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Are Horses Considered Exotic Animals

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Brent Mccoy
• Sunday, 25 October, 2020
• 32 min read

Typically, anything that isn't a dog, cat, or domesticated farm animal like a cow or horse is considered exotic. If you are trying to figure out whether exotic pets are legal to keep where you live, check with your state or local government.

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Contents

Even if an animal is exotic, keeping them as pets may be permissible under the law if certain requirements are met. Some states prohibit ferrets, some only permit native species, and some are very specific as to what kinds of exotic animals are not allowed as pets.

If it isn't a farm animal, dog, or cat, your vet probably considers it to be an exotic pet. Now that horses are no longer needed for transportation and farm work, they are often regarded as companion animals.

The ASPCA also specifies “species suitable to be companion animals include dogs, cats, horses, rabbits, ferrets, birds, guinea pigs, and select other small mammals, small reptiles and fish. The Missouri Horse Council maintains that horses are livestock and “supports the legal definition of all domesticated equines to remain as livestock and opposes the current social trend of referring to them as pets or companion animals.” This is a stance taken by many similar associations in the United States and Canada.

Those who make their living as trainers, breeders, dealers and running boarding stables and schools may lose the benefit of being an agricultural endeavor if a horse were regarded solely as a companion animal. A good deal of research into equine diseases, vaccines and husbandry is government funded.

Husbandry and humane treatment laws might not apply if horses were designated companion animals. Many states are passing limited liability laws, which protect livestock owners and livestock event organizers (like cattle and horse shows) from lawsuits from anyone who is injured by a potentially large and dangerous animal such as a cattle-beast or horse.

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Considering that most of us do regard our horses not just as companions, but family members, our ultimate goal should be the best possible care, in addition to protecting ourselves. Originally, it referred to species that were considered wild animals and not typically kept as domestic pets.

Though it's often subject to local jurisdiction, a partial federal law describes an exotic pet as one that it's to a foreign country or of foreign origin or character, not native to the United States, or was introduced from abroad, excluding wild animals. Amphibians have thin, fragile skin that can dry out quickly and damage easily if handled roughly.

Tomekbudujedomek / Getty Images Some people like to keep scorpions, which are docile but can sting. Anita Belmont / Getty Images The category of reptiles includes some of the most ancient species on Earth.

Regardless of species, all reptiles (and amphibians, too) can potentially carry Salmonella bacteria, so these pets are not meant for very young children who might handle them and then put their hands in their mouths. German Rattanagowin / Eye / Getty Images There are a lot of pets that are considered rodents, chinchillas, mice, gerbils, prairie dogs, and rats.

Some things to consider when you are thinking about getting a rodent pet are whether they are nocturnal creatures that sleep during the day or if they keep a schedule more like you and are awake when the sun is up. Christian Hunter / Getty Images Regardless of which kind of animal you decide to keep as an exotic pet, do your research prior to acquiring one so that you can care for it properly.

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This encompasses many species of animals including pocket pets, birds, reptiles, fish, and amphibians in addition to those animals that are less often seen as pets such as primates, kangaroos, pot-bellied pigs, and big cats. You will find the emphasis here mostly on small exotic pets that are just a bit out of the ordinary, but still often found in pet stores and homes around the world such as rabbits, ferrets, hamsters, guinea pigs, hedgehogs, etc.

The term exotic is generally used to describe something that is foreign, or something different or unusual. The problem with using “foreign” is that it is a relative term, so is not a precise definition in itself.

D. Wilson is a writer and author of essays, poetry, and scholarship that explore the relationship between popular culture, literature, sexuality, and memoir. His latest book is Jesus Freak, with Will Stockton, part of Bloomsbury’s 33 1/3 Series.

His first chapbook, Catch & Release, won the 2012 Robin Becker Prize from See... Leslie Kasperowicz holds a BA in Social Sciences from the University of Winnipeg.

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We can all agree: Owning an exotic pet has become an important issue, with implications ranging from public health and safety to individual rights and liberties. We’ll define exotic animals, look at state-by-state laws in place, consider the liabilities of owning such pets, explore organizations working both for and against exotic pet ownership, and finally, turn to some expert advice on this timely topic.

In March 2020, Netflix reignited the public debate over exotic animal ownership with its docu-series, Tiger King: Murder, Mayhem and Madness. Chronicling the journey of Joe Exotic from small-town Oklahoma “zoo” owner to one of the most interesting of the FBI’s most wanted, the show quickly became an instant hit and sparked much public debate.

The show is sensational, but it also brings up many important issues within the exotic animal trade, such as ownership, poaching, breeding, and interstate sales, not to mention competition among exotic animal private zoo owners. Read on to find out more about each state’s laws and legalities surrounding the ownership of an exotic pet.

The most common types of exotic pets are reptiles, from boa constrictors to Komodo dragons. But the exotic pets that have been making the most news are large cats, specifically lions, tigers, leopards, pumas, and hybrid bred felines.

These cats pose the most questions to those of us interested in public and private liabilities, as well as animal welfare in general, as many people believe exotic animals shouldn’t be pets. In the table below, we’ve gathered the average purchase price for a few of the most popular (non-reptile) exotic animals.

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Though we have a federal code loosely defining an exotic animal across the United States, most laws governing the ownership, sale, and breeding of exotic pets can be found on the state and local level. If you are wondering how to get an exotic pet license, it will depend on the laws in your state which we will discuss below.

Federal laws do exist, however, that regulate captive wild animals in some constitutionally enumerated areas, such as interstate commerce and foreign policy.” The most extensive federal law concerning exotic animals is the Captive Wildlife Safety Act (CSA).

Let’s take a look at these relevant state laws, information we gathered from the animal rights organization Born Free USA. 20 states have comprehensive bans in place regarding exotic animal ownership, breeding, and sales.

“These bans typically classify wild cats, large non-domesticated carnivores, reptiles, and non-human primates as ‘dangerous animals or otherwise prohibit private ownership of these species. Live game animals are defined as any species of bird, reptile, and mammal, including a feral domestic animal, found or introduced in the state, except domestic birds and mammals.

Wild animals include, but are not limited to the following orders: Primates; Marsupials; Insectivora (shrews); Chiroptera (bats); Carnivora (non-domestic dog and cats); Proboscidea (elephants); Perissodactyla (zebras, horses, rhinos); Reptilia (crocodiles, cobras, coral snakes, pit vipers, snapping turtles, alligators); etc. Filmed in the San Luis National Wildlife Complex along the San Joaquin River west of Merced, California, visiting such preserves is a responsible and generally safe way to experience animals up close that you might not think of as living so near you.

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Inherently dangerous animals include, but are not limited to the following orders: Marsupials (kangaroos); primates (chimpanzees, gorillas, macaques); Carnivora (canines, felines); Proboscidea (elephants); Crocodile (crocodiles, alligators, cobras, all poisonous rear-fanged species). Not surprisingly, Hawaii is home to many beautiful wildlife refuges, which allow animals to roam free and protected in their natural habitat.

Specifically, one cannot possess members of the Cervical, Sundae, Tayassuidae (peccaries), Bovine (bison, mountain goat, mountain sheep), nor can they possess coyotes, bears, turkeys, and fur bearers. However, there are no state laws governing the possession of non-domesticated felines, primates, reptiles, and other wildlife not listed above.

A potentially dangerous animal includes but is not limited to large cats, wolves, bears, hyenas, non-human primates, elephants, alligators, crocodiles, water monitors, crocodile monitors; and various species of venomous snakes. Washington, one of the most beautiful states in the country with a diverse ecosystem, is home to many wildlife refuges.

Class I Wildlife includes, but is not limited to the following: chimpanzees, gorillas, orangutans, baboons, leopards, jaguars, tigers, lions, bears, elephants, crocodiles, etc. Class II Wildlife includes, but is not limited to the following: howler and guard monkeys, macaques, cougars, bobcats, cheetahs, ocelots, serials, coyotes, wolves, hyenas, alligators, etc.

Florida is home to the other star of Tiger King, Carole Basin, who runs the organization Big Cat Rescue, featured in the video below. In addition, Florida has promulgated regulations governing possession of Class II and III animals (caging requirements, etc.).

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People who are licensed by the U.S. Department of Agriculture and hold an Animal Welfare Act license are exempt as well as zoos accredited by the American Zoo and Aquarium Association, a wildlife sanctuary, research facility, etc. Individuals who possessed a nonhuman primate before the effective date of the regulation or a big cat (only one) before August 15, 2006, are grandfathered in as long as they obtain a permit.

No person may possess venomous or large constricting snakes (defined as more than 12 feet long) without first obtaining a permit. Given that Louisiana is home to many endangered or nearly-endangered species, several wildlife refuges serve the state.

Class I wildlife includes the following orders: Primates (gorillas, orangutans, chimpanzees, gibbons, shamans, mandrills, drills, baboons, Nevada baboons only); Carnivores (all wolves, all bears, lions, tigers, leopards, jaguars, cheetahs, cougars); Proboscidea (all elephants); Perissodactyla (all rhinoceroses); Artiodactyla (all hippos and African buffalo); Crocodile (crocodiles and alligators); Serpents (all poisonous snakes); and amphibians (all poisonous species). However, the state does not regulate private possession of species not listed above, such as monkeys and small non-domesticated cats (ocelots, serials, etc.

People may possess these animals if they are a licensed exhibitor, i.e. commercial, educational, or scientific uses. You might expect Virginia, one of the nation’s fastest-growing states, to have little room left for wildlife and outdoor adventure.

This video takes you to the Great Dismal Swamp National Wildlife Refuge. This refuge is a 112,000-acre seasonally flooded wetland forest located in southeastern Virginia and northeastern North Carolina, full of wildlife and just plain beautiful vistas.

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Given the average purchase cost and state permitting fee, you could buy a tiger cub in Arizona for around $2,000 plus the requisite Certificate of Veterinary Inspection (CVI) form. It is illegal to possess, sell, or exhibit any poisonous snake not native to or generally found in Delaware.

“Deleterious exotic animal” is defined as any live animal or a hybrid that is not native to the state of Idaho and is determined by the department to be dangerous to the environment, livestock, agriculture, or wildlife of the state. A wild animal possession permit is required for Class I animals (eastern cottontail rabbit, gray squirrel, fox squirrel, Southern flying squirrel), Class II animals (beaver, coyote, gray fox, red fox, mink, muskrat, opossum, raccoon, skunk, weasel), and Class III animals : wolves (purebred), bears, wild cats (excluding feral cats), venomous reptiles and crocodiles (at least five feet long).

“Large carnivore” is defined as tiger, lion, jaguar, leopard, snow leopard, clouded leopard, and cheetah, including a hybrid cross with such cat, but excluding any unlisted nonnative cat, or any common domestic or house cat; or a bear of a species that is nonnative to this state and held in captivity. Any person possessing, breeding, or transporting a large carnivore on or after Jan. 1, 2012, shall apply for and obtain a permit from the division.

A wild animal menagerie means any place where one or more bears or large cats, including cougars, lions, tigers, jaguars, leopards, pumas, cheetahs, ocelots, and hybrids of those large cats are kept in captivity for use other than a public exhibition. All other exotic animals entering the state, such as reptiles, monkeys, etc., must be accompanied by a one-time entry permit and an official health certificate.

Dangerous wild animals are defined as lions, tigers, ocelots, cougars, leopards, cheetahs, jaguars, bobcats, lynxes, serials, Caracas, hyenas, bears, coyotes, jackals, baboons, chimpanzees, orangutans, gorillas, or any hybrids of the animals listed. Given the average animal purchase price and permit cost in Texas, you could own a leopard here for as little as $3,020.

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Fish from the genus Cl arias Fish from the genus Serrasalmus Black carp Any species of mongoose Any member of the family Cervical (deer, elk, moose, caribou) Any species of coyote, fox, raccoon, skunk, wild rodents or wild turkey Examples of such animals are the following: alligators, crocodiles, coyotes, foxes, raccoons, etc.

In addition, an entry permit from the state veterinarian is required before importing into the state a skunk, fox, raccoon, ringtail, bobcat, North and South American felines, coyote marten, and brush tail possum. Certain rodents may not be imported unless the person receives authorization from the Department of Natural Resources.

In most states with licensing schemes for exotic animals, common sense is at the center of liability for exotic pet ownership. Because legal liabilities are so high for exotic animal owners, insurance is a valuable tool to protect against financial ruin.

As we’ll explore in the next section, look to the type of homeowners insurance you have to see if your pet, exotic or not, is covered. As you can see in the video below from ABC News, insurance for exotic pets specifically has become a cottage industry.

Homeowners insurance covers the actual structure of your physical house and your personal belongings. It’s important to check your homeowners policy to see if your liability component covers pets, domestic or exotic.

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If you want this policy to include your exotic pets, most insurers recommend upping your liability coverage to at least $300,000. Many media groups are beginning to launch extensive investigations into the exotic animal trade.

Netflix’s docu-series Tiger King, for example, has been extremely popular and offers an in-depth look at people on both sides of the exotic pet debate. In the video below, you can get an inside look at the exotic animal trade with Vice Media.

The Humane Society of the United States has launched a comprehensive Stopping the Wildlife Trade Campaign. They report that not only is the global exotic animal trade a $10 billion a year business, but also that of the 5,000 to 7,000 tigers currently living in the United States, only 400 can be found in accredited zoos.

The Association of Zoos & Aquariums has a similar campaign: the Wildlife Trafficking Alliance. Perhaps the most infamous of the NGOs working to end exotic pet ownership in the United States is People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals, commonly known as PETA.

Organizations advocating for the owners, breeders, and sellers of exotic animals usually make an argument along the lines of animal conservation. “While zoos and preserves are in the forefront of species conservation, space and funds for these animals is limited.

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Therefore, conservation may depend on private citizens… NASA supports the responsible ownership of exotics, including the private breeding, sale, and ownership of these animals under regulations that protect their welfare and provide for public safety.” Most pro- exotic animal owner organizations are species-based lobbying groups, such as the United States Association of Reptile Keepers (US ARK).

As the public debate surrounding exotic pet ownership continues to expand, we expect more of these species-based lobbying groups to crop up, especially for big cat breeds, who represent the most contentious part of this debate. We asked a variety of animal welfare, public policy, law, safety, and insurance experts or advocates, as well as veterinarians, vet techs, and insurance agents, to weigh in on the pressing issue of exotic pet ownership, sales, and breeding.

Below you can find some of their insightful thoughts on this topic that brings out the passion in a lot of people. Sometimes their aggression can cause a lot of problems with neighbors and other family and friends coming over to visit.

If these animals are very aggressive they can bite other people who are in your house and cause a lot of unwanted legal trouble for you. Wild cats are usually very hard to handle in the vet office and have to be sedated before we can do any sort of exam on them.

While I enjoy being able to practice medicine on many of these exotic species, they are not the main pet that I recommended for people to have in their homes. Another big problem is that these types of exotic animals have a very different diet than they need to continuously adhere to in order for them to be healthy, and there is no commercially made food for these animals to eat.

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In most cases, owners would have to cook special meals for these animals in order for them to be their pets. If someone wants a different species of animal, I usually try to direct them to hamsters, rats, snakes, and lizards.

Sara Ochoa is an exotic veterinarian and a veterinary consultant for Dog Lab. For the past five years, she has been treating cats, dogs, and exotic animals in Texas. “Owning an exotic animal creates very significant exposure to a personal injury lawsuit.

This means that an owner is held liable for their exotic animal, regardless of how much care they took to prevent injuries. The California courts have specifically found that this strict liability can be imposed on keepers of lions and tigers, bears, elephants, wolves and monkeys.

Under these policies, insurance companies have no obligation to defend a business from a lawsuit arising out of a wild animal injury. This leaves the exotic owner to bear (no pun intended) all financial responsibility.

Such policies provide defense and indemnity in claims made against an exotic owner when the animal causes injury. “I am a Criminologist at Southwestern Oklahoma State University and have been investigating the origins, impact, and continuation of California’s prohibition of ferrets.

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My presentation, Crossing the Line: California’s War on Ferrets, was well attended and hopefully the published peer-reviewed version of my manuscript will be available in the near future. Similarly, there are necessary exceptions in California’s laws to allow research institutions to own ferrets for scientific purposes.

What are the laws in place or in proposed legislation about the ownership and/or sale of exotic pets? “Ferret ownership is subject to a wide variety of state and local laws.

The most notable laws about ferret ownership are outright bans in California and New York City. Much of the evidence cited to justify their ban is not backed by scientific research and the feared results of legalizing ferrets in California have not been observed in other states.

I have traveled across the country for graduate school and different jobs, and have had to be very careful about checking what the laws are in the cities and states where I would be living. Because of this susceptibility, ferrets are commonly used in laboratory research to develop vaccines and other medical treatments such as Tami flu.

Below you can see a short three-minute video by the Imperial College of London on the importance of ferrets in the development of vaccines. In the video, they note that every year, ferrets are used to decide whether changes need to be made to the flu vaccine’s formula.

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Can you share a specific story about an exotic pet owner or breeder and any legal or liability problems they’ve faced? The events that led to his arrest started when his ferret allegedly bit a little girl.

Brent They wrote an emotional letter to Jeanne Carla, a member of the Californians for Ferret Legalization (CFL), before going to jail in 1995. In the letter he tells the story about how he was traveling from Arizona to his mother’s home in California.

He explained that he was ticketed, and they confiscated his ferrets at a Food and Agriculture Inspection Station on the Arizona/California border. The final line of his note is the most moving part of the letter when he wrote, ‘ If you want to know how I feel let someone shoot your family dog or cat or horse, then you’ll know.

Pet owners must take great care to ‘ferret-proof’ the living area where they house their ferrets. The public tends to assume ferrets are mean, ferocious, smelly, and dirty.

The majority of ferret shelters are run out of individuals’ homes or on private property.” Daniel Ryan Lavish, Ph.D., is an assistant professor of sociology & criminal justice. He works in the Department of Social Sciences at Southwestern Oklahoma State University.

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Exotic pet ownership is a pressing public health and safety as well as personal liberty issue that has gained a lot of widespread coverage with the release of Netflix’s docu-series Tiger King. First, we defined exotic animals, then we looked at state-by-state laws in place, considered the liabilities of owning such pets, explored organizations working both for and against exotic pet ownership, and finally, turned to some expert advice on this timely topic.

No matter which side of the exotic pet ownership debate you fall on, it’s important to be an informed citizen and to know about the legal ramifications and personal liabilities of owning, breeding, or selling such animals. In the LAWS column of the table above, “full ban” represents states with a comprehensive exotic animal ban, “partial ban” represents states with a partial exotic animal pan, “permitting system” represents states with a permitting or licensing scheme in place to allow for exotic animals, and “no ban” represents the four states without exotic animal laws in place.

As you can see, states such as Colorado, Indiana, New Hampshire, and Wyoming have especially high fines for exotic pet ownership or trading. For this comprehensive look into the legalities and liabilities of owning an animal deemed exotic, we focused on data provided by the Animal Legal & Historical Center at Michigan State University, the U.S.

These are three leaders providing comprehensive data and legal information regarding exotic animals and public health in the United States. We believe that understanding the state-by-state legislation surrounding exotic animal ownership, breeding, and sales is important to understand how local, state, and federal legislation, either current or future, determine what is allowed.

For our additional questions about exotic animals in the United States, we turned to three experts, including a veterinarian, an attorney, and a criminology professor who researches the exotic animal trade. One noted that ferrets can aid with finding a coronavirus cure, which would be helpful for many societies as even behaviors like mobility have been reduced significantly.

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Overall, these folks helped us understand both the personal and cultural effects of exotic animal ownership, sales, and breeding. Simply type your ZIP code into our quote tool and then you can quickly compare the best rates based on the policies you need and where you live.

The definition is an evolving one; some rodents, reptiles, and amphibians have become firmly enough established in the world of animal fancy to sometimes no longer be considered exotic. “ Exotic often refers to a species which is not native or indigenous to the owner's locale, and “pet” is a companion animal living with people.

However, many use the term to include native species as well (e.g., snakes may sometimes be considered exotic as pets even in places where they are found in the wild). It defines exotic animal”, in part, as “ ... that is native to a foreign country or of foreign origin or character, is not native to the United States, or was introduced from abroad” (a broad scope which would include most pets, such as housecoats, domesticated dog breeds, horses, canaries, and parakeets).

An extremely wide variety of animals have been kept as pets (at least in rare instances) or as farm stock. Below is a list of some animals that are kept in captivity at home and are considered a little or extremely exotic “.

The Convention on the International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Flora and Fauna, or CITES, moderates the trade of some exotic pets around the world, to prevent any threats to their survival and ecological damage. The USDA issues permits for keeping and breeding certain exotic species, whether captured from the wild or bred.

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In the United States, for example, it is illegal to import non-human primates for the pet trade, but animals bred in captivity exist in the trade, using animals descended from those brought in legally before the ban was enacted. In 2003, the US Captive Wild Animal Safety Act (CASA) became law, and in September 2007 the US Fish and Wildlife Service enacted rules to enforce it.

While there are many ways that live animals are smuggled across borders, there are often heavy losses due to the methods of transportation; many species of small animals can be piled into tiny, and usually airtight, containers and often die as a result. In one example of smuggling, slow lorises trafficked from Indonesia have their teeth removed prior to being sold locally, or exported to Japan or Russia.

International treaties (such as CITES) have been established to combat the illegal sale and transport of vulnerable animals and plants, but failure to properly enforce these regulations leave many loopholes for the illegal trade to continue. For example, the United States has both signed CITES during its creation and created its own national laws against the import and sale of elephant ivory, but as of 2008 it was found to be the second largest importer of it behind China.

Historically, trade in exotic pets has been known to drive the destruction and extinction of animals in the wild. To a much smaller extent, this holds today: one of the major factors behind the status of the slow loris is the fact it is often kept locally as a pet, or traded to Japan.

Veterinary costs for treatment of exotic animals may be significantly higher than for a more conventional pet, owing to the increased specialization required. Zoonotic disease is known to occur in a few exotic pets.

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Animals that are captive-bred in the United States have no risk of contracting any harmful disease as they are not exposed to it in any way. In the UK, voluntary organizations such as the “NCR” (National Center for Reptile Welfare) and “Seer” (South East Exotic Pet Rescue) take in unwanted, ill, or lost exotic animals and nurse them back to full health before rehoming them.

Providing appropriate environmental conditions, housing and diet for an exotic animal may be difficult for several reasons: It may be difficult to provide the correct environment (such as temperature or amount of sunlight) feeding the correct diet may be difficult or impossible providing the right social environment for highly social species may be impractical or impossible in a home setting.

Most US states and municipalities, for example, regulate exotic pet ownership. However, captive care and husbandry information for many commonly kept amphibians, reptiles, birds, and small exotic mammals are widely available through literature, animal enthusiast groups, and Internet websites and discussion forums.

Exotic animals retain their unpredictable wild nature, with some being physically capable of maiming or killing their owners. Mammals are the most likely exotic pets to injure or kill humans, with non-human primates topping the list.

Even if they are bred for the pet trade and raised by humans, they may be unpredictable, relatively resistant to training; in some cases, especially as full-grown adults, they can be dangerous. Injuries to humans may be relatively common, but reported yearly deaths due to exotic pet ownership are rare.

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Statistics compiled by an advocacy organization indicate a yearly average of less than 3.5 fatalities per year in the United States; and another lists 87 exotic animal incidents resulting in human death from June 20, 1990, to April 15, 2016. Animal markets in impoverished, tropical countries often sell primates, such as these slow lorises, to both tourists and local people as pets, despite laws against the trade. It has been estimated that as many as 15,000 primates are kept by private individuals as pets in the United States.

Nine states ban the keeping of non-human primates, but no federal law regulates ownership. Non-human primates of various species, including those listed as endangered, such as cotton top tamarind, baboons, chimpanzees, Diana monkeys, lemurs and gibbons are still available for purchase in the US, although due to captive breeding, this does not affect wild populations.

For example, chimpanzees are popular in some areas despite their strength, aggression, and wild nature. As they grow, so do their strength and aggression; some owners and others interacting with the animals have lost fingers and suffered severe facial damage among other injuries sustained in attacks.

Many professionals, including veterinarians, zoologists, humane societies and others, strongly discourage the keeping of primates as pets, as their complex emotional and social needs and other highly specialized requirements may be difficult to meet by the average owner. Additionally, there is considerable risk to the non-human primate pet through transmission of human disease.

In Kerry's Point Subdivision, the keeping of up to ten (10) chickens shall only require letters of no objection from the abutting property owners. The completed application form shall be returned to the planning and zoning department and the department shall forward a copy to the animal control office for review and approval.

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A copy of the approved form, including any stipulations placed on the applicant by the animal control office, shall be returned to the applicant and the animal control office. It shall be unlawful for any person to possess, own, breed, or otherwise bring into St. Charles Parish any live wild or exotic animal.

An impounded animal of which no owner and/or keeper can be located within five (5) days of impoundment, may be euthanized or otherwise removed from the parish at the discretion of the animal control office. The animal control office may issue a temporary permit for the keeping, care and protection of an infant banned animal native to the area until such time it may be safely released or disposed of accordingly.

The provisions of this section shall not apply to animal research centers sponsored by accredited universities or hospitals, animal rehabilitation centers, alligator farms or ranches, zoological gardens, theatrical exhibits, or a circus provided that all permits required by law are obtained and all regulations concerning the keeping and maintaining of such animals are adhered to. All American Pit Bull Terriers must be registered with mandatory microchip with the animal control office.

Color pictures with full detail description must be filed with registration. All wolf hybrids must be registered with the animal control office.

Color pictures with full detail description must be filed with registration. Such structures shall further have a secure bottom sufficient to prevent said animal from digging its way under and/or out of the said enclosure.

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The enclosure shall have adequate shelter for the animal consisting of at least a roof and three sides. Upon inspection by an animal control office the above requirements must be met within a thirty-day period.

All cost of impoundment must be paid by owner and/or keeper before release of said animal. After the thirty-day period, if the owner and/or keeper does not provide the proper enclosure as set forth by this section, then the said animal may be destroyed.

All costs associated must be paid by owner and/or keeper before release of said animal or within five (5) days of microchipping. Failure to cover all expenses incurred may result in legal charges brought against owner and/or keeper to cover all expenses plus legal fees.

The owner and/or keeper of said animal that has been impounded as a result of a complaint, attack or other means may require said owner and/or keeper to remove the animal from the parish. Said owner and/or keeper will have ten (10) days to provide a Bible plan for the removal of said animal from the parish.

Those who have worked closely with horses, though, know the difference between a colt and a foal or a mare and a filly. The one you used to describe your horse will tell people whether she's just a youngster or if she's mature, and even if she's a mother.

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There are many more terms used to describe male horses than females because they not only indicate the gender and age of the horse but can also reveal whether they are fathers, if they've been castrated or not and if they have developed and matured properly. All horses are considered foals from the time they're born until they're a year old.

Author Elle Di Jensen has been a writer and editor since 1990. She began working in the fitness industry in 1987, and her experience includes editing and publishing a workout manual.

She has an extended family of pets, including special needs animals. Jensen attended Idaho and Boise State Universities.

The Wild Free-Roaming Horses and Burros Act was passed, unanimously, through Congress and signed by former President Nixon on December 15, 1971. This law mandates that these horses and burros are managed in a thriving ecological balance with the land and as part of the natural landscape.

Equus species are part of North America's natural ecology, as they evolved on this continent along with the grasslands. Thousands of complete, fossilized skeletons of these animals have been found in the Eocene layers in North America, primarily in the Wind River basin of Wyoming.

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Parahippus and Merychippus arose during the Miocene Epoch (24-5.3 million years ago) as the large grasslands evolved. During the first major glaciations of the late Pliocene (2.6 million years ago), some Equus species crossed to the other continents by way of the Isthmus of Panama into South America and the Bering Strait into Asia and Europe.

In the late Pleistocene (~10,000 years ago), there was a rash of extinctions that wiped out most of the large mammals in North and South America. These extinctions seem to have been caused by a combination of climatic changes and overhunting by humans, who had just reached these continents.

By the time of Anglo exploration in the 1800s, vast herds of wild horses roamed North America. Herd size was controlled by ranchers and also by must angers who hunted the horses or gathered them for sale.

With the mounting interest and concern came the realization that a federal management, protection, and control program was essential. “ Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, That Congress finds and declares that wild free-roaming horses and burros are living symbols of the historic and pioneer spirit of the West; that they contribute to the diversity of life forms within the Nation and enrich the lives of the American people; and that these horses and burros are fast disappearing from the American scene.

It is the policy of Congress that wild free-roaming horses and burros shall be protected from capture, branding, harassment, or death; and to accomplish this they are to be considered in the area where presently found, as an integral part of the natural system of the public lands.” Herd numbers were controlled by ranchers and by must angers who hunted the horses or gathered them for sale.

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The best means for caring for excess wild horses and burros is to find good homes for them with the American public. America's wild horses and burros have a rich history and are living symbols of the historic and pioneer spirit of the West.

Other sources contributing to today's wild horses include losses from wagon trains, ranchers, pony express, loggers, and farm stock. Intentional turn-outs include Calvary remounts, stage lines, and bankrupt farmers and ranchers during the Depression.

Burros accompanied Spanish Missionaries to the Americas and were later used by prospectors as sturdy pack animals. When the mines shut down, the burros were turned loose to join those that had escaped from missionaries and prospectors.

The characteristics that were important in the Old West days are still found in our wild horses and burros: strength, endurance, and reliability. They are medium to heavy boned, carry themselves in a collected manner, and are surefooted over rough terrain.

Adopters find gentled wild horses to be a smooth ride, capable of performing all day, and burros are reliable pack and companion animals.

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