These animals are properly termed asses and are not referred to as donkeys, and never called burros. Jennet or jenny is a fem ale ass.
John is an informal term for a male mule. Mule is a hybrid animal that is produced when a male ass (jack) is crossed with a female horse (mare).
This term is used from the time of birth up until about 6 to 10 months of age when the animal is weaned. (This term may also be used for other species) Heifer is a female bovine that has not had a calf.
Steer is a castrated male bovine or can be a future ox that is less than 4 years old. Ox is castrated bull that has been trained to work and is at least 4 years of age.
Horse is a domesticated large single hoofed mammal (Equus Catullus) with a short-haired coat, a long mane, and a long tail used for riding, pulling, or carrying loads. Rabbit is a mammal of the family Leonidas or the domesticated Old World species Oryctolagus cuniculus.
Rabbi try is where owners keep their herd of rabbits in separate cages. Warren is where owners keep their herd of rabbits as a group in a large cage or enclosure.
Swine are even-toed ungulates of the family Sundae, including pigs, hogs, and boars. Barrow is a castrated (before sexual maturity) male swine.
Hog is a mature swine with an adult weight above 150 pounds. These makes rendering easier and results in less loss of good meat.
Shoat is a young hog (not sexually mature) that has been weaned and is ready for market weighing 150-260 pounds Sow is an adult female swine. Stag is a castrated (after sexual maturity) male swine.
Trio is typically a group of poultry with one male and two females Chicken is a common domestic fowl (Gallup domestics).
Capon is male chickens that have been castrated, and they are harvested at 4-8 months old. They weigh 5-9 pounds and produce more white meat and have higher fat content than other chickens.
Cock is a male chicken at least one year of age or older. A pullet is, in industry, a young female that has yet to start laying eggs Roasters are chickens that are 6-12 months of age weighing 4-7 pounds.
Stewing fowl is a mature male or female chicken over one year of age. Ducks are any wild or domesticated swimming birds of the family Native, typically having a broad, flat bill, short legs, and webbed feet.
Young drake is a male duck under 1 year of age. Geese are wild or domesticated water birds of the family Native and of the genera Answer and Brant that typically have a shorter neck than a swan and a shorter, more pointed bill than a duck.
Young gander is a male goose under 1 year of age. Turkey is a large North American bird (Milagros Galloway) that is widely domesticated for food and comes in many varieties.
I mean anything pertaining to horses, equine or equine is the family of horses which also includes asses and zebras, just as bovine refers to cows. A cow or bovine can have a variety of companions, dogs, goats, horses, cats, other cows, even people.
Steers are male bovine that have been castrated or have had their testicles cut off, so they cannot reproduce. The word bovine can be used as a noun or an adjective. Used as a noun it would be:”His size, as well as his horns, made the bull an impressive bovine.
“Used as an adjective it would be:”Our car was trapped by the bovine herd.” Bovine Tuberculosis is an infectious disease caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium Boris.
Of or pertaining to a goat 2) From Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary (1913) Airline 1. Feb 14 2001, 4:01 Sheep are vine and goats are caprine.
The word capricious comes from caprine and is based on the impulsive and whimsical behavior of goats. Nautilator Moderator 9 year member467 repliesAnswer has 3 votes.
Feline and canine are pretty much in common usage and to a lesser degree equine, ursine and vulpine. The poet Ogden Nash had a great way of putting things in perspective.
The bumps that we call warts are part of a toad’s protective camouflage and help it blend in with its dry, rocky environment. Normally, dogs, cattle, and horses grow warts that are caused by species-specific papillomavirus.
There are, however, many species of animal that can develop actual warts caused by strains of papillomavirus. In fact, warts can be found in all domestic animal species, including birds and fish.
Cattle, horses, and dogs are the domestic animals most commonly affected by warts. Animal warts are mainly a cosmetic concern, but because they are caused by a virus, animals that have warts are not allowed to enter shows or competitions.
Insects (i.e., ticks, mosquitoes) likely transmit the papillomavirus between animals. In cattle, warts are likely to develop on the head, neck, and shoulders.
Warts begin to appear about 8 weeks after the cow is infected with the virus and last for about 1 year. Calves are most susceptible to the papillomavirus; it is rare to find warts on a cow that is older than 2 years.
Young dogs can develop mucous membrane papillomatosis or warts in and around the mouth and throat. The warts are usually harmless but can interfere with the animal’s ability to chew and swallow.
Older dogs generally develop solitary warts in the mucous membranes. Dogs are considered to be one of the most susceptible animals for acquiring warts caused by the papillomavirus.
Like other forms of animal warts, these are caused by some types of papillomavirus, specific to canines. There is also a possibility for dogs to grow warts on their feet, paws, eyelids, face and outside their genitals.
When a dog is infected, immunization is necessary and is injected in cuts, wounds, or any skin opening. Once dogs are infected, warts may occur within one to eight weeks but may remain for months or a few years.
There is a slight danger in oral warts as it can become cancerous, so veterinarians will perform a biopsy on the lump to provide an accurate diagnosis, but this procedure may vary based on the age of the dog. Horses develop warts on the nose, lips, eyelids, legs, genitals, and udder and inside the ears.
They even get more easily infected when calves have cuts or skin openings. After initial infection of papillomatosis, they will receive immunity from the virus for 3 to 4 weeks and the infection may recur if the immune system of the cattle is weak.
Sometimes, you may find warts grow on lactating cows’ teats. It is very common for cattle to be infected with PV and in fact, they are known to be the main point of supply of the infectious virus.
Even so, tools and instruments used in taking care of cattle like ropes and halters can possibly be a medium for transmitting the virus. You may want to consider removing them through surgery especially if the wart grew near the eyes.
One preventive measure you may take to make sure that the animal doesn’t acquire the disease is through immunization, especially if you take care of animals in herds. It is always a good idea to isolate infected animals, so the virus does not spread.
You may also want to consult with a veterinarian in regard to effective control program on farms. Indiana State Board of Animal Health .
Indiana State Board of Animal Health Tech Bulletin RC4-11.98 . Porter RL, Horseman L. Cattle warts: bovine papillomatosis .
Busch K. Smart Stuff With Twig Walking stick: toad warts . The act of marking livestock with fire-heated marks to identify ownership has origins in ancient times, with use dating back to the ancient Egyptians around 2,700 BCE.
Among the ancient Romans, the symbols used for brands were sometimes chosen as part of a magic spell aimed at protecting animals from harm. In English lexicon, the word “brand”, common to most Germanic languages (from which root also comes “burn”, cf.
By the European Middle Ages, it commonly identified the process of burning a mark into stock animals with thick hides, such as cattle, to identify ownership under animus reverted. The practice became particularly widespread in nations with large cattle grazing regions, such as Spain.
These European customs were imported to the Americas and were further refined by the vaquero tradition in what today is the southwestern United States and northern Mexico. The unique brand meant that cattle owned by multiple ranches could then graze freely together on the open range.
Cowboys could then separate the cattle at “roundup” time for driving to market. Cattle rustlers using running irons were ingenious in changing brands.
Brands became so numerous that it became necessary to record them in books that the ranchers could carry in their pockets. Laws were passed requiring the registration of brands, and the inspection of cattle driven through various territories.
Penalties were imposed on those who failed to obtain a bill of sale with a list of brands on the animals purchased. The main purpose is in proving ownership of lost or stolen animals.
In many cases, a brand on an animal is considered prima facie proof of ownership. This industry has a number of traditional terms relating to the type of brand on a hide.
“Colorado branded” (slang “Collie”) refers to placement of a brand on the side of an animal, although this does not necessarily indicate the animal is from Colorado. Outside the livestock industry, hot branding was used in 2003 by tortoise researchers to provide a permanent means of unique identification of individual Galápagos tortoises being studied.
In this case, the brand was applied to the rear of the tortoises' shells. This technique has since been superseded by implanted PIT microchips (combined with ID numbers painted on the shell).
The traditional cowboy or stock man captured and secured an animal for branding by roping it, laying it over on the ground, tying its legs together, and applying a branding iron that had been heated in a fire. Modern ranch practice has moved toward use of chutes where animals can be run into a confined area and safely secured while the brand is applied.
Two types of restraint are the cattle crush or squeeze chute (for larger cattle), which may close on either side of a standing animal, or a branding cradle, where calves are caught in a cradle which is rotated so that the animal is lying on its side. The calf is then pulled up to several sloping topped panels and a post constructed for the purpose in the center of the yard.
The unmounted stock men then apply leg ropes and pull it to the ground to be branded, earmarked and castrated (if a bull) there. With the advent of portable cradles, this method of branding has been mostly phased out on stations.
However, there are now quite a few bronco branding competitions at rodeos and camp drafting days, etc. Regardless of heating method, the iron is only applied for the amount of time needed to remove all hair and create a permanent mark.
Branding irons are applied for a longer time to cattle than to horses, due to the differing thicknesses of their skins. If a brand is applied too long, it can damage the skin too deeply, thus requiring treatment for potential infection and longer-term healing.
Horses may also be branded on their hooves, but this is not a permanent mark, so needs to be redone about every six months. In the military, some brands indicated the horses army and squadron numbers.
Merino rams and bulls are sometimes fire branded on their horns for permanent individual identification. Because this persists only until the animal sheds its hair, it is not considered a properly applied brand.
Other temporary, but for a time, persistent marking methods include tagging, and nose printing. Tagging usually uses numbering system as a way to identify animals in a herd.
It does this by putting together a letter and number to represent the year born and the birth order, then the tag is either attached to the animal’s ear or to some form of neck collar. Nose printing or use of indelible ink elsewhere on the skin and hair is used at some farms, sales and exhibitions.
As hair or skin cells shed, the mark eventually fades. Microchips are used on many animals, and are particularly popular with horses, as the chip leaves no external marks.
Ear marking or tattooing are usually used on goats under eight weeks of age because regular branding would harm them. Temporary branding on sheep is done with paint, crayons, spray markers, chalk, and much more.
Rather than burning a scar into the animal, a freeze brand damages the pigment-producing hair cells, causing the animal's hair to grow white where the brand has been applied. At this time, hogs cannot be successfully freeze branded, as their hair pigment cells are better protected.
Also, freeze branding is slower, more expensive, less predictable (more care is required in application to assure desired results), and in some places does not constitute a legal brand on cattle. When an animal grows a long hair coat, the freeze brand is still visible, but its details are not always clear.
Thus, it is sometimes necessary to shave or closely trim the hair so that a sharper image of a freeze brand can be viewed. This is because hair is an excellent insulator, and must be removed so the freezing of the freeze branding iron can be applied directly to the skin.
The iron, made of metal such as brass or copper that removes heat rapidly from the skin, is submerged into the coolant. Immediately before the iron is applied, the animal's skin is rubbed, squirted, or sprayed with a generous amount of 99% alcohol, then the freeze branding iron is removed from the coolant and held onto the skin with firm pressure for several seconds.
The exact amount of time will vary according to the species of the animal, the thickness of its skin, the type of metal the branding iron is made of, the type of coolant being used, and the color of its hair coat. Besides livestock, freeze branding can also be used on wild, hairless animals such as dolphins for purposes of tracking individuals.
The brand appears as a white mark on their bare skin and can last for decades. In Australia, all Arabian, Part Bred Arabians, Australian Stock Horses, Quarter Horses, Thoroughbreds, must be branded with an owner brand on the near (left) shoulder and an individual foaling drop number (in relation to the other foals) over the foaling year number on the off shoulder.
Thoroughbreds and Standardized in Australia and New Zealand are freeze branded. In the United States, branding of horses is not generally mandated by the government; however, there are a few exceptions: captured Mustangs made available for adoption by the BLM are freeze branded on the neck, usually with the Arabs or with numbers, for identification.
Horses that test positive for equine infectious anemia, that are quarantined for life rather than euthanized, will be frozen branded for permanent identification. Some breed associations have, at times, offered freeze branding as either a requirement for registration or simply as an optional benefit to members, and individual horse owners may choose to brand as a means by which to permanently identify their animals.
As of 2011, the issue of whether to mandate horses be implanted with RFID microchips under the National Animal Identification System generated considerable controversy in the United States. Branding iron from Swedish stallion depot. Most brands in the United States include capital letters or numerals, often combined with other symbols such as a slash, circle, half circle, cross, or bar.
Brands are called from left to right, top to bottom, and when one character encloses another, from outside to inside. Reading of complex brands and picture brands depends at times upon the owner's interpretation, may vary depending upon location, and it may require an expert to identify some of the more complex marks.
In general, the following usage of the term “symbol” usually means a capital letter. For example, a short horizontal line over an M or before an M would be read as “Bar M”.
Similarly, a short horizontal line under an M or after an M would be read as “M Bar”. “Rail” is alternative terminology to “bar” in some areas referencing a long horizontal line.
For example, a long horizontal line over an M or before an M would be read as “Rail M”. Similarly, a long horizontal line under an M or after an M would be read as “M Rail”.
Similarly, a symbol turned 90 degrees, lying on its back (or left-hand side) can be read as “Lazy Up” or “Lazy Left”. Wikimedia Commons has media related to Livestock branding.
And Mufti, O., “The Hot History and Cold Future of Brands”, Journal of Managerial Sciences, Vol. 1, 2007, p. 76 ^ Eva D'Umbra, “Racing with Death: Circus Sarcophagi and the Commemoration of Children in Roman Italy” in Constructions of Childhood in Ancient Greece and Italy (American School of Classical Studies at Athens, 2007), p. 351.
^ Examples of hoof brands and what they look like when applied (commercial site) ^ “Falkland”. “Methods of Livestock Identification”, Farm Animal Management @ Purdue.
Animal Vocabulary Quiz There are also fanciful or invented collective terms such as: an ambush of tigers, a wilderness of monkeys, a zeal of zebra.