of the instincts and behaviors that drive horses that live in domesticated conditions.
There are also semi-feral horses in many parts of the world, such as Dartmoor and the New Forest in the UK, where the animals are all privately owned but live for significant amounts of time in “wild” conditions on undeveloped, often public, lands. Owners of such animals often pay a fee for grazing rights.
The concept of purebred bloodstock and a controlled, written breed registry has come to be particularly significant and important in modern times. Sometimes purebred horses are incorrectly or inaccurately called “thoroughbreds”.
Thoroughbred is a specific breed of horse, while a “purebred” is a horse (or any other animal) with a defined pedigree recognized by a breed registry. Horse breeds are groups of horses with distinctive characteristics that are transmitted consistently to their offspring, such as conformation, color, performance ability, or disposition.
These inherited traits result from a combination of natural crosses and artificial selection methods. An early example of people who practiced selective horse breeding were the Bedouin, who had a reputation for careful practices, keeping extensive pedigrees of their Arabian horses and placing great value upon pure bloodlines.
These pedigrees were originally transmitted via an oral tradition. In the 14th century, Cartesian monks of southern Spain kept meticulous pedigrees of bloodstock lineages still found today in the Andalusian horse.
Breeds developed due to a need for “form to function”, the necessity to develop certain characteristics in order to perform a particular type of work. Thus, a powerful but refined breed such as the Andalusian developed as riding horses with an aptitude for dressage.
Heavy draft horses were developed out of a need to perform demanding farm work and pull heavy wagons. Other horse breeds had been developed specifically for light agricultural work, carriage and road work, various sport disciplines, or simply as pets.
Some breeds developed through centuries of crossing other breeds, while others descended from a single foundation sire, or other limited or restricted foundation bloodstock. One of the earliest formal registries was General Stud Book for Thoroughbreds, which began in 1791 and traced back to the foundation bloodstock for the breed.
Worldwide, horses play a role within human cultures and have done so for millennia. Horses are used for leisure activities, sports, and working purposes.
The Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) estimates that in 2008, there were almost 59,000,000 horses in the world, with around 33,500,000 in the Americas, 13,800,000 in Asia and 6,300,000 in Europe and smaller portions in Africa and Oceania. The American Horse Council estimates that horse-related activities have a direct impact on the economy of the United States of over $39 billion, and when indirect spending is considered, the impact is over $102 billion.
In a 2004 “poll” conducted by Animal Planet, more than 50,000 viewers from 73 countries voted for the horse as the world's 4th favorite animal. Communication between human and horse is paramount in any equestrian activity; to aid this process horses are usually ridden with a saddle on their backs to assist the rider with balance and positioning, and a bridle or related headgear to assist the rider in maintaining control.
Many horses are also driven, which requires a harness, bridle, and some type of vehicle. Historically, equestrians honed their skills through games and races.
Equestrian sports provided entertainment for crowds and honed the excellent horsemanship that was needed in battle. Many sports, such as dressage, evening and show jumping, have origins in military training, which were focused on control and balance of both horse and rider.
Other sports, such as rodeo, developed from practical skills such as those needed on working ranches and stations. Horse racing of all types evolved from impromptu competitions between riders or drivers.
All forms of competition, requiring demanding and specialized skills from both horse and rider, resulted in the systematic development of specialized breeds and equipment for each sport. The popularity of equestrian sports through the centuries has resulted in the preservation of skills that would otherwise have disappeared after horses stopped being used in combat.
Horses are trained to be ridden or driven in a variety of sporting competitions. Examples include show jumping, dressage, three-day evening, competitive driving, endurance riding, gymkhana, rodeos, and fox hunting.
Horse shows, which have their origins in medieval European fairs, are held around the world. They host a huge range of classes, covering all the mounted and harness disciplines, as well as “In-hand” classes where the horses are led, rather than ridden, to be evaluated on their conformation.
The method of judging varies with the discipline, but winning usually depends on style and ability of both horse and rider. Sports such as polo do not judge the horse itself, but rather use the horse as a partner for human competitors as a necessary part of the game.
Horse racing is an equestrian sport and major international industry, watched in almost every nation of the world. There are three types: “flat” racing; steeple chasing, i.e. racing over jumps; and harness racing, where horses trot or pace while pulling a driver in a small, light cart known as a sulky.
A major part of horse racing's economic importance lies in the gambling associated with it. There are certain jobs that horses do very well, and no technology has yet developed to fully replace them.
For example, mounted police horses are still effective for certain types of patrol duties and crowd control. Cattle ranches still require riders on horseback to round up cattle that are scattered across remote, rugged terrain.
Search and rescue organizations in some countries depend upon mounted teams to locate people, particularly hikers and children, and to provide disaster relief assistance. Horses can also be used in areas where it is necessary to avoid vehicular disruption to delicate soil, such as nature reserves.
They may also be the only form of transport allowed in wilderness areas. Law enforcement officers such as park rangers or game wardens may use horses for patrols, and horses or mules may also be used for clearing trails or other work in areas of rough terrain where vehicles are less effective.
Although machinery has replaced horses in many parts of the world, an estimated 100 million horses, donkeys and mules are still used for agriculture and transportation in less developed areas. This number includes around 27 million working animals in Africa alone.
Some land management practices such as cultivating and logging can be efficiently performed with horses. In agriculture, less fossil fuel is used and increased environmental conservation occurs over time with the use of draft animals such as horses.
Logging with horses can result in reduced damage to soil structure and less damage to trees due to more selective logging. The first archaeological evidence of horses used in warfare dates to between 4000 and 3000 BC, and the use of horses in warfare was widespread by the end of the Bronze Age.
Although mechanization has largely replaced the horse as a weapon of war, horses are still seen today in limited military uses, mostly for ceremonial purposes, or for reconnaissance and transport activities in areas of rough terrain where motorized vehicles are ineffective. Horses have been used in the 21st century by the Janjaweed militias in the War in Darfur.
The horse-headed deity in Hinduism, Hayagriva Modern horses are often used to reenact many of their historical work purposes. Horses are used, complete with equipment that is authentic or a meticulously recreated replica, in various live action historical reenactments of specific periods of history, especially recreations of famous battles.
Horses are also used to preserve cultural traditions and for ceremonial purposes. Countries such as the United Kingdom still use horse-drawn carriages to convey royalty and other VIPs to and from certain culturally significant events.
Public exhibitions are another example, such as the Budweiser Clydesdale's, seen in parades and other public settings, a team of draft horses that pull a beer wagon similar to that used before the invention of the modern motorized truck. Horses are frequently used in television, films and literature.
They are sometimes featured as a major character in films about particular animals, but also used as visual elements that assure the accuracy of historical stories. The horse frequently appears in coats of arms in heraldry, in a variety of poses and equipment.
The mythologies of many cultures, including Greco-Roman, Hindu, Islamic, and Norse, include references to both normal horses and those with wings or additional limbs, and multiple myths also call upon the horse to draw the chariots of the Moon and Sun. People of all ages with physical and mental disabilities obtain beneficial results from an association with horses.
Therapeutic riding is used to mentally and physically stimulate disabled persons and help them improve their lives through improved balance and coordination, increased self-confidence, and a greater feeling of freedom and independence. The benefits of equestrian activity for people with disabilities has also been recognized with the addition of equestrian events to the Paralympic Games and recognition of para-equestrian events by the International Federation for Equestrian Sports (FEI).
Hippo therapy and therapeutic horseback riding are names for different physical, occupational, and speech therapy treatment strategies that utilize equine movement. In hippo therapy, a therapist uses the horse's movement to improve their patient's cognitive, coordination, balance, and fine motor skills, whereas therapeutic horseback riding uses specific riding skills.
Horses also provide psychological benefits to people whether they actually ride or not. “Equine-assisted” or “equine-facilitated” therapy is a form of experiential psychotherapy that uses horses as companion animals to assist people with mental illness, including anxiety disorders, psychotic disorders, mood disorders, behavioral difficulties, and those who are going through major life changes.
There are also experimental programs using horses in prison settings. Exposure to horses appears to improve the behavior of inmates and help reduce recidivism when they leave.
Products collected from living horses include mare's milk, used by people with large horse herds, such as the Mongols, who let it ferment to produce Luis. Horse blood was once used as food by the Mongols and other nomadic tribes, who found it a convenient source of nutrition when traveling.
Drinking their own horses blood allowed the Mongols to ride for extended periods of time without stopping to eat. The drug Remain is a mixture of estrogens extracted from the urine of pregnant mares (pregnant ma res' your in e), and was previously a widely used drug for hormone replacement therapy.
The tail hair of horses can be used for making bows for string instruments such as the violin, viola, cello, and double bass. Horse meat has been used as food for humans and carnivorous animals throughout the ages.
Approximately 5 million horses are slaughtered each year for meat worldwide. It is eaten in many parts of the world, though consumption is taboo in some cultures, and a subject of political controversy in others.
Horse hooves can also be used to produce animal glue. Specifically, in Italian cuisine, the horse tibia is sharpened into a probe called a Shinto, which is used to test the readiness of a (pig) ham as it cures.
In Asia, the saga is a horsehide vessel used in the production of Luis. Checking teeth and other physical examinations are an important part of horse care.
Horses are grazing animals, and their major source of nutrients is good-quality forage from hay or pasture. They can consume approximately 2% to 2.5% of their body weight in dry feed each day.
Sometimes, concentrated feed such as grain is fed in addition to pasture or hay, especially when the animal is very active. When grain is fed, equine nutritionists recommend that 50% or more of the animal's diet by weight should still be forage.
Horses require a plentiful supply of clean water, a minimum of 10 US gallons (38 L) to 12 US gallons (45 L) per day. Although horses are adapted to live outside, they require shelter from the wind and precipitation, which can range from a simple shed or shelter to an elaborate stable.
Horses require routine hoof care from a farrier, as well as vaccinations to protect against various diseases, and dental examinations from a veterinarian or a specialized equine dentist. If horses are kept inside in a barn, they require regular daily exercise for their physical health and mental well-being.
When turned outside, they require well-maintained, sturdy fences to be safely contained. Regular grooming is also helpful to help the horse maintain good health of the hair coat and underlying skin.
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“Usage of 17 specific names based on wild species which are predated by or contemporary with those based on domestic animals (Lepidoptera, Osteichthyes, Mammalian): conserved. Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs.
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^ a b “Equine Age Requirements for Arc Rides”. 101 of the Most Perplexing Questions Answered About Equine Enigmas, Medical Mysteries, and Befuddling Behaviors.
^ “Annex XVII: Extracts from Rules for Pony Riders and Children, 9th edition” (PDF). ^ For example, the Missouri Fox Trotter, or the Arabian horse.
52–63 ^ Cane, p. 200 ^ “Chromosome Numbers in Different Species”. ^ “Sequenced horse genome expands understanding of equine, human diseases”.
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· Horses are omitted from the definition of livestock in the Local Coastal Program (LCP) for San Mateo County, which has left the door open for special regulations of horses in the unincorporated part of the County. · The federal government uses a “food or fiber” test to determine whether livestock qualifies for certain grants, and considers horses “agricultural” if they work on a cattle ranch or otherwise “recreational”.
However, in most federal references on waste management, Nodes, etc the horse is considered along with other commercially raised food production livestock. In support of our contention, we offer the following references and citations that classify horses as livestock.
“Livestock means any cattle, sheep, swine, goat, or horse, mule or other equines”. (b) The term “livestock” includes cattle, sheep, swine, horses, mules, and goats.
As used in this article, the following definitions shall apply: (a) “Livestock” means any cattle, sheep, swine, goat, or any horse, mule, or other equine, whether living or dead. (b) “Meat packer” means an establishment where livestock are either slaughtered, the carcasses thereof are prepared, or meat is processed and where state or federal inspection is maintained.
Cal Business and Professional Code · Section 4825.1(d) in reference to veterinary practice: Animals raised, kept, or used for profit, and not including those species that are usually kept as pets such as companion animals, including equines1 (see end note) 1 The term “companion animal”, although used in the definition of “livestock” under Cal Bus and Prof Code 4825.1(d), was not found or otherwise defined elsewhere in the California Code. In a survey done by Multistage Associates, horses are defined similarly as Livestock in numerous other states.
Our thanks to them and Wayne State of the American Quarter horse Association for providing this helpful data. Judy Tacoma of Marinated has provided the following research that may prove useful the equestrians in the future (2001).
Upon application to the Department of Transportation, a flood control district, county, or city, and subject to any conditions imposed by it, permission may be granted to any person, or riding club to enter, traverse, and use for horseback riding, any trail, right of way, easement, river, flood control channel, or wash, owned or controlled by the state, a city, or county. An equestrian group may be granted the right to erect and maintain suitable trail markers for the convenience and guidance of horseback riders, but a structure shall not be erected on state-owned property without the approval of the State Lands Commission.
An owner of any estate or any other interest in real property, whether possessor or nonpossessory, owes no duty of care to keep the premises safe for entry or use by others for any recreational purpose or to give any warning of hazardous conditions, uses of, structures, or activities on such premises to persons entering for such purpose, except as provided in this section. A “recreational purpose,” as used in this section, includes such activities as fishing, hunting, camping, water sports, hiking, spelunking, sport parachuting, riding, including animal riding, snowmobiling, and all other types of vehicular riding, rock collecting, sightseeing, picnicking, nature study, nature contacting, recreational gardening, gleaning, hang gliding, winter sports, and viewing or enjoying historical, archaeological, scenic, natural, or scientific sites.
An owner of any estate or any other interest in real property, whether possessor or nonpossessory, who gives permission to another for entry or use for the above purpose upon the premises does not thereby (a) extend any assurance that the premises are safe for such purpose, or (b) constitute the person to whom permission has been granted the legal status of an invitee or licensee to whom a duty of care is owed, or (c) assume responsibility for or incur liability for any injury to person or property caused by any act of such person to whom permission has been granted except as provided in this section. This section does not limit the liability which otherwise exists (a) for willful or malicious failure to guard or warn against a dangerous condition, use, structure or activity; or (b) (b) for injury suffered in any case where permission to enter for the above purpose was granted for a consideration other than the consideration, if any, paid to said landowner by the state, or where consideration has been received from others for the same purpose; or (c) to any persons who are expressly invited rather than merely permitted to come upon the premises by the landowner.
Nothing in this section creates a duty of care or ground of liability for injury to person or property. Livestock and the Federal Government What USDA in California uses for the definition of “agricultural” is “ animals for food or fiber”.
This designation has been arrived at for the purposes of the Farm Bill for USDA cost share program). In other states horses can be slaughtered for their meat, used for both human consumption and made into pet food.
Horse products, particularly mane and tail hair, are available at tack stores and through catalogs. Because the horse is a small player on the field of food production agriculture, it has not been considered worthy of research investment through federal government grants.
Operations dealing with horses will encompass a variety of end results. According to the U.S. Department of Commerce, International Trade Administration, most U.S. horse meat is exported to Europe where it is especially popular in Belgium and France.
It is also commonly consumed in Spain, Italy, Switzerland, Germany, Austria, and the Netherlands, but it is most popular in Belgium and France. Ancillary operations for training and boarding will also be included in this SSP segment.
Race horses, whether thoroughbreds, quarter horses, walkers, trotters, or other types, will be provided appropriate training over a period of time. These services will be priced out on a daily basis with special charges for unusual care situations as they arise.
Emphasis on the work characteristics of the horses is common with purebred considerations downplayed. Working horses would be those used in other operations for draft purposes or herding and rounding up other animals.
Riding fences in rugged terrain to determine and execute repairs would be another function of work horses. Special purpose horses would include those trained for rodeo, riding, hackney, or other such uses.
The market for these horses is not extensive but lack of record keeping might result in tracking difficulties. Race and show horses will likely be 100-percent registered purebreds with detailed tracking information available in the taxpayer's records and through the breed associations.
Seldom will a horse with an unproven lineage rise to the top of the sport. When this does occur, these animals will be highly documented to ensure profitability from future breeding activities.
Expenses related to horse breeder operations will include purchases of animals, veterinary fees to keep the animals in the best health condition, facilities for boarding, feeding, and training, fees for breeding services (either stud or artificial insemination, ) insurance coverage of the animals to compensate for losses due to injury or accident, advertising and promotion, and specialized feed materials. Events, shows and races, involving the animals will require entry fees which are deducted as current expenses.
These payments are also deducted currently even though the animal may be unable to participate for any number of reasons. Race horses have been subject to “syndication,” the partitioning of ownership among, typically, up to 40 shareholders.
See IRC section 464 for the technical definition and application of rules for farming “syndicates.” Stud services are a common source of income for owners of recognized successful animals.
The live foal guarantee likely carries a higher stud fee due to the additional financial risk to the stallion owner. Eventual addition of saddle and bridle will prepare the foal for being mounted by the age of two years when it has achieved the majority of its growth.
Individual sales are the norm and factors related to subjective characteristics of the horse greatly affect pricing. IRC Section 1231 Transfer of an interest percentage in an animal in exchange for training or other services is considered a sale or exchange which results in the recognition of gain or loss for the fair market value of the interest transferred compared to the basis of the animal.
Section 1.1231-2(c)(1) provides that”* * *Whether a horse is held for racing purposes shall be determined in accordance with the following rules: IRC Section 61 Animals not fitting the requirements of the operation will be culled and sold.
EnviroHorse assumes no responsibility and disclaims any liability for any injury or damage resulting from the use or effect of any product or information specified in this publication. Asian nomads probably domesticated the first horses some 4,000 years ago, and the animals remained essential to many human societies until the advent of the engine.
Horses still hold a place of honor in many cultures, often linked to heroic exploits in war. There is only one species of domestic horse, but around 400 different breeds that specialize in everything from pulling wagons to racing.
Free-roaming North American mustangs, for example, are the descendants of horses brought by Europeans more than 400 years ago. A stallion (mature male) leads the group, which consists of mares (females) and young foals.
When young males become colts, at around two years of age, the stallion drives them away. The colts then roam with other young males until they can gather their own band of females.
Horses have lived on Earth for more than 50 million years, according the American Museum of Natural History. According to Scientific American, the first horses originated in North America and then spread to Asia and Europe.
The horses left in North America became extinct about 10,000 years ago and were re-introduced by colonizing Europeans. It is believed that horses were first domesticated in Asia between 3000 and 4000 B.C., according to Oklahoma State University.
Eventually, horses joined oxen as a form of animal transportation. Horses can be as big as 69 inches (175 centimeters) from hoof to shoulder and weigh as much as 2,200 lbs.
The smallest breeds of horses can be as small as 30 inches (76 centimeters) from hoof to shoulder and weigh only 120 lbs. Horses are found in almost every country in the world and every continent except Antarctica.
For example, the Abyssinian is found in Ethiopia, the Buoyancy comes from Russia, Delibes is from Georgia and Armenia, the Egyptian came from Egypt and the Colorado Ranger bred comes from the Colorado plains, according to Oklahoma State University. In the wild, horses will live in herds that consist of three to 20 animals and are lead by a mature male, which is called a stallion, according to National Geographic.
A well-fed horse eats 1 to 2 percent of its body weight in roughage, such as grass or hay, every day, according to The Humane Society. This wallpaper shows Assateague Island in Maryland and Virginia.
(Image credit: National Park Service) Horses have live births after around 11 months of gestation. Some people mistakenly call baby horses ponies.
Ponies are adult horses that are shorter than 56 inches (147 cm), according to Encyclopedia Britannica. At 2 years old, male foals are driven away from the herd by the stallion.
Kingdom: Animalia Subkingdom: Bilateral Infra kingdom: Deuterostomia Phylum: Chordata Sub phylum: Vertebrata Infra phylum: Gnathostomata Super class: Tetrapoda Class: Mammalian Subclass: Their Infra class: Eutheria Order: Perissodactyla Family: Equine Genus: Equus Species: Equus Catullus Populations have been reintroduced to China, Mongolia and Kazakhstan, according to the San Diego Zoo.
The Hungarian Warm blood was bred to be a sport horse breed. Horses have an innate ability to get along with a variety of other livestock and farm animals.
Donkeys can even share a place in the barn or cozy up in a smaller stall adjacent to your horses. Donkeys, in general, are lower maintenance to keep than horses, often surviving off solely or mostly grass when pastures are lush.
As an added and unexpected bonus, though, some donkeys can serve as “guard animals for a farm. Though both require the same veterinary appointments and shots, as well as farrier work like a regular horse, ponies and minis eat far less and therefore need much less hay and grain.
For those shy larger horses, not only will they have the benefit of a friendship, but they’ll also have the security and comfort of having a strong yet not threatening leader. They can even be a little too clever for their own good, so be prepared for the occasional escape artist or argumentative equine.
Also, just because you are used to horses doesn’t mean you are automatically equipped to raise goats. Llamas make excellent companions for pasture-kept horses, mostly due to their larger size.
One llama is ideal, two is fine, but three or more should be avoided if the goal is companionship for a horse. The main difference with llamas is that you just can’t walk up to them in a pasture and halter them, but you need to establish a trusting and trained relationship first.
In fact, most llamas subsist almost totally on grass in the summer and hay in the winter, with smaller quantities of grain or supplements added in. Llamas are also easier to keep in terms of time, as they don’t require the same amount of grooming effort as horses.
They easily share a pasture, meaning they can graze in peace and companionship. But, the good news is, horse feeds are generally safe for cattle.
Not only will they be an entertaining friend for your horse, but they are also great pest reducers, as they munch up annoying bugs. Geese are similar to donkeys in temperament, in that they are territorial and will alert you and deter intruders and unwanted animals.
They’ll also be a little more work, in the sense that they don’t share many living habits in common with horses. You’ll need special feed and a separate stall or living area for your geese.
While they do provide companionship, a goose is less likely to form a special bond with a horse. Their relationship will be more “on the surface” and casually entertaining than true deep friends.
Horse lovers have long believed that their trusty steeds are the smartest animals in the world, but skeptics would be doubtful. While we most often compare them to dogs when asking ‘are horses intelligent?’ This is, in fact, not a fair comparison.
So those stories of horses being over cuddly when their owners are upset or refusing to come over to you when you’re grumpy aren’t just coincidence, after all. All of these show that horses learn via conditioning, and that through trial and error they can figure out the correct response to a question or situation.