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Are Horses Blue

author
Maria Johnson
• Thursday, 08 October, 2020
• 20 min read

Bluenoses Artist Franz Marc Year1911Medium Oil on canvas Dimensions105.7 cm × 181.2 cm (41 5 8 in × 71 5 16 in)Location Walker Art Center, Minneapolis, Minnesota Owner Walker Art Center, Gift of the T.B. Walker Foundation and the Gilbert M. Walker Memorial Fund, 1942.1 Bluenoses or Die grossed blue Pierre (The Large Bluenoses) is a 1911 painting by German painter and printmaker Franz Marc (1880–1916).

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(Source: www.equinenow.com)

Contents

This work, which represents three vividly colored blue horses looking down in front of a landscape of rolling red hills, is characterized by its bright primary colors and a portrayal that simplicity, and a profound sense of emotion. According to the 'Encyclopædia Britannica', “the powerfully simplified and rounded outlines of the horses are echoed in the rhythms of the landscape background, uniting both animals and setting into a vigorous and harmonious organic whole.”.

Marc gave an emotional or psychological meaning or purpose to the colors he used in his work: blue was used for masculinity and spirituality, yellow represented feminine joy, and red encased the sound of violence and of base matter. This is one of Marc's earliest major works depicting animals and the more important of his series of portraits of horses in various colors.

Review Article: The Expressionist Animal Painter Franz Marc (April 2004) ^ Compare this to Read, Herbert. At 193, describing Marc's associate and fellow Blue Rater member Kandinsky's work of this time as “Lines fluctuate and represent not only movement, but purpose and growth.

Colors are associative not only in the sense that they express human emotion (joy or sadness, etc.) (Cologne: Aachen, 1991), 38-39; Piper, Reinhard “Franz Marc: On the animal in art” in Was Tier in her Must.

While this is no doubt good news for you blue -eyed horse owners, you’re not completely out of the woods. The study did find that blue -eyed horses appear to be more susceptible to squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) than their dark-eyed brethren.

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Try to avoid exposing horses to direct sunlight at peak hours as much as possible. Unless they are crazy eyes that just so happen to be blue, then you might have an issue, but there is not a shred of scientific evidence to suggest a direct correlation between eye color and temperament.

December 18, 2020, If equestrian style is classic, timeless and traditional, Dani Walkman is its resident wild child. Between her hair feathers, yoga pants, and lace show coat, the Israeli team member is...

December 17, 2020, In introduces... Hall of Fame Thursday! Each week, we'll recognize a member of the Show Jumping Hall of Fame with an inductee’s plaque, historical photos, and articles written by Show...

December 14, 2020, The Longings Hong Kong International Races are four year-end Grade 1 contests billed as the “Turf World Championships.” They are the last of the year’s significant worldwide race meets and... December 3, 2020, The year 2020 has offered no shortage of things to complain about.

The American Olympian posted a perfect season in 2020, winning all 16... November 30, 2020 Twenty-one-year-old Lucy Declarers has spent the past two months in school at the University of Pennsylvania in Philadelphia.

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(Source: www.studyblue.com)

For the first time in history, three winners of all three Japanese Triple Crown races squared off against each other in the 40th running of the Longings Japan Cup at... White horses may have brown, blue, or hazel eyes.

In contrast to gray horses which are born with pigmented skin they keep for life and pigmented hair that lightens to white with age, truly white horses are born with white hair and mostly pink, pigmented skin. Some white horses are born with partial pigmentation in their skin and hair, which may or may not be retained as they mature, but when a white horse lightens, both skin and hair lose pigmentation.

In contrast, grays retain skin pigment and only the hair becomes white. Pigmentation phenotypes have various genetic causes, and those that have usually been studied map to the Edna and KIT genes.

There are 27 identified variants of dominant white as of 2017, plus Sabine 1, each corresponding to a spontaneously-white foundation animal and a mutation on the KIT gene. Researchers have suggested that at least some forms of dominant white result in nonviable embryos in the homozygous state, though others are known to be viable as homo zygotes.

While homologous mutations in mice are often linked to anemia and sterility, no such effects have been observed in dominant white horses. They are homozygous for the dominant SB1 allele at the Sabine 1 locus, which has been mapped to KIT.

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(Source: jeffrosenfield.wordpress.com)

The Sabino1 allele, and the associated spotting pattern, is found in Miniature horses, American Quarter Horses, American Paint Horses, Tennessee Walkers, Missouri Fox Trotters, Mustangs, Shetland Ponies, and Aztecs. The Sabine 1 allele is not linked to any health defects, though sabino-whites may need some protection from sunburn.

Two factors influence the eventual appearance of a leopard complex coat: whether one copy (heterozygous LP/LP) or two copies (homozygous LP/LP) Leopard alleles are present, and the degree of dense white patterning present at birth. If a foal is homozygous for the LP allele and has extensive dense white patterning, they will appear nearly white at birth, and may continue to lighten with age.

In other parts of the world, these horses are called “white born.” “White born” foals are less common among Appaloosa horses than Knabstruppers or Workers, as the extensive dense white patterning is favored for producing dramatic full leopards.

Homozygous leopards are substantially more prone to congenital stationary night blindness. Congenital stationary night blindness is present at birth and is characterized by impaired vision in dark conditions.

Lethal white syndrome is a genetic disorder linked to the Frame over (O) gene and most closely studied in the American Paint Horse. Affected foals are carried to term and at birth appear normal, though they have pink-skinned all-white or nearly-white coats and blue eyes.

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However, the colon of these foals cannot function due to the absence of nerve cells, and the condition cannot be treated. Foals with Lethal White Syndrome invariably die of colic within 72 hours, and are usually humanely euthanized.

Carriers of the gene, who are healthy and normal, can be identified by a DNA test. While carriers often exhibit the “frame over” pattern, this is not a dispositive trait and testing is necessary, as the pattern can appear in a minimal form as normal white markings or be masked by other white spotting genes.

The lack of pigment in the skin and hair is caused by the absence of pigment-producing cells called melanocytes. Instead, white-like coat colors result from various changes in the ways melanocytes produce pigment.

Gray foals may be born any color, but the colored hairs of their coat become progressively silvered as they age, eventually giving mature gray horses a white or nearly-white hair coat. Gray is controlled by a single dominant allele of a gene that regulates specific kinds of stem cells.

This “Ivory Champagne” foal has both cream dilution and champagne dilution genes, shown by DNA testing as well as visibly semi-pigmented, rosy skin and a cream-colored coat that can be mistaken for white. This same hair coat shade would be considered cello if the horse had double cream dilution, but still would not be white.

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(Source: nokotahorse.wordpress.com)

True white hair is rooted in pigmented skin that lacks melanocytes. In contrast, diluted coat colors have melanocytes, but vary due to the concentration or chemical structure of the pigments made by these pigment-producing cells, not the absence of the cells themselves.

There are at least five known types of pigment dilution in horses, three which, as described below, can act to produce off-white phenotypes. The Cream gene produces two types of diluted color.

Cellos, Perkins, and smoky creams have rosy-pink skin, pale blue eyes, and cream-colored coats that can appear almost white. When heterozygous, the cream gene is also responsible for palomino and buckskin.

A few Palominos have a very light hair coat is occasionally mistaken for either cello or white. White markings and patterns are visible against the slightly-pigmented coat and skin.

These two distinct dilution factors interact to produce a cremello-like coat. Champagne and cream are another pair of unrelated dilution factors that interact to produce a cremello-like coat.

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(Source: www.pinterest.com)

There are also references in literature calling white horses “albino”. In other animals, patches of pigmented skin, hair, or eyes due to the lack of pigment cells (melanocytes) are called piebald ism, not albinism nor partial albinism.

All so-called “albino” horses have pigmented eyes, generally brown or blue. In contrast, many albino mammals, such as mice or rabbits, typically have a white hair coat, pigmented skin and reddish eyes.

The Aqua later replaced the word “albino” with “cello or per lino,” and in 2002 the rule was removed entirely. In other mammals, the diagnosis of albinism is based on the impairment of tyrosine production through defects in the Color (C) gene.

Humans exhibit a wide range of pigmentation levels as a species. However, the diagnosis of albinism in humans is based on visual impairment, which has not been described in white horses.

Vision problems are not associated with gray, dilute, or white coat colors in horses, and blue eyes in horses do not indicate poor vision. The iris pigment epithelium prevents damaging light scattering within the eye.

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(Source: nokotahorse.wordpress.com)

This accounts for the reddish appearance of eyes in some types of albinism. In research mammals, such as mice, albinism is more strictly defined.

However, other benign mutations on Map are responsible for normal variations in skin, hair, and eye color in humans. Likewise, most white horses used in movies are actually grays, in part because they are easier to find.

One of the best-known examples was “Silver,” ridden by the Lone Ranger, a role actually played by two different white horses. At least one horse who played “Topper,” ridden by Hop along Cassidy, was also white.

Another famous white horse is Musician, a Japanese Thoroughbred racehorse who won the Kant Oaks at Kawasaki Racecourse. ^ “Introduction to Coat Color Genetics” from Veterinary Genetics Laboratory, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis.

Website accessed January 12, 2008 ^ Raider, Stefan; Christian Dagger; Gabriela Obexer-Ruff; Toss Lee; Pierre-André Ponce (2 February 2008). “Genetic Analysis of White Facial and Leg Markings in the Swiss Franches-Montagnes Horse Breed”.

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(Source: www.stallionsnow.com)

^ Sandbar, Lynne S.; Carrie B. Break; Sheila Archer; Bruce H. Grain (2007). ^ Locke, MM; MCT Opened; SJ Bricked; LV Million; JD Murray (2002).

“Linkage of the gray coat color locus to micro satellites on horse chromosome 25”. Although the rate at which horses will turn gray is variable, the amount of white hair increases with age until the coat is completely white at maturity.

Dark skin distinguishes the gray phenotype from that of pink-skinned cello and white horses. ^ Spielberg, Girl Rosenberg; Anna Gloves; Elisabeth Sandstorm; In Curia; Johan Lennartsson; Monika H Seltenhammer; Thomas Drum; Matthew Binds; Carolyn Fitzsimmons; Gabriella Lindgren; Key Sandberg; Rosetta Bandung; Monika Letterman; Sara Stronger; Manfred Grabber; Claire Wade; Keratin Lindblad-Toh; Fredric Often; Carl-Henrik Held in; Johann Soldier; Leif Anderson (2008).

“A cis-acting regulatory mutation causes premature hair graying and susceptibility to melanoma in the horse”. Pearl is known to interact with Cream dilution to produce pseudo-double Cream dilute phenotypes including pale skin and blue /green eyes.

The Coat Colors of Mice: A Model for Mammalian Gene Action and Interaction. ...the inability of albino animals to produce pigment stems not from an absence of melanocytes ^ a b Davis, Jeff (September–October 2007).

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(Source: www.pinterest.com)

^ “No horse is eligible for registration which possesses all three characteristics which designate a horse commonly known as an albino: light (or pink) skin over the body; white or cream colored hair over the body; and eyes of a bluish cast.” Albinism results from a structural gene mutation at the locus that codes for tyrosine; that is, albino animals have a genetically determined failure of tyrosine synthesis.

^ Hamilton, Peter; Richard Greg son; Gary EDD Fish (1997). In the most severe form, the latter may look pink since the only pigment present is hemoglobin within the iris blood vessels ^ “Chromatophores”.

^ Maria, Denis; Head Tourist; Gerard Turin (2003). “A mutation in the Map gene causes the cream coat color in the horse”.

^ Graph, J; Voila J; Hughes I; van Deal A (July 2007). “Promoter polymorphisms in the Map (SLC45A2) gene are associated with normal human skin color variation”.

Wikimedia Commons has media related to White horses. All horses are beautiful, but this gallery of unique stallions and mares take majestic to a whole new level.

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(Source: nokotahorse.wordpress.com)

With an unbelievably shiny coat that appears to be metallic in the sun, the Akhil Take is the national emblem of the country of Turkmenistan. As it turns out, the type horse photographed above has been famous since this picture of him as a foal surfaced online.

All I know is that his mane and tail PERFECTLY compliment his super shiny coat. Easily recognized for their leg feathering and common black and white or “piebald”coat color, the Blue Roan version of the beautiful Gypsy horse is considered most rare.

Lush locks and an extraordinarily bold coat make this horse a regular show-stopper, but perhaps unique are the star-shaped dapples on his front end. While not as rare as some other horses on this list, this cello is a blonde beauty.

The statues were installed in 2015 and pay homage to the rich history of Aruba’s horse-trading industry. In the 17th Century Aruba was used by many countries (Europe, South America, Caribbean islands, and the Mediterranean) as a trading post.

Aruba being the perfect trading post encouraged an extremely diverse culture and is the reason almost all Rubens speak more than 1 or 2 languages. Pictured above is the mare Rosalina, but you can also find Saturnine, Escape, Informs, Eurasia, Ambrosia, Boniface, and Celestial.

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(Source: www.stallionsnow.com)

They represent the historical moment where the horses jumped from the ship decks into the Caribbean and swam to the Aruba Bay. From our resorts at Dive & Tamarind Aruba All Inclusive, you may borrow a bicycle or rent a car and head into the city.

These eye colors can include blue, green, yellow, amber, or hazel. Most variation in eye color is the result of a white pattern or dilution.

One interesting variation to this scenario is the horse who has a blue eye with only a minimal amount of white. This type of blue eye is still thought to be caused by a white pattern however, the exact mechanism that causes blue eyes without associated face white is unknown.

Many Splashed White and Frame Over horses do not have Blue eyes and the variations in expression of these white patterns and the blue eyes associated with them is not understood. Tobago, Sabine, and the Dominant White family of patterns tend to want to retain color in the eye area thus blue eyes are rare with these patterns unless Slashed White or Frame is also present.

The cream mutation is found on the gene Membrane Associated Transporter Protein (Map). If either of these dilutions is present as well as cream, blue eyes can result.

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(Source: straightfromthehorsesmouth2you.wordpress.com)

The Champagne dilution almost always results in Amber eyes in adult horses although green and blue -green have been reported. The pearl gene also results in Amber Eyes in adult horses.

Pedigree research had led to the belief that a recessive mutation was responsible. A. Kowalski has led to the discovery that ECA1 is the probable locus responsible.

It is possible that this gene mutation could be responsible for yellow eyes in other horses of Spanish descent. In homozygous cream horses, they are sometimes seen along with slightly darker than average skin pigmentation.

Each horse confronted a colored floor mat while it was allowed to walk freely along the aisle. The horses showed the most unease with yellow, white, black or blue mats laid across their path.

In the painting, a blue horse stands with his head thoughtfully tilted. This style of painting where objects are not exactly the shape or color that you find in real life is called abstract expressionism.

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(Source: www.stallionsnow.com)

The group was formed in the same year he painted the picture of The Blue Horse. Other artists in the group like Easily Kandinsky and Paul Klee also became famous.

In 2012, the German government issued a postage stamp with a picture of The Blue Horse to celebrate the 100-year anniversary of its creation. Eric Care wrote this book to tell children that they don’t always need to follow rules when they paint.

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We promise to deliver quality journalism that stays away from vested interest and political propaganda. At this difficult time, it becomes even more important that we have access to information that has a bearing on our health and well-being, our lives, and livelihoods.

We also reiterate here the promise that our team of reporters, copy editors, fact-checkers, designers, and photographers will deliver quality journalism that stays away from vested interest and political propaganda. The key idea to keep in mind, however, is that all of these genes act only to modify the horse's existing coat color---essentially they serve to block pigment from otherwise dark hairs---they are not really a color in the same sense as bay or chestnut.

For a short introduction to the basics of horse color, please visit this page. All gray horses are likewise born “dark,” be it black, chestnut, bay appaloosa, or palomino.

Some gray horses will never turn entirely “white,” retaining traces of color in their manes and tails or on their knees and hocks. Cream Gene: Another color frequently confused as being white or albino is cello, like this handsome TB stallion, Off The Alchemist.

This color is the result of two cream genes, one from each parent, acting on a chestnut base coat. One cream gene combined with chestnut will dilute the coat to create palomino.

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Two creams genes dilute the coat to cello, a very pale, golden shade often mistaken for white. Cellos always have blue eyes which can lead to confusion with albino, a color that simply doesn't exist in any horse breed.

True albinism is a recessive condition characterized by red-eyes, pink skin, and a total lack of dark pigment. The most common one is Sabine, a pattern of white that is expressed in its minimal form as stockings and a blaze.

Moderate saints frequently have belly spots and white patches on their sides and shoulders. Most extreme saints retain a little color along their towlines, especially in the mane or on the ears.

As more breeders today are breeding for color as well as function, extreme Sabine families are slowly becoming more common. (NOTE: Patches Beauty's family has tested genetically to show they are in fact dominant white rather than Sabine.

A few families have produced an unusual number of extreme Sabine foals, the most notable of which is Patches Beauty and her kin. One of these, a mare named World O'Beauty (born 1972), produced 2 extreme Sabine fillies including Precious Beauty in 1981.

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And she, in turn, is the dam of the famous Patches Beauty who has produced 3 whites foals to date. Even though Patches Beauty and her family are regular producers of extreme saints, it should be remembered that such prolific color production is quite unusual.

It is similar in appearance to Sabine, in that the white pattern seems to “creep” up the horse starting with the legs and then belly. Occasionally, Tobias and overs, or combinations of both, will exhibit such an extreme pattern that they are almost entirely white, as seen below.

His pattern has been restrained to just his head, chest, and flanks (also known as a medicine hat). The horse that is second from the left is Designated Hitter, a homozygous Tobago who I suspect may carry over as well. The horse that is second from the right is an extremely marked tovero---the only color remaining unmasked in his coat in a spot around his eye and a few on his barrel and flanks.

The horse at right, PPQ Spirit of Romance, is an extreme over, and his color is entirely masked by the pattern. The idea of a dominant white gene has fallen in and out of favor among students of equine color genetics over the years, and until very recently, it was assumed to be a variation of the Sabine pattern.

(Sabine appears to be polygenic, and more than one complex of (likely related) genes can produce a sabino-type pattern. In 2007, a Swiss research team found and isolated the dominant white gene.

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Obviously, not all overs are lethal in the homozygous state---only frames, not saints or splash whites. For this reason, a test has been devised to determine which horses do carry frame as a safety precaution for breeders.

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