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Are Horses Beef

author
James Smith
• Monday, 16 November, 2020
• 48 min read

Horse meat is used in a variety of recipes: as a stew called pastissada (typical of Verona), served as steaks, as carpaccio, or made into Bristol. Horse meat is used in a variety of Italian recipes: as a stew called pastissada (typical of Verona), served as steaks, as carpaccio (raw), or made into Bristol (cured).

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Contents

The environment secretary is due to meet the Food Standards Agency, food suppliers and retailers on Saturday to discuss the horse meat scandal after Aldi became the latest supermarket to confirm its withdrawn beef products contained up to 100% horse meat. Flank steak is also lean (though you may need to trim some fat) and flavorful, but can be tough if it's sliced with the grain.

The mane is the hair that grows from the top of the neck of a horse or other equine, reaching from the poll to the withers, and includes the forelock or fore top. It is thicker and coarser than the rest of the horse's coat, and naturally grows to roughly cover the neck.

Polar bear meat is usually baked or boiled in a soup or stew. Bear meat, with its greasy, coarse texture and sweet flavor, has tended to receive mixed reviews.

Bear meat should be thoroughly cooked as it can carry a parasitic infection known as trichina and is potentially lethal to humans. It is usually served with onions, capers, pepper and Worcestershire sauce, and other seasonings, often presented to the diner separately, to be added to taste.

Horse meat comes from animals that move a lot, that eat healthy food and lead a full life. Therefore, it is not surprising that horse meat is one of the healthiest protein sources for both humans and pets.

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Horse meat in the UK is not illegal, and any risk to health identified by authorities stems from the horse painkiller 'but' making its way into the food chain. The health risk is described as “very low”, however the social taboo of eating the meat is substantial.

In Europe, however, the same preparation is not considered to have any such effect, and edibility of the horse meat is not affected. Horse meat comes from animals that move a lot, that eat healthy food and lead a full life.

Therefore, it is not surprising that horse meat is one of the healthiest protein sources for both humans and pets. In many countries, such as the United States, horse meat was outlawed for use in pet food in the 1970s.

Remains of euthanized animals can be rendered, which maintains the value of the skin, bones, fats, etc., for such purposes as fish food. On 30 June 2010, Western Australian Agriculture Minister Terry Red man granted final approval to Western Australia butcher Vince Garrett to sell horse meat for human consumption.

Remains of euthanized animals can be rendered, which maintains the value of the skin, bones, fats, etc., for such purposes as fish food. The meat of a juvenile sheep older than one year is hogged; outside the United States this is also a term for the living animal.

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It is a popular poultry dish, especially in North America, where it is traditionally consumed as part of culturally significant events such as Thanksgiving and Christmas, as well as in standard cuisine. Goat meat from adults is often called chevron and Cabrini, cassette, or kid when it is from young animals.

USA Today noted that the popular restaurant chain claims that none of the patties it tested had horse DNA. Blond or light chestnut: seldom-used term for lighter tan coat with pale mane and tail.

They help horses adapt to wearing saddles and bridles, teach vital riding commands and work with the animals to correct behavioral issues related to abuse or other trauma. The level of controversy is reflected by the presence of over 30 different registries for miniaturized horses or ponies just within the English-speaking world.

Mexico, Switzerland, Kazakhstan, Belgium, Japan, Germany, Indonesia, Poland and China are among the nations where many people eat horse meat without a second thought. Five years ago, The Food Safety Authority of Ireland broke the news that numerous beefburgers sold by supermarkets such as Tesco, Asia, Lidl, Aldi and Iceland contained horse meat.

A young female horse is called a filly, and a mare once she is an adult animal. Goat meat from adults is often called chevron and Cabrini, cassette, or kid when it is from young animals.

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The environment secretary is due to meet the Food Standards Agency, food suppliers and retailers on Saturday to discuss the horse meat scandal after Aldi became the latest supermarket to confirm its withdrawn beef products contained up to 100% horse meat. Goat meat from adults is often called chevron and Cabrini, cassette, or kid when it is from young animals.

Cabrini, a word of Spanish and Portuguese origin, refers specifically to young, milk-fed goat. The meat of a juvenile sheep older than one year is hogged; outside the United States this is also a term for the living animal.

The meat from suckling pig is pale and tender and the cooked skin is crisp and can be used for pork rinds. The texture of the meat can be somewhat gelatinous due to the amount of collagen in a young pig.

Therefore, it is not surprising that horse meat is one of the healthiest protein sources for both humans and pets. In many countries, such as the United States, horse meat was outlawed for use in pet food in the 1970s.

In Europe, however, the same preparation is not considered to have any such effect, and edibility of the horse meat is not affected. Horse meat, or Chevalier, as its supporters have rebranded it, looks like beef, but darker, with coarser grain and yellow fat.

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The canter is a controlled, three-beat gait that usually is a bit faster than the average trot, but slower than the gallop. The average speed of a canter is 16–27 km/h (10–17 mph), depending on the length of the stride of the horse.

A carnivore at the top of the food chain, not preyed upon by other animals, is termed an apex predator. Rather, the horse that tends to lead a wild or feral herd is often a dominant mare.

Goat meat from adults is often called chevron and Cabrini, cassette, or kid when it is from young animals. The most common type of hot dogs are made from beef, sometimes mixed with pork.

Venison tends to have a finer texture and is leaner than comparable cuts of beef. The burger giant said Tuesday that it has already brought fresh beef Quarter Founder patties to about 3,500 domestic restaurants so far and it plans to reach some 14,000 U.S. locations by early May.

The U.S. Department of Agriculture has assured the kosher and halal meat industries that the meat they produce with the well-known USDA Organic label can clearly qualify as organic, even though kosher and halal slaughter methods follow religious law instead of standard USDA regulations. If the beef knuckle is broken down further into its component muscles, they can be allocated to different purposes.

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Despite recent studies indicating the link between red meat and cancer, America remains hungry for beef. High beef prices have caused many consumers to shy away from steak dinners in favor of cheaper meats such as pork.

It's an excellent source of protein and many important vitamins and minerals that your dog needs for overall health (48). It's an excellent source of protein and many important vitamins and minerals that your dog needs for overall health (48).

In general, red meats (beef, pork and lamb) have more saturated (bad) fat than chicken, fish and vegetable proteins such as beans. Saturated and trans fats can raise your blood cholesterol and make heart disease worse.

It has been known for its flavorful addition to soups and as a delicacy for dogs but bone marrow fat may also have untapped health benefits, new research finds. Researchers find that with calorie restriction, a less-studied fat tissue releases adiponectin, which is linked to reduced risk of diseases like diabetes.

Improper digestion of meat can lead to the accumulation of toxins in the body. A trail ride can be of any length, including a long distance, multi-day trip.

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In the UK and Europe, the practice is usually called horse or pony trekking. Its stamina is equal to that of the Kentucky Saddler and its speed is nearly as fast as the American Standard bred, giving it the highest overall statistics of any horse in the game.

It is found at the Outskirt Stable, on the Western edge of the Central Rule Region. Find Hoffa at Outskirt Stable west of Aqua me Lake and southeast of Mandala Bridge in southern Central Rule.

The horse has evolved over the past 45 to 55 million years from a small multi-toed creature, Phipps, into the large, single-toed animal of today. It's an excellent source of protein and many important vitamins and minerals that your dog needs for overall health (48).

Additionally, all Grave jerky are gluten-free, low in fat, and a great source of protein, making them a perfectly healthy snack that will keep you full till your next meal. Pork chops can be relatively lean, but they're typically not as low-fat as chicken or fish.

For the majority of humanity's early existence, wild horses were hunted as a source of protein. During the Paleolithic, wild horses formed an important source of food for humans.

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In many parts of Europe, the consumption of horse meat continued throughout the Middle Ages until modern times, despite a papal ban on horse meat in 732. Horse meat was also eaten as part of Germanic pagan religious ceremonies in Northern Europe, particularly ceremonies associated with the worship of Odin.

The earliest horses evolved on the North American continent, and by about 12,000 BC, they had migrated to other parts of the world, becoming extinct in the Americas. In the 15th and 16th centuries, Spaniards, followed by other European settlers, reintroduced horses to the Americas.

Some horses became feral, and began to be hunted by the indigenous Sequence people of what is now Chile and Argentina. Initially, early humans hunted horses as they did other game; later, they began to raise them for meat, milk and transport.

The meat was, and still is, preserved by being sun-dried in the high Andes into a product known as charge. Hunger during World War II led to horses being eaten. Horse meat gained widespread acceptance in French cuisine during the later years of the Second French Empire.

The high cost of living in Paris prevented many working-class citizens from buying meat such as pork or beef ; in 1866, the French government legalized the eating of horse meat, and the first butcher's shop specializing in horse meat opened in eastern Paris, providing quality meat at lower prices. During the Siege of Paris (1870–1871), horse meat, along with the meat of donkeys and mules, was eaten by anyone who could afford it, partly because of a shortage of fresh meat in the blockaded city, and also because horses were eating grain that was needed by the human populace.

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Though large numbers of horses were in Paris (estimates suggested between 65,000 and 70,000 were butchered and eaten during the siege), the supply was ultimately limited. Not even champion racehorses were spared (two horses presented to Napoleon III by Alexander II of Russia were slaughtered), but the meat became scarce.

Many Parisians gained a taste for horse meat during the siege, and after the war ended, horse meat remained popular. Likewise, in other places and times of siege or starvation, horses are viewed as a food source of last resort.

Despite the general Anglophone taboo, horse and donkey meat was eaten in Britain, especially in Yorkshire, until the 1930s, and, in times of postwar food shortages, surged in popularity in the United States and was considered for use as hospital food. Horse meat has a slightly sweet taste reminiscent of beef.

Many consumers allege not being able to tell the difference between beef and horse meat. Meat from younger horses tends to be lighter in color, while older horses produce richer color and flavor, as with most mammals.

IDH did find that horses at the age of 6 months had lower value of moisture and protein. Selected nutrients per 100 g (3.5 oz) Food source Energy Protein(g) Fat(g) Iron(mg) Sodium(mg) Cholesterol(mg) (kJ) (Cal) Game meat, horse, raw 560 133 21 5 3.8 53 52 Beef, strip steak, raw 490 117 23 3 1.9 55 55 In most countries where horses are slaughtered for food, they are processed similarly to cattle, i.e., in large-scale factory slaughterhouses (abattoirs) where they are stunned with a captive bolt gun and bled to death.

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In countries with a less industrialized food-production system, horses and other animals are slaughtered individually outdoors as needed, in or near the village where they will be consumed. Kyrgyzstan 155,17723,762 Total 4,262,004642,621 In 2005, the eight principal horse meat-producing countries produced over 700,000 tonnes of this product.

As horses are relatively poor converters of grass and grain to meat compared to cattle, they are not usually bred or raised specifically for their meat. Instead, horses are slaughtered when their monetary value as riding or work animals is low, but their owners can still make money selling them for horse meat, for example in the routine export of the southern English ponies from the New Forest, Ex moor, and Dartmoor.

British law requires the use of equine passports even for semi feral horses to enable traceability (also known as “provenance”), so most slaughtering is done in the UK before the meat is exported, meaning that the animals travel as carcasses rather than live. Ex- racehorses, riding horses, and other horses sold at auction may also enter the food chain ; sometimes, these animals have been stolen or purchased under false pretenses.

Even prestigious horses may end up in the slaughterhouse ; the 1986 Kentucky Derby winner and 1987 Eclipse Award for Horse of the Year winner, Ferdinand, is believed to have been slaughtered in Japan, probably for pet food. A misconception exists that horses are commonly slaughtered for pet food.

In many countries, such as the United States, horse meat was outlawed for use in pet food in the 1970s. American horse meat is considered a delicacy in Europe and Japan, and its cost is in line with veal, so it would be prohibitively expensive in many countries for pet food.

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Meat from horses that veterinarians have put down with a lethal injection is not suitable for human consumption, as the toxin remains in the meat; the carcasses of such animals are sometimes cremated (most other means of disposal are problematic, due to the toxin). Remains of euthanized animals can be rendered, which maintains the value of the skin, bones, fats, etc., for such purposes as fish food.

This is commonly done for lab specimens (e.g., pigs) euthanized by injection. Carcasses of horses treated with some drugs are considered edible in some jurisdictions.

In Europe, however, the same preparation is not considered to have any such effect, and edibility of the horse meat is not affected. Horse meat is commonly eaten in many countries in Europe and Asia.

It is not generally available food in some English-speaking countries such as the United Kingdom, South Africa, Australia, Ireland, the United States, and English Canada. Horse meat is not generally eaten in Spain, except in the north, but the country exports horses both as live animals and as slaughtered meat for the French and Italian markets.

For example, the Food Standards Code of Australia and New Zealand definition of 'meat' does not include horse. In Tonga, horse meat is eaten nationally, and Tongan emigrants living in the United States, New Zealand, and Australia have retained a taste for it, claiming Christian missionaries originally introduced it to them.

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The consumption of horse meat has been common in Central Asian societies, past or present, due to the abundance of steppes suitable for raising horses. In North Africa, horse meat has been occasionally consumed, but almost exclusively by the Christian Copts and the Hawaii Sunnis; it has never been eaten in the Maghreb.

In the eighth century, Popes Gregory III and Zachary instructed Saint Boniface, missionary to the Germans, to forbid the eating of horse meat to those he converted, due to its association with Germanic pagan ceremonies. The people of Iceland allegedly expressed reluctance to embrace Christianity for some time, largely over the issue of giving up horse meat.

The culturally close people of Sweden still have an ambivalent attitude to horse meat, said to stem from this edict. Horse meat was rejected by the British, but continued to be eaten in other European countries such as France and Germany, where knackers often sold horse carcasses despite the papal ban.

Even the hunting of wild horses for meat continued in the area of Westphalia. Londoners also suspected that horse meat was finding its way into sausages and that offal sold as that of oxen was, in fact, equine.

While no taboo on eating horse meat exists per se, it is generally considered by ethnic Russians to be a low-quality meat with poor taste, and it is rarely found in stores. In 732 AD, Pope Gregory III began a concerted effort to stop the ritual consumption of horse meat in pagan practice.

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In some countries, the effects of this prohibition by the Roman Catholic Church have lingered, and horse meat prejudices have progressed from taboos to avoidance to abhorrence. In a study conducted by Fred Simmons, the avoidance of horse meat in American culture is less likely due to lingering feelings from Gregory's prohibition, but instead due to an unfamiliarity with the meat compared to more mainstream offerings.

In other parts of the world, horse meat has the stigma of being something poor people eat and is seen as a cheap substitute for other meats, such as pork and beef. According to the anthropologist Marvin Harris, some cultures class horse meat as taboo because the horse converts grass into meat less efficiently than ruminants.

Optimistic taboo is also a possible reason for refusal to eat horse meat as an everyday food, but did not necessarily preclude ritual slaughter and consumption. Roman sources state that the goddess Upon was widely worshiped in Gaul and southern Britain.

In The White Goddess, Robert Graves argued that the taboo among Britons and their descendants was due to worship of Upon, and even earlier rites. The ancient Indian Kshatriya's engaged in horse sacrifice (Ashamed Mafia) as recorded in the Vedas and Ramayana, but in the context of the ritual sacrifice, it is not 'killed', but instead smothered to death.

In 1913, the Finnish Mari people of the Volga region were observed to practice a horse sacrifice. In ancient Scandinavia, the horse was very important, as a living, working creature, as a sign of the owner's status, and symbolically within the old Norse religion.

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Horses were slaughtered as a sacrifice to the gods, and the meat was eaten by the people taking part in the religious feasts. When the Nordic countries were Christianized, eating horse meat was regarded as a sign of paganism and prohibited.

A reluctance to eat horse meat is common in these countries even today. A British agriculture industry website reported that Australian horse meat production levels had risen to 24,000 tons by 2009.

On 30 June 2010, Western Australian Agriculture Minister Terry Red man granted final approval to Western Australia butcher Vince Garrett to sell horse meat for human consumption. Ned lands restaurateur Pierre Ichallalene announced plans to do a taster on Bastille Day and to put horse meat dishes on the menu if the reaction is good.

Red man said that the government would “consider extending approvals should the public appetite for horse demand it”. Vince Garrett is the owner of Mono Di Care, a major wholesale meat supplier, which supplies many cafés, restaurants, and hotels in Western Australia.

He commented that no domestic market exists for horse meat, but a successful export market exists, of which he believes Western Australia should have a share. In October 2019, the ABC revealed that thousands of retired racehorses were being slaughtered annually for the export market in human consumption.

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Overall, as of 2012 , about 94,000 horses were annually slaughtered, presumably including animals whose meat does not enter the human food chain. Indonesia In Japanese cuisine, raw horse meat is called Laura () or sakuraniku (, Laura means cherry blossom “, Nike means “meat”) because of its pink color.

It can be served raw as sashimi in thin slices dipped in soy sauce, often with ginger and onions added. Hisashi is popular in some regions of Japan and is often served at Malaya bars.

Fat, typically from the neck, is also found as Hisashi, though it is white, not pink. Tuamotu, Pagan, and Rita are famous for Hisashi, and it is common in the Took region, as well.

Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan In Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, horse meat is a large part of the diet, due mainly to the nomadic roots of the population. Some dishes include sausages called Kay and Chuck or Suzhou made from the meat using the guts as the sausage skin, Ghana made from hip meat, which is smoked and boiled, JAL (or zeal) made from neck fat which is smoked and boiled, karma made from a section of the rectum that is smoked and boiled, and sure which is kept as dried meat.

Mongolia Mongolian cuisine includes salted horse meat sausages called Kay are produced as a regional delicacy by the Kazakhs. Generally, Mongols prefer beef and mutton (though during the freezing Mongolian winter, some people prefer horse meat due to its low cholesterol).

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It is kept unfrozen, and traditionally people think horse meat helps warm them up. Other Asian nations import processed horse meat from Mongolia.

Philippines In the Philippines, horse meat (Luka, taping kayo, or kayo) is a delicacy commonly sold in wet markets. It is prepared by marinating the meat in lemon juice, soy sauce or fish sauce, then fried and served with vinegar for dipping.

South Korea Korean Magog- yuk hoe (horse meat tartar)In Tonga, horse meat or lo'i ho'OSI is much more than just a delicacy; the consumption of horse meat is generally only reserved for special occasions. These special occasions may include the death of an important family member or community member or as a form of celebration during the birthday of an important family member or perhaps the visitation of someone important, such as the king of Tonga.

In Tonga, a horse is one of the most valuable animals a family can own because of its use as a beast of burden. Tonga has long lacked land area compared with its population, so the missionaries introduced horse meat in lieu of cattle.

Despite a diaspora into Western countries such as Australia and New Zealand, where consumption of horse meat is generally taboo, Tongans still practice the consumption of horse meat perhaps even more so because it is more readily available and more affordable. A horse meat steak served at restaurant Oklahoma, Santa, Finland Austria Horse Leverage is available in special horse butcheries and occasionally at various stands, sold in a bread roll.

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Dumplings can also be prepared with horse meat, spinach, or Tyrolean Graduate (a sour milk cheese). Such dumplings are occasionally eaten on their own, in a soup, or as a side dish.

Belgium In Belgium, horse meat (paardenvlees in Dutch and viands Chevalier in French) is popular in a number of preparations. Lean, smoked, and sliced horse meat fillet (paardenrookvlees or paardengerookt ; filet Chevalier in French) is served as a cold cut with sandwiches or as part of a cold salad.

Horse steaks can be found in most butchers and are used in a variety of preparations. The city of Vilvoorde has a few restaurants specializing in dishes prepared with horse meat.

Horse sausage is a well-known local specialty in Learn and Dendermonde with European recognition. Smoked or dried horse/pork meat sausage, similar to salami, is sold in a square shape to be distinguished from pork and/or beef sausages.

A Flemish Region around the Repel River is also famous for a horse stew named schlep, made out of shoulder chuck (or similar cuts), brown ale, onions, and mustard. Schlep is typically served with fries, mayonnaise, and a salad of raw Belgian endive.

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Finland Horse meat is available in butcher shops and shops specializing in meats but it can sometimes be found in supermarkets, especially in ground form. The most common way to eat horse meat is in a sausage form, especially in the “meetwursti” (“ Bratwurst “); a cured and smoked sausage which often contains pig, cow and horse meat.

Finns consume around 400g of horse meat per person, per year and the country produces round 300-400 thousand tons of meat per year, while importing around 1,5 million kilograms per year from countries like Canada, Mexico or Argentine. Using meat from a horse that has been treated with non-horse medicine or hasn't been inspected by a veterinarian is outright banned.

A butcher shop specializing in horse meat in Pesetas, Languid, France In France, specialized butcher shops (butcheries Chevalier) sell horse meat, as ordinary butcher shops were for a long time forbidden to deal in it. Germany Although no taboo comparable to that in the English-speaking world exists, German law used to proscribe that horse meat be sold only by specialized butchers (Pferdemetzgereien).

This proscription was abolished in 1993, but only a small minority of ordinary butchers have since begun to sell horse meat. As of 2018 , most horse meat was still sold by the specialists, some of whom also delivered by mail order.

Many regions of Germany have traditional recipes that include horse meat. In the Rhineland around Cologne and Düsseldorf, restaurants often offer the traditional Sauerbraten in horse meat, typically with a beef variant to choose from.

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Other traditional horse meat dishes include the Swabian Pferderostbraten (a joint of roast meat prepared similarly to roast beef), Bavarian sausage varieties such as Ross wurst and Ross-Kochsalami as well as Ross-Leberkäse, a meatloaf dish. The 2013 meat adulteration scandal started when German authorities detected horse meat in prepared food products including frozen lasagna, where it was declared fraudulently as beef.

The mislabeling prompted EU authorities to speed up publication of European Commission recommendations for labeling the origin of all processed meat. Iceland In Iceland, horse meat is both eaten minced and as steak, also used in stews and fondue, prized for its strong flavor.

The people of Iceland supposedly were reluctant to embrace Christianity for some time largely over the issue of giving up horse meat after Pope Gregory III banned horse meat consumption in 732 AD, as it was a major part of many pagan rites and sacrifice in Northern Europe. Horse meat consumption was banned when the pagan Norse Icelanders eventually adopted Christianity in 1000 AD/ Common Era.

The ban became so ingrained that most people would not handle horse meat, let alone consume it. Even during harsh famines in the 18th century, most people would not eat horse meat, and those who did were castigated.

In 1757, the ban was decriminalized, but general distaste for horse meat lasted well into the 19th century, possibly longer, and its consumption often regarded as an indication of poverty. Even today horse meat is not popular (3.2% of Iceland’s meat production in 2015), although this has more to do with culinary tradition and the popularity of equestrianism than any religious vestiges.

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Horse meat is used in a variety of recipes: as a stew called pastissada (typical of Verona), served as steaks, as carpaccio, or made into Bristol. Thin strips of horse meat called flaccid are popular.

Horse fat is used in recipes such as Vanzetti DI cavalry. Horse meat sausages and salamis are traditional in various places.

Donkey is also cooked, for example as a stew called staccato d'amino and as meat for sausages e.g. mortadella d'amino. The cuisine of Parma features a horse meat tartar called pesto DI cavalry, as well as various cooked dishes.

In Vent, the consumption of horse meat dates back to at least 1000 BC/ BCE to the Adriatic Genetic, renowned for their horse-breeding skills. They were used to sacrificing horses to their goddess Ratio or to the mythical hero Diomedes.

Throughout the classical period, Vent established itself as a center for horse breeding in Italy; Venetian horses were provided for the cavalry and carriage of the Roman legions, with the white Genetic horses becoming famous among Greeks and Romans as one of the best breeds for circus racing. As well as breeding horses for military and farming applications, the Genetics also used them for consumption throughout the Roman period, a practice that established the consumption of horse meat as a tradition in Venetian cuisine.

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In the modern age, horse meat is considered a luxury item and is widely available through supermarkets and butcheries, with some specialized butcheries offering only selected cuts of equine meat. Prices are usually higher than beef, pork, or any other kind of meat, except game.

Typical Pagan specialty: horse flaccid, smoked and salt-cured “frayed threads” of meat In the Province of Paul, horse meat is a key element of the local cuisine, particularly in the area that extends southeast from the city, historically called Sacrifice. Specialties based on horse meat constitute the main courses and best attractions of several typical restaurants in the zone.

They are also served among other regional delicacies at the food stands of many local festivals, related to civil and religious anniversaries. Most notable is the Fest del Cavalry, held annually in the small town of Leonard and totally dedicated to horses, included their consumption for food.

According to British food writer Matthew Fort, “The taste for donkey and horse goes back to the days when these animals were part of everyday agricultural life. In the frugal, unsentimental manner of agricultural communities, all the animals were looked on as a source of protein.

In Malta, horse meat (Maltese : LATAM ta-iemel) is seared and slowly cooked for hours in either tomato or red wine sauce. A few horse meat shops still exist and it is still served in some restaurants.

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Zuurvlees, a southern Dutch stew, is made with horse meat as main ingredient. Horse meat is also used in sausages (paardenworst and Afrikaner), fried fast food snacks and ready-to-eat soups.

When Norwegians adopted Christianity, horse eating became taboo as it was a religious act for pagans, thus it was considered a sign of heresy. Older horses are often exported on the hoof to Italy to be slaughtered.

Horses in Poland are treated mostly as companions, and the majority of Poles are against live export for slaughter. Poland has a tradition of eating horse meat (e.g., sausage or steak tartare).

Horse meat is generally available in Serbia, though mostly shunned in traditional cuisine. It is, however, often recommended by general practitioners to persons who suffer from anemia.

It is available to buy at three green markets in Belgrade, a market in Is, and in several cities in ethnically mixed Vojvodina, where Hungarian and previously German traditions brought the usage. Slovenia A horse meat hamburger in restaurant Hot' Horse, Ljubljana, Slovenia : Horse meat is a national delicacy in Slovenia. Horse meat is generally available in Slovenia, and is highly popular in the traditional cuisine, especially in the central region of Carnival and in the Kart region.

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Colt steak (žrebikov Greek) is also highly popular, especially in Slovenia's capital Ljubljana, where it is part of the city's traditional regional cuisine. In Ljubljana, many restaurants sell burgers and meat that contain large amounts of horse meat, including a fast-food chain called Hot' Horse.

Celina is a cured meat made from beef or horse, and is considered a delicacy. Horse meat is easily found in supermarkets, and usually prepared as a stew or as steak.

A common practice is to serve horse meat to anemic children. Although no generalized taboo exists in Spain, consumption of horse meat is minor, compared to that of pork, beef, or lamb.

It tends to be very thinly sliced and fairly salty, slightly reminiscent of deli-style ham, and as a packaged meat, may list horse meat (as hastiest) as its primary ingredient. Several varieties of smoked sausage made from horse meat, including Gustafson, are also quite popular, especially in the province of Malaria, where they are produced.

Gustafson, similar to salami or met worst, may substitute for those meats in sandwiches. The laws on foodstuffs of animal origin in Switzerland explicitly list equines as an animal type allowed for the production of food.

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Horse meat is also used for a range of sausages in the German-speaking north of Switzerland. As in northern Italy, in Switzerland's Italian-speaking south, local salami (sausages) may be made with horse meat.

Ukraine In Ukraine, especially in Crimea and other southern steppe regions, horse meat is consumed in the form of sausages called Mahan and Suzuki. These particular sausages are traditional food of the Crimean Tatar population.

United Kingdom In the United Kingdom, the slaughter, preparation, and consumption of horses for food is not against the law, although it has been rare since the 1930s, and horse meat is not generally available. The sale of meat labelled as horse meat in UK supermarkets and butchers is minimal, and most actual horse meat consumed in the UK is imported from Europe, predominantly from the south of France, where it is more widely eaten.

Horse meat may be eaten without the knowledge of the consumer, due to accidental or fraudulent introduction of horse meat into human food. A 2003 Food Standards Agency investigation revealed that certain sausages, salami, and similar products such as chorizo and pastrami sometimes contained horse meat without it being listed, although listing is legally required.

Horse meat was featured in a segment of a 2007 episode of the Gordon Ramsay series The F Word. In the segment, Janet Street-Porter convinced locals to try horse meat, though not before facing controversy and being forced to move her stand to a privately owned location.

beef cows cattle herd livestock wsu food beetles meat istock state washington animal bees bread times human reduce impacts environmental
(Source: cahnrs.wsu.edu)

The meat was presented as having a similar taste to beef, but with less fat, a high concentration of omega-3 fatty acids, and as a safer alternative in times of worry regarding bird flu and mad cow disease. The segment was met with skepticism from many viewers after broadcast for various reasons, either because some felt the practice was cruel and against social norms, or simply a belief that if the taste was really on par with other meats, then people would already be eating it.

Their Twitter account my Brittle Pony, states that they are “Determined to make horse a stable part of the British diet. Horse meat is also for sale at the other end of the country, in Granville Island Market in downtown Vancouver, where according to a Time reviewer who smuggled it into the United States, it turned out to be a “sweet, rich, super lean, oddly soft meat, closer to beef than venison”.

Aside from the heritage of French cuisine at one end of the country, most of Canada shares the horse meat taboo with the rest of the English-speaking world. This mentality is especially evident in Alberta, where strong horse racing and breeding industries and cultures have existed since the province's founding, although large numbers of horses are slaughtered for meat in Fort MacLeod, and certain butchers in Calgary do sell it.

In 2013, the consumer protection show Kassensturz of Swiss television SRF reported the poor animal conditions at Bounty Exports, a Canadian horse meat farm in Fort MacLeod, Alberta. Micros, the primary importer of horse meat into Switzerland, started working with Bounty to improve their animal welfare, but in 2015 Micros cut ties with Bounty because though improvements had been made, they hadn't improved sufficiently.

Micros had “set itself the ambitious goal of bringing all suppliers abroad up to the strict Swiss standards by 2020.” CBC News reported on March 10, 2013, that horse meat was also popular among some segments of Toronto's population.

horse ground beef meat
(Source: theheartysoul.com)

It holds a taboo in American culture very similar to the one found in the United Kingdom. All horse meat produced in the United States since the 1960s (until the last quarter of 2007) was intended solely for export abroad, primarily to the European Union.

However, a thriving horse exportation business is going on in several states, including Texas, primarily exporting horses to slaughterhouses in either Canada or Mexico. Restriction of human consumption of horse meat in the U.S. has generally involved legislation at local, state, and federal levels.

California Proposition 6 (1998) was passed by state voters, outlawing the possession, transfer, reception, or holding any horse, pony, burro, or mule by a person who is aware that it will be used for human consumption, and making the slaughter of horses or the sale of horse meat for human consumption a misdemeanor offense. In 2007, the Illinois General Assembly enacted Public Act 95-02, amending Chapter 225, Section 635 of the state's compiled statutes to prohibit both the act of slaughtering equines for human consumption and the trade of any horse meat similarly to Texas Agriculture Code's Chapter 149.

In addition, several other states introduced legislation to outlaw the practice over the years, such as Florida, Massachusetts, New Mexico, and New York. At the federal level, since 2001, several bills have been regularly introduced in both the House and Senate to ban horse slaughter throughout the country without success.

However, a budgetary provision banning the use of federal funds to carry out mandatory inspections at horse slaughter plants (necessary to allow interstate sale and exports of horse meat) has also been in place since 2007. This restriction was temporarily removed in 2011 as part of the Consolidated and Further Continuing Appropriations Act for Fiscal Year 2012 but was again included in the FY2014 Agriculture Appropriations Act and subsequent federal budgets, hence preventing the operation of any domestic horse slaughter operation.

horse meat beef
(Source: thewildoven.co.uk)

Until 2007, only three horse meat slaughterhouses still existed in the United States for export to foreign markets, but they were closed by court orders resulting from the upholding of aforementioned Illinois and Texas statutes banning horse slaughter and the sale of horse meat. The taboo surrounding horse meat in the United States received national attention again in May 2017 when a restaurant in the Lawrenceville section of Pittsburgh served a dish containing horse tartar as part of a special event the restaurant was hosting with French Canadian chefs as guests.

A Change.org petition subsequently went up to advocate making serving horse meat illegal in Pennsylvania. From the 1920s and through the 1950s or 1960s, and with a brief rationing hiccup during WWII, horse meat was canned and sold as dog food by many companies under many brands, most notably by Ken-L Ration.

The popularity of horse meat as dog food became so popular that by the 1930s, over 50,000 horses were bred and slaughtered each year to keep up with this specific demand. Also in Chile, horse meat became the main source of nutrition for the nomadic indigenous tribes, which promptly switched from a guano -based economy to a horse-based one after the horses brought by the Spaniards bred naturally and became feral.

This applied specially to the Pampa and Apache nations, who became fierce horseman warriors. Similar to the Tatars, they ate raw horse meat and milked their animals.

It is generally less expensive than beef and somewhat associated with lower social strata. No foreign food: the American diet in time and place.

^ a b Calvin W. Schwa be, Unmentionable Cuisine, University Press of Virginia, ISBN 0-8139-1162-1 ^ Azzaroli, A. “Ascent and decline of monodactyl equips: a case for prehistoric overkill” (PDF).

“Rapid body size decline in Alaskan Pleistocene horses before extinction”. “Geo historical Variables in the Evolution of the Sequence Economic System During the Colonial Period”.

(Spanish title: El Canada Exotic Y la Transition Productive, Variables Geohistóricas en la Evolution del System Economic Sequence Durante El period colonial). ^ “Études Hygienists DE la chair DE coeval come aliment (Hygienic studies of horseflesh as food)”.

^ Larry mentions in his memoirs how he fed the wounded after the (1809) with bouillon of horse meat seasoned with gunpowder. Page 83 Archived April 27, 2016, at the Payback Machine (in Google Books).

Quoting Dominique-Jean Larry, Memoirs DE chirurgie military ET champagnes, III 281, Paris, Smith. ^ Eating Up Italy: Voyages on a Vespa by Matthew Fort.

“Slaughtering Age Effect on Carcass Traits and Meat Quality of Italian Heavy Draft Horse Foals”. ^ “Nutrition Facts and Analysis for Game meat, horse, raw”.

^ Simmons, F.J., 1994, Eat not this Flesh, Food Avoidance from Prehistory to Present, University of Wisconsin Press. ^ Françoise Aubaile-Sallenave, “Meat among Mediterranean Muslims: Beliefs and Praxis”, Studios Del Hombre 19 :129 (2004) ^ William Ian Miller, “Of Outlaws, Christians, Horse meat, and Writing: Uniform Laws and Saga Iceland”, Michigan Law Review, Vol.

2081-2095 (subscription required) Archived April 1, 2016, at the Payback Machine ^ a b “U.S.D.A. (quoting a 1997 USDA report said to be no longer available online) ^ Vol 2 pp 7-9 ^ “Archived copy” : (in Russian).

CS1 main: archived copy as title (link) ^ Pillsbury, Michael (1998). No Foreign Food: The American Diet in Time and Place.

^ Powell, T. G. E., 1958, The Celts, Thames and Hudson, London ^ Graves, Robert, The White Goddess, Faber and Faber, London, 1961, p 384 ^ Campbell, Joseph, Oriental Mythology: The Masks of God, Ar kana, 1962, pp190-197 ISBN 0-14-019442-8 ^ Phillip Pulsing; Kirsten Wolf (1993). ^ Andes Andrew; Kristina Jenner; Catarina Radar (2006).

Old Norse Religion in Long Term Perspectives: Origins, Changes and Interactions, an International Conference in Land, Sweden, June 3–7, 2004. ^ Victorian Advocates for Animals & Coalition for the Protection of Racehorses protests ^ “Americans squeamish over horse meat”.

^ Time Out 30 May–5 June 2007 ^ “Horse meat exports in doubt after standards complaint”. ^ “Argentina-Horse Meat world production figures, Farming UK, January 17, 2009.

^ Horse meat production in Australia and New Zealand Archived February 29, 2020, at the Payback Machine. Retrieved 12 February 2020 ^ Li Shenzhen, the Compendium of Material Media ( ) Chapter Show Wild mammal one(), Ming dynasty Archived December 8, 2019, at the Payback Machine ^ Might, Rickey (January 13, 2020).

“Sate Japan PAK Kuntjoro, Nikita Nan Berkhasiat” . ^ Metropolis, “Straight From the Horse's Mouth”, #903, 15 July 2011, pp.

^ Brief Overview of the Draft Revision of Quality Labeling Standard for Canned and Bottled Livestock Products Archived July 6, 2011, at the Payback Machine, Japanese Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries (from Pontifical Argentina Archived February 24, 2010, at the Payback Machine). ^ Archived September 9, 2016, at the Payback Machine 88% percent of this industry is concentrated to Hokkaido and trend is decreasing.(pg.

2, classification “”)(Japan's Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries) ^ Archived September 16, 2016, at the Payback Machine (pg. )(Japan's Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries) ^ a b Archived August 17, 2016, at the Payback Machine - Japan's Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries(pg.

^ Paw she, Mayor; Cheddar, Chandraprakash D; Pindar, Anjali (January 2016). ^ Exploring EU’s Savory Delicacies Archived June 23, 2011, at the Payback Machine, Korean.or.KR ^ a b “Lovers paardenworsten”.

“Species diversity and metabolic impact of the microbiota are low in spontaneously acidified Belgian sausages with an added starter culture of Staphylococcus carious “. “Species diversity and metabolic impact of the microbiota are low in spontaneously acidified Belgian sausages with an added starter culture of Staphylococcus carious”.

Brill 1985. P 135-138 ^ Sacrifice and Consultant Official site of the Paul Province. ^ Paula Hardy; Abigail Hole; Olivia Poznan (2008).

^ “Irascible or meat rolls filled with pecorino and fat: Authentic Italian recipe of Apulian”. ^ Eating Up Italy: Voyages on a Vespa by Matthew Fort.

Many of the village restaurants specializing in rabbit also feature horse meat on their menu. ^ “RS 817.022.108 Ordinance du DFI Du 16 December 2016 SUR LES degrees alimentary d'origin animal (Adrian) (Ordinance of 23 November 2005 on food of animal origin)”.

Zurich, Switzerland: Schweitzer Radio UND Foreseen SRF. ^ “Micros Bézier Kan Pferdefleisch Meir com Produzenten Bounty AUS Canada” (in German).

“Toronto restaurateurs say horse meat a prime dining choice”. Zurich, Switzerland: Tierschutzbund Zurich (Animal Welfare Foundation) TSB.

Prohibition on Slaughter of Horses and Sale of Horse meat for Human Consumption. ^ “USDA Warns Pittsburgh Restaurant That Served Horse Meat”.

“THE UNINTENDED CONSEQUENCES OF A BAN ON THE HUMANE SLAUGHTER (PROCESSING) OF HORSES IN THE United STATES” (PDF). The Animal Welfare Council, Inc., citing FAO-UN Horticultural Database.

^ “México consolidate vent DE care DE cabal lo all exterior (Mexico consolidates horse meat exportation)”. El Information :: Notices de Jalisco, México, Deported & Entretenimiento (in Spanish).

^ “Care DE cabal lo, El negation tab Que Florence en la Argentina”. Wikimedia Commons has media related to Horse meat.

President Donald Trump wants to cut a budget the Bureau of Land Management uses to care for wild horses. Instead of paying to feed them, he has proposed lifting restrictions preventing the sale of American mustangs to horse meat dealers who supply Canadian and Mexican slaughterhouses.

Horse meat, or Chevalier, as its supporters have rebranded it, looks like beef, but darker, with coarser grain and yellow fat. Horses became taboo meat in the ancient Middle East, possibly because they were associated with companionship, royalty, and war.

As butchers formed guilds, they too strengthened the distinction between their work and that of the knacker, who broke down old horses into unclean meat and parts. Horses were killed in specialist abattoirs, and their meat was sold in separate butcher shops, where it remained marginalized.

For one part, the Pilgrims had brought the European prohibition on eating horse flesh, inherited from the pre-Christian tradition. Even the Civil War caused beef prices to fall, thanks to a wartime surplus and new access to Western cattle ranges.

American entrepreneurs proposed canning unwanted horses for sale in the Old World, paying hefty bonds to guarantee they wouldn’t sell their goods at home. When French and German consuls visited a Chicago abattoir suspected of selling diseased horse to Europe, opponents tried to smear the U.S. Agriculture secretary, who had previously intervened.

When beef prices rose as manners shipped it abroad during World War I, Americans finally discovered horse steak. By 1919, Congress was persuaded to authorize the Department of Agriculture to provide official inspections and stamps for American horse meat, although as soon as beef returned after the war, most citizens abandoned Chevalier.

The end of the war meant another drop in demand for range-bred horses no longer needed on the Western Front. During World War II food shortages, horse meat once again found its way to American tables, but the post-war backlash was rapid.

The 1973 oil crisis pushed up the price of beef and, inevitably, domestic horse meat sales rose. Protestors picketed stores on horseback, and Pennsylvania Senator Paul S. Schneider floated a bill banning the sale of horse meat for human consumption.

In the early 1980s, Montana and Texas senators shamed the Navy into removing horse meat from commissary stores. Sick, injured, or distressed horses were driven long distances to slaughter under poor conditions.

In 1997, the Los Angeles Times broke the news that 90 percent of the mustangs removed from the range by the Bureau of Land Management had been sold on for meat by their supposed adopters. Meanwhile, the town of Kaufman, Texas, mobilized against the Belgian-owned abattoir on their outskirts that paid little tax but spilled blood into the sewage system.

In DeKalb, Illinois, the only remaining American horse meat plant burned down in unexplained circumstances. The owners were prevented from rebuilding, as Illinois once more passed a law to stop the horse meat business.

The pro-slaughter lobby, backed by a 2011 GAO study, suggested that American horses had suffered, as owners no longer receiving meat money would not pay to dispose of them. Opponents pointed out that poor paperwork meant many slaughter-bound horses had been treated by drugs that should have ruled them out of the food chain.

Animal-welfare information has disappeared from government websites, and the administration is rumored to have called on the GAO to launch another study into the benefits of building domestic abattoirs. And yet, without adequate funding for proper inspections in a reborn U.S. horse meat industry, the market might languish.

Europe is already skeptical of Mexican and Canadian exports sourced from the United States, making horse meat less profitable anyway. Forever marginal, always unsteady, the business of packing and selling the poor man’s beef could boom and crash again in America.

Three different British supermarket chains have been caught selling horse meat to consumers as beef in recent months. The horse meat scandal involves three of Britain’s largest grocers, and at least one of them also operates in the United States.

The scandal started in January when Tesco, Britain’s largest supermarket chain, was caught selling hamburgers that contained horse meat. In February, DNA testing confirmed that some frozen dinners sold at Aldi, a discount grocer in Britain, contained 100 percent horse meat.

Shortly before that, lasagna sold at another chain called Finds was found to contain horse meat, as well. Said a spokesman for Aldi, “This is completely unacceptable and like other affected companies, we feel angry and let down by our supplier.

Suppliers are absolutely clear that they are required to meet our stringent specifications and that we do not tolerate any failure to do so.” “ Finds want to be absolutely explicit that they were not aware of any issue of contamination with horse meat last year,” it said in a statement.

By then Finds was already conducting a full supply chain traceability review and had pro-actively initiated DNA testing.” The discoveries prompted British hospitals and schools to check the food they served for horse meat.

A major manufacturer of baby food started testing its products for horse meat as well. The Guardian newspaper reported that 5 percent of the horse meat tested positive for a veterinary drug called phenylbutazone (or but), which is so dangerous that it is not supposed to be given to humans.

They may have a hard time doing that, because much of Britain’s meat now comes from other countries, such as Spain and Eastern Europe. In the scam, criminals pay executives at food processing plants and officials to label cheaper meat as beef.

Since large amounts of our food is now imported from Mexico and other countries, Americans might also need to be concerned. Now that horses are no longer needed for transportation and farm work, they are often regarded as companion animals.

The ASPCA also specifies “species suitable to be companion animals include dogs, cats, horses, rabbits, ferrets, birds, guinea pigs, and select other small mammals, small reptiles and fish. The Missouri Horse Council maintains that horses are livestock and “supports the legal definition of all domesticated equines to remain as livestock and opposes the current social trend of referring to them as pets or companion animals.” This is a stance taken by many similar associations in the United States and Canada.

Those who make their living as trainers, breeders, dealers and running boarding stables and schools may lose the benefit of being an agricultural endeavor if a horse were regarded solely as a companion animal. A good deal of research into equine diseases, vaccines and husbandry is government funded.

Husbandry and humane treatment laws might not apply if horses were designated companion animals. Many states are passing limited liability laws, which protect livestock owners and livestock event organizers (like cattle and horse shows) from lawsuits from anyone who is injured by a potentially large and dangerous animal such as a cattle-beast or horse.

Considering that most of us do regard our horses not just as companions, but family members, our ultimate goal should be the best possible care, in addition to protecting ourselves. I would never give horses feed made solely for ruminant species.

In a perfect situation all feeds fed to horses are milled through dedicated equine lines that never come in to contact with feed containing ionospheres and other potentially harmful medications. Assuming this mixed-use feed is ionosphere free there are other factors that make it a less-than-optimal choice for horses.

This is because in their digestive tracts, the source of microbial fermentation, precedes the site of protein absorption. In the horse the main site of protein digestion and absorption (the small intestine) occurs before the cecum and colon where the massive population of fiber utilizing microbes live.

Horses, therefore, have a limited ability to utilize microbes as a source of protein unless they eat their feces. For this reason the dietary protein provided in an equine ration must be of better quality than that fed to ruminants such as cattle.

These are essential amino acids that the horse is unable to make, and they must, therefore, be in the diet. Cattle and other ruminants can rely on their microbial protein as a source of these key amino acids, but for horses need them in the diet.

Inadequate amounts of lysine and methionine have implications for coat and hoof quality as well as muscle production, immune function, hormone production, digestive enzymes, and many other processes. Horses require more vitamin E as work increases due to the oxidation products generated in muscle tissue.

Obviously this type of work is not a concern for cattle, and an all-stock feed may only provide 20 international units (IU) per pound versus the maintenance feed for adult horses that provides 80 IU of vitamin E per pound. For working horses the level of vitamin E will be higher, possibly upwards of 100 IU per pound.

In the long run, you’re better off using a feed specifically designed to meet equine dietary needs. Horse meat continues to turn up in beef products all over Europe.

On Monday, Swedish furniture-maker Ikea announced that it was withdrawing its famous meatballs from 14 European locations after trace amounts of equine were discovered within them. The scandal has freaked out consumers across the continent, many of whom would never voluntarily purchase horse meat for dinner.

The cooking time is generally shorter than that of beef, in part because of its lean qualities. Horse is versatile meat that lends itself to a variety of preparations.

I went to a steak tasting at Edinburgh's L'Escargot Blue bistro at the height of the scandal. Chef and patron Fred Berkmillar had packed in 12 Scottish foodies, cooks, and meat suppliers and gave us rump steaks to try.

When a waiter came by to take their order, he pointed to the “Steak cache (Chevalier)” listed on the menu. Each equine variant had its own dipping sauce: Sesame oil and sea salt for the liver, a muddle of spicy miss and garlic for the sashimi.

Horse meat for the dinner menu perhaps not a typical kind of thing to know for mostly people. Meanwhile, the benefits of consuming horse meat are very important to know more, particularly in order to maintain our health and as traditional medicine treatment.

Generally, horse meat is identical as an optional menu to add man’s vitality. It is caused by the fact that horse is one of the strongest animals on Earth which being managed to be horse-drawn carriage; needs powerful energy.

Riding a horse is way easier than any other animals because it naturally connects to human and smart to be taught. Horse meat has potassium of about 10 mg per kilograms, which is very benefit to maintain your bones’ growth and strength.

Last, horse meat is rich of zinc to add hemoglobin level inside your blood. Horse meat has higher protein level than beef or chicken and produces bigger calorie of about 118 KAL.

If you are now having a diet, consuming horse meat is strongly recommended due to its low fat contain. Moreover, the high protein contains will balance the cholesterol inside your blood, both HDL and LDL.

Horse meat has saturated fat acid which makes the cholesterol level keeps being balanced inside your body. Steroid is highly contained in the horse meat, of which stimulating the cells' growth slightly increase.

If you are ongoing to get your body shaped like an athlete, then you must include horse meat into your daily menu. Each 100 grams of horse meat has 3,82 zinc, which means it can help our body to cure any diseases or symptoms such as stiff or sore.

It still needs to be examined further about the nutrition impact in horse meat which can stimulate the reducing frequency of epilepsy syndrome. Relating to numerous amount of vitamins and minerals contain in horse meat, they work effectively to help to improve our immune system.

The nutrition such as minerals and potassium can prevent the smooth muscles' contraction which causing throat constriction. Lungs fleck is a disease which causing breathe disorder and sometimes stimulating the immune system decreased.

Consuming horse meat may help to reduce the flecks by its mineral and vitamins contains to smooth and release good cholesterol (LDL) so that the blood circulation is clean and free of bacteria or any other harm viruses. Although there is no a scientific research yet related to the effectiveness of consuming horse meat as one of the good treatment for skin allergy, some evidence state that horse meat somehow effective to cure skin allergy.

It is logically caused by the mineral, potassium and low fat level inside the meat which is quite neutralized the allergen triggers. It is quite clear to state that cholesterol problem would not happen if you substitute your beef with horse meat consumption.

It is caused by the fat and cholesterol level in horse meat is way much lower than in beef or lamb. Horse is not a typical consuming meat, yet breed which is utilized to work and help human’s job.

Nowadays, it is not an odd to find restaurants, stall, or homemade cooking which serve horse meat as part of daily consumption after chicken, beef, lamb, or pork. Horse meat is not too juicy, sticky and hard chewed due to its very active and strong muscles and bones.

In America and most of Europe countries, we can easily find baked or grilled horse meat sliced into medium up to big pieces. In other hand, in most of Asia countries including Indonesia, horse meat is often served after sliced into small pieces.

Sate is small slices of meat bond into stick and covered with spices and then it is grilled. Though it is not very familiar and stable food consumption, horse meat still has its own fanatical eater, particularly men who love to taste and try its benefits of vitality increasing.

Horse milk has a very rich of nutrition and effective to cure the allergy and some degenerate diseases. So, it is official that horse meat and milk are the perfect combination to contribute a very healthy and new kind of human consumption classification.

However, we were able to find a wide selection of horse jerky from a small company in Wales and have some shipped to our offices in New York. )Cowley's “Black Beauty” horse jerky is 100% beef free.

We decided to do a blind taste test to see if people could tell the difference between horse and beef -- and to see which they liked better. While most of our fifteen contestants (66 percent) were able to correctly identify which meat was which, the beef jerky's taste earned only slightly higher ratings than the horse.

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Sources
1 www.bicyclecolorado.org - https://www.bicyclecolorado.org/initiatives/bike-school/learn-to-ride/
2 www.bike.nyc - https://www.bike.nyc/education/classes/
3 www.chicago.gov - https://www.chicago.gov/city/en/depts/cdot/provdrs/bike/news/2020/july/cdot-announces-free--learn-to-ride--bike-riding-classes-for-adul.html
4 www.bike.nyc - https://www.bike.nyc/education/classes/learn-to-ride-adults/
5 www.wenzelcoaching.com - https://www.wenzelcoaching.com/our-services/consultation/learn-to-ride-a-bike-bicycling-lessons-for-adults/
6 www.bicycleridingschool.org - https://www.bicycleridingschool.org/