A good deal of research into equine diseases, vaccines and husbandry is government funded. Husbandry and humane treatment laws might not apply if horses were designated companion animals.
Many states are passing limited liability laws, which protect livestock owners and livestock event organizers (like cattle and horse shows) from lawsuits from anyone who is injured by a potentially large and dangerous animal such as a cattle-beast or horse. Considering that most of us do regard our horses not just as companions, but family members, our ultimate goal should be the best possible care, in addition to protecting ourselves.
· Horses are omitted from the definition of livestock in the Local Coastal Program (LCP) for San Mateo County, which has left the door open for special regulations of horses in the unincorporated part of the County. · The federal government uses a “food or fiber” test to determine whether livestock qualifies for certain grants, and considers horses “agricultural” if they work on a cattle ranch or otherwise “recreational”.
However, in most federal references on waste management, Nodes, etc the horse is considered along with other commercially raised food production livestock. In support of our contention, we offer the following references and citations that classify horses as livestock.
“Livestock means any cattle, sheep, swine, goat, or horse, mule or other equines”. (b) The term “livestock” includes cattle, sheep, swine, horses, mules, and goats.
As used in this article, the following definitions shall apply: (a) “Livestock” means any cattle, sheep, swine, goat, or any horse, mule, or other equine, whether living or dead. (b) “Meat packer” means an establishment where livestock are either slaughtered, the carcasses thereof are prepared, or meat is processed and where state or federal inspection is maintained.
Cal Business and Professional Code · Section 4825.1(d) in reference to veterinary practice: Animals raised, kept, or used for profit, and not including those species that are usually kept as pets such as companion animals, including equines1 (see end note) 1 The term “companion animal”, although used in the definition of “livestock” under Cal Bus and Prof Code 4825.1(d), was not found or otherwise defined elsewhere in the California Code. In a survey done by Multistage Associates, horses are defined similarly as Livestock in numerous other states.
Our thanks to them and Wayne State of the American Quarter horse Association for providing this helpful data. Judy Tacoma of Marinated has provided the following research that may prove useful the equestrians in the future (2001).
Upon application to the Department of Transportation, a flood control district, county, or city, and subject to any conditions imposed by it, permission may be granted to any person, or riding club to enter, traverse, and use for horseback riding, any trail, right of way, easement, river, flood control channel, or wash, owned or controlled by the state, a city, or county. An equestrian group may be granted the right to erect and maintain suitable trail markers for the convenience and guidance of horseback riders, but a structure shall not be erected on state-owned property without the approval of the State Lands Commission.
An owner of any estate or any other interest in real property, whether possessor or nonpossessory, owes no duty of care to keep the premises safe for entry or use by others for any recreational purpose or to give any warning of hazardous conditions, uses of, structures, or activities on such premises to persons entering for such purpose, except as provided in this section. A “recreational purpose,” as used in this section, includes such activities as fishing, hunting, camping, water sports, hiking, spelunking, sport parachuting, riding, including animal riding, snowmobiling, and all other types of vehicular riding, rock collecting, sightseeing, picnicking, nature study, nature contacting, recreational gardening, gleaning, hang gliding, winter sports, and viewing or enjoying historical, archaeological, scenic, natural, or scientific sites.
An owner of any estate or any other interest in real property, whether possessor or nonpossessory, who gives permission to another for entry or use for the above purpose upon the premises does not thereby (a) extend any assurance that the premises are safe for such purpose, or (b) constitute the person to whom permission has been granted the legal status of an invitee or licensee to whom a duty of care is owed, or (c) assume responsibility for or incur liability for any injury to person or property caused by any act of such person to whom permission has been granted except as provided in this section. This section does not limit the liability which otherwise exists (a) for willful or malicious failure to guard or warn against a dangerous condition, use, structure or activity; or (b) (b) for injury suffered in any case where permission to enter for the above purpose was granted for a consideration other than the consideration, if any, paid to said landowner by the state, or where consideration has been received from others for the same purpose; or (c) to any persons who are expressly invited rather than merely permitted to come upon the premises by the landowner.
Nothing in this section creates a duty of care or ground of liability for injury to person or property. Livestock and the Federal Government What USDA in California uses for the definition of “agricultural” is “animals for food or fiber”.
This designation has been arrived at for the purposes of the Farm Bill for USDA cost share program). In other states horses can be slaughtered for their meat, used for both human consumption and made into pet food.
Horse products, particularly mane and tail hair, are available at tack stores and through catalogs. Because the horse is a small player on the field of food production agriculture, it has not been considered worthy of research investment through federal government grants.
Operations dealing with horses will encompass a variety of end results. According to the U.S. Department of Commerce, International Trade Administration, most U.S. horse meat is exported to Europe where it is especially popular in Belgium and France.
It is also commonly consumed in Spain, Italy, Switzerland, Germany, Austria, and the Netherlands, but it is most popular in Belgium and France. Ancillary operations for training and boarding will also be included in this SSP segment.
Race horses, whether thoroughbreds, quarter horses, walkers, trotters, or other types, will be provided appropriate training over a period of time. These services will be priced out on a daily basis with special charges for unusual care situations as they arise.
Emphasis on the work characteristics of the horses is common with purebred considerations downplayed. Working horses would be those used in other operations for draft purposes or herding and rounding up other animals.
Riding fences in rugged terrain to determine and execute repairs would be another function of work horses. Special purpose horses would include those trained for rodeo, riding, hackney, or other such uses.
The market for these horses is not extensive but lack of record keeping might result in tracking difficulties. Race and show horses will likely be 100-percent registered purebreds with detailed tracking information available in the taxpayer's records and through the breed associations.
Seldom will a horse with an unproven lineage rise to the top of the sport. When this does occur, these animals will be highly documented to ensure profitability from future breeding activities.
Expenses related to horse breeder operations will include purchases of animals, veterinary fees to keep the animals in the best health condition, facilities for boarding, feeding, and training, fees for breeding services (either stud or artificial insemination, ) insurance coverage of the animals to compensate for losses due to injury or accident, advertising and promotion, and specialized feed materials. Events, shows and races, involving the animals will require entry fees which are deducted as current expenses.
These payments are also deducted currently even though the animal may be unable to participate for any number of reasons. Race horses have been subject to “syndication,” the partitioning of ownership among, typically, up to 40 shareholders.
See IRC section 464 for the technical definition and application of rules for farming “syndicates.” Stud services are a common source of income for owners of recognized successful animals.
The live foal guarantee likely carries a higher stud fee due to the additional financial risk to the stallion owner. Eventual addition of saddle and bridle will prepare the foal for being mounted by the age of two years when it has achieved the majority of its growth.
Individual sales are the norm and factors related to subjective characteristics of the horse greatly affect pricing. IRC Section 1231 Transfer of an interest percentage in an animal in exchange for training or other services is considered a sale or exchange which results in the recognition of gain or loss for the fair market value of the interest transferred compared to the basis of the animal.
Section 1.1231-2(c)(1) provides that”* * *Whether a horse is held for racing purposes shall be determined in accordance with the following rules: IRC Section 61 Animals not fitting the requirements of the operation will be culled and sold.
EnviroHorse assumes no responsibility and disclaims any liability for any injury or damage resulting from the use or effect of any product or information specified in this publication. Domestication is the process by which humans take wild species and acclimatize them to breeding and surviving in captivity.
In many cases, domesticated animals serve some purpose for humans (food source, labor, companionship). It is thought that the horses depicted in the Paleolithic cave paintings were hunted for their meat by humans.
Evidence from mitochondrial DNA studies suggests that the domestication of horses occurred in multiple locations and at various times. The clearest evidence of early use of the horse as a means of transport is from chariot burials dated c. 2000 BCE.
However, an increasing amount of evidence supports the hypothesis that horses were domesticated in the Eurasian Steppes approximately 3500 BCE; recent discoveries in the context of the Bowie culture suggest that Bowie settlements in the Akola Province of Kazakhstan are the location of the earliest domestication of the horse. Some zoologists define “domestication” as human control over breeding, which can be detected in ancient skeletal samples by changes in the size and variability of ancient horse populations.
Other researchers look at the broader evidence, including skeletal and dental evidence of working activity; weapons, art, and spiritual artifacts; and lifestyle patterns of human cultures. Attempts to date domestication by genetic study or analysis of physical remains rests on the assumption that there was a separation of the genotypes of domesticated and wild populations.
Such a separation appears to have taken place, but dates based on such methods can only produce an estimate of the latest possible date for domestication without excluding the possibility of an unknown period of earlier gene-flow between wild and domestic populations (which will occur naturally as long as the domesticated population is kept within the habitat of the wild population). Further, all modern horse populations retain the ability to revert to a feral state, and all feral horses are of domestic types; that is, they descend from ancestors that escaped from captivity.
Whether one adopts the narrower zoological definition of domestication or the broader cultural definition that rests on an array of zoological and archaeological evidence affects the time frame chosen for domestication of the horse. The date of 4000 BCE is based on evidence that includes the appearance of dental pathologies associated with batting, changes in butchering practices, changes in human economies and settlement patterns, the depiction of horses as symbols of power in artifacts, and the appearance of horse bones in human graves.
On the other hand, measurable changes in size and increases in variability associated with domestication occurred later, about 2500–2000 BCE, as seen in horse remains found at the site of Csepel-Haros in Hungary, a settlement of the Bell Beaker culture. Replica of a horse painting from a cave in Lascaux 2005 study analyzed the mitochondrial DNA (mt DNA) of a worldwide range of equips, from 53,000-year-old fossils to contemporary horses.
Their analysis placed all equips into a single clade, or group with a single common ancestor, consisting of three genetically divergent species: Hippidion, the New World stilt-legged horse, and Equus, the true horse. The true horse migrated from the Americas to Eurasia via Bering, becoming broadly distributed from North America to Central Europe, north and south of Pleistocene ice sheets.
This clade survived in Eurasia, however, and it is from these horses which all domestic horses appear to have descended. These horses showed little phylogeographic structure, probably reflecting their high degree of mobility and adaptability.
Therefore, the domestic horse today is classified as Equus ferns Catullus. No genetic originals of native wild horses currently exist.
The Przewalski diverged from the modern horse prior to domestication. It has 66 chromosomes, as opposed to 64 among modern domesticated horses, and their Mitochondrial DNA (mt DNA) forms a distinct cluster.
Genetic evidence suggests that modern Przewalski's horses are descended from a distinct regional gene pool in the eastern part of the Eurasian steppes, not from the same genetic group that gave rise to modern domesticated horses. Nevertheless, evidence such as the cave paintings of Lascaux suggests that the ancient wild horses that some researchers now label the “Tarzan subtype” probably resembled Przewalski horses in their general appearance: big heads, dun coloration, thick necks, stiff upright manes, and relatively short, stout legs.
Equus Catullus Germanic front leg, teeth and upper jaw at the Museum fur Naturkunde, Berlin horses of the Ice Age were hunted for meat in Europe and across the Eurasian steppes and in North America by early modern humans. Numerous kill sites exist and many cave paintings in Europe indicate what they looked like.
Many of these Ice Age subspecies died out during the rapid climate changes associated with the end of the last Ice Age or were hunted out by humans, particularly in North America, where the horse became completely extinct. Classification based on body types and conformation, absent the availability of DNA for research, once suggested that there were roughly four basic wild prototypes, thought to have developed with adaptations to their environment prior to domestication.
However, more recent study indicates that there was only one wild species and all different body types were entirely a result of selective breeding or land race adaptation after domestication. The “Warm blood subspecies” or Forest Horse (once proposed as Equus ferns silvaticus, also known as the Alluvial Horse), which evolved into a later variety sometimes called Equus ferns Germanic.
The “Draft” subspecies, a small, sturdy, heavyset animal with a heavy hair coat, arising in Northern Europe, adapted to cold, damp climates, somewhat resembling today's draft horse and even the Shetland pony. The Oriental subspecies (once proposed as Equus Giles), a taller, slim, refined and agile animal arising in Western Asia, adapted to hot, dry climates.
Other now-extinct subspecies of Equus ferns appears to have been the stock from which domesticated horses are descended. The early stages of domestication were marked by a rapid increase in coat color variation.
A 2014 study compared DNA from ancient horse bones that predated domestication and compared them to DNA of modern horses, discovering 125 genes that correlated to domestication. Some were physical, affecting muscle and limb development, cardiac strength and balance.
Others were linked to cognitive function and most likely were critical to the taming of the horse, including social behavior, learning capabilities, fear response, and agreeableness. The DNA used in this study came from horse bones 16,000 to 43,000 years ago, and therefore the precise changes that occurred at the time of domestication have yet to be sequenced.
The domestication of stallions and mares can be analyzed separately by looking at those portions of the DNA that are passed on exclusively along the maternal (mitochondrial DNA or mt DNA) or paternal line (Y-chromosome or Y-DNA). DNA studies indicate that there may have been multiple domestication events for mares, as the number of female lines required to account for the genetic diversity of the modern horse suggests a minimum of 77 different ancestral mares, divided into 17 distinct lineages.
A study published in 2012 that performed genomic sampling on 300 work horses from local areas as well as a review of previous studies of archaeology, mitochondrial DNA, and Y-DNA suggested that horses were originally domesticated in the western part of the Eurasian steppe. Most other parts of the world were ruled out as sites for horse domestication, either due to climate unsuitable for an indigenous wild horse population or no evidence of domestication.
Genes located in the mitochondrial DNA are passed on along the maternal line from the mother to her offspring. Multiple analyses of the mitochondrial DNA obtained from modern horses as well as from horse bones and teeth from archaeological and pathological finds consistently shows an increased genetic diversity in the mitochondrial DNA compared to the remaining DNA, showing that many mares has been included into the breeding stock of the originally domesticated horse.
A haplogroup is a group of closely related haplotypes that share the same common ancestor. In horses, seven main haplogroups are recognized (A-G), each with several subgroups.
Several haplogroups are unequally distributed around the world, indicating the addition of local wild mares to the domesticated stock. One of these haplotypes (Luciano group C) is exclusively found in the Iberian Peninsula, leading to a hypothesis that the Iberian Peninsula or North Africa was an independent origin for domestication of the horse.
However, until there is additional analysis of nuclear DNA and a better understanding of the genetic structure of the earliest domestic herds, this theory cannot be confirmed or refuted. It remains possible that a second, independent, domestication site might exist but, as of 2012, research has neither confirmed nor disproven that hypothesis.
Even though horse domestication became widespread in a short period of time, it is still possible that domestication began with a single culture, which passed on techniques and breeding stock. It is possible that the two “wild” subspecies remained when all other groups of once-”wild” horses died out because all others had been, perhaps, more suitable for taming by humans and the selective breeding that gave rise to the modern domestic horse.
The least ancient, but most persuasive, evidence of domestication comes from sites where horse leg bones and skulls, probably originally attached to hides, were interred with the remains of chariots in at least 16 graves of the Sintashta and Petrov cultures. These were located in the steppes southeast of the Ural Mountains, between the upper Ural and upper Tool Rivers, a region today divided between southern Russia and northern Kazakhstan.
Petrov was a little later than and probably grew out of Sintashta, and the two complexes together spanned about 2100–1700 BCE. Evidence of chariots in these graves was inferred from the impressions of two spoked wheels set in grave floors 1.2–1.6 m apart; in most cases the rest of the vehicle left no trace.
In addition, a pair of disk-shaped antler “cheek pieces,” an ancient predecessor to a modern bit shank or bit ring, were placed in pairs beside each horse head-and-hoof sacrifice. The inner faces of the disks had protruding prongs or studs that would have pressed against the horse's lips when the reins were pulled on the opposite side.
Studded cheek pieces were a new and fairly severe kind of control device that appeared simultaneously with chariots. All the dated chariot graves contained wheel impressions, horse bones, weapons (arrow and javelin points, axes, daggers, or stone mace-heads), human skeletal remains, and cheek pieces.
Because they were buried in teams of two with chariots and studded cheek pieces, the evidence is extremely persuasive that these steppe horses of 2100–1700 BCE were domesticated. In the space of possibly 500 years, there is evidence of horse-drawn chariots in Greece, Egypt, and Mesopotamia.
Some researchers do not consider an animal to be “domesticated” until it exhibits physical changes consistent with selective breeding, or at least having been born and raised entirely in captivity. Those who hold to this theory of domestication point to a change in skeletal measurements detected among horse bones recovered from middens dated about 2500 BCE in eastern Hungary in Bell-Beaker sites, and in later Bronze Age sites in the Russian steppes, Spain, and Eastern Europe.
Horse bones from these contexts exhibited an increase in variability, thought to reflect the survival under human care of both larger and smaller individuals than appeared in the wild; and a decrease in average size, thought to reflect penning and restriction in diet. Horse populations that showed this combination of skeletal changes probably were domesticated.
Most evidence suggests that horses were increasingly controlled by humans after about 2500 BCE. However, more recently there have been skeletal remains found at a site in Kazakhstan which display the smaller, more slender limbs characteristic of corralled animals, dated to 3500 BCE.
Some of the most intriguing evidence of early domestication comes from the Bowie culture, found in northern Kazakhstan. The Bowie culture was a culture of foragers who seem to have adopted horseback riding in order to hunt the abundant wild horses of northern Kazakhstan between 3500–3000 BCE.
Bowie sites had no cattle or sheep bones; the only domesticated animals, in addition to horses, were dogs. Bowie settlements in this period contained between 50–150 pit houses.
Garbage deposits contained tens to hundreds of thousands of discarded animal bones, 65% to 99% of which had come from horses. Earlier hunter-gatherers who lived in the same region had not hunted wild horses with such success, and lived for millennia in smaller, more shifting settlements, often containing less than 200 wild animal bones.
Entire herds of horses were slaughtered by the Bowie hunters, apparently in hunting drives. The adoption of horseback riding might explain the emergence of specialized horse-hunting techniques and larger, more permanent settlements.
Domesticated horses could have been adopted from neighboring herding societies in the steppes west of the Ural Mountains, where the Khvalynsk culture had herds of cattle and sheep, and perhaps had domesticated horses, as early as 4800 BCE. As evidence, they note that zoologists have found no skeletal changes in the Bowie horses that indicate domestication.
Moreover, because they were hunted for food, the majority of the horse remains found in Botai-culture settlements indeed probably were wild. On the other hand, any domesticated riding horses were probably the same size as their wild cousins and cannot now be distinguished by bone measurements.
They also note that the age structure of the horses slaughtered at Bowie represents a natural demographic profile for hunted animals, not the pattern expected if they were domesticated and selected for slaughter. However, these arguments were published prior to the discovery of a corral at Rainy YAR and mats of horse-dung at two other Bowie sites.
The presence of bit wear is an indicator that a horse was ridden or driven, and the earliest of such evidence from a site in Kazakhstan dates to 3500 BCE. The absence of bit wear on horse teeth is not conclusive evidence against domestication because horses can be ridden and controlled without bits by using a nose band or a sycamore, but such materials do not produce significant physiological changes nor are they apt to be preserved for millennia.
The regular use of a bit to control a horse can create wear facets or bevels on the anterior corners of the lower second premolars. The bit must be manipulated by a human or the horse must move it with its tongue for it to touch the teeth.
Wear can be caused by the bit abrading the front corners of the premolars if the horse grasps and releases the bit between its teeth ; other wear can be created by the bit striking the vertical front edge of the lower premolars, due to very strong pressure from a human handler. Modern experiments showed that even organic bits of rope or leather can create significant wear facets, and also showed that facets 3 mm (.118 in) deep or more do not appear on the premolars of wild horses.
The Bowie culture premolars are the earliest reported multiple examples of this dental pathology in any archaeological site, and preceded any skeletal change indicators by 1,000 years. While wear facets more than 3 mm deep were discovered on the lower second premolars of a single stallion from Daria in Ukraine, an Neolithic settlement dated about 4000 BCE, dental material from one of the worn teeth later produced a radiocarbon date of 700–200 BCE, indicating that this stallion was actually deposited in a pit dug into the older Neolithic site during the Iron Age.
Soil scientists working with Sandra Olsen of the Carnegie Museum of Natural History at the Paleolithic (also called Neolithic, or “Copper Age”) settlements of Bowie and Rainy YAR in northern Kazakhstan found layers of horse dung, discarded in unused house pits in both settlements. An actual corral, dated to 3500–3000 BCE was identified at Rainy YAR by a pattern of post holes for a circular fence, with the soils inside the fence yielding ten times more phosphorus than the soils outside.
The appearance of horse remains in human settlements in regions where they had not previously been present is another indicator of domestication. Although images of horses appear as early as the Upper Paleolithic period in places such as the caves of Lascaux, France, suggesting that wild horses lived in regions outside the Eurasian steppes prior to domestication and may have even been hunted by early humans, concentration of remains suggests animals being deliberately captured and contained, an indicator of domestication, at least for food, if not necessarily use as a working animal.
Around 3500–3000 BCE, horse bones began to appear more frequently in archaeological sites beyond their center of distribution in the Eurasian steppes and were seen in Central Europe, the middle and lower Danube valley, and the North Caucasus and Transcaucasia. This expansion in range was contemporary with the Bowie culture, where there are indications that horses were corralled and ridden.
This geographic expansion is interpreted by many zoologists as an early phase in the spread of domesticated horses. European wild horses were hunted for up to 10% of the animal bones in a handful of Mesolithic and Neolithic settlements scattered across Spain, France, and the marshlands of northern Germany, but in many other parts of Europe, including Greece, the Balkans, the British Isles, and much of Central Europe, horse bones do not occur or occur very rarely in Mesolithic, Neolithic or Paleolithic sites.
In contrast, wild horse bones regularly exceeded 40% of the identified animal bones in Mesolithic and Neolithic camps in the Eurasian steppes, west of the Ural Mountains. Horse bones were rare or absent in Neolithic and Paleolithic kitchen garbage in western Turkey, Mesopotamia, most of Iran, South and Central Asia, and much of Europe.
They were hunted in Syria, Anatolia, Mesopotamia, Iran, and Central Asia; and domesticated asses (Equus sinus) were imported into Mesopotamia, probably from Egypt, but wild horses apparently did not live there. Other evidence of geographic expansion In Northern Caucasus, the Markup culture settlements and burials of c. 3300 BC contain both horse bones and images of horses.
A frieze of nineteen horses painted in black and red colors is found in one of the Markup graves. Later, images of horses, identified by their short ears, flowing manes, and tails that bushed out at the dock, began to appear in artistic media in Mesopotamia during the Akkadian period, 2300–2100 BCE.
The word for “horse”, literally translated as ass of the mountains, first appeared in Sumerian documents during the Third dynasty of Ur, about 2100–2000 BCE. Horses were imported into Mesopotamia and the lowland Near East in larger numbers after 2000 BCE in connection with the beginning of chariot warfare.
A further expansion, into the lowland Near East and northwestern China, also happened around 2000 BCE, again apparently in conjunction with the chariot. Although Equus bones of uncertain species are found in some Late Neolithic sites in China dated before 2000 BCE, Equus Catullus or Equus ferns bones first appeared in multiple sites and in significant numbers in sites of the Fiji and SBA cultures, 2000–1600 BCE, in Gansu and the northwestern provinces of China.
The Fiji culture was in contact with cultures of the Eurasian steppes, as shown through similarities between Fiji and Late Bronze Age steppe metallurgy, so it was probably through these contacts that domesticated horses first became frequent in northwestern China. In 2008, archaeologists announced the discovery of rock art in Somalia's northern Champlain region, which the researchers suggest is one of the earliest known depictions of a hunter on horseback.
About 4200-4000 BCE, more than 500 years before the geographic expansion evidenced by the presence of horse bones, new kinds of graves, named after a grave at Suvorovo, appeared north of the Danube delta in the coastal steppes of Ukraine near Ismail. Suvorovo graves were similar to and probably derived from earlier funeral traditions in the steppes around the Deeper River.
Earlier steppe graves also had contained polished stone mace-heads, some of them carved in the shape of animal heads. Settlements in the steppes contemporary with Suvorovo, such as Sedna Stop II and Daria on the Deeper River, contained 12–52% horse bones.
When Suvorovo graves appeared in the Danube delta grasslands, horse-head maces also appeared in some indigenous farming towns of the Triple and Gumelnitsa cultures in present-day Romania and Moldova, near the Suvorovo graves. These agricultural cultures had not previously used polished-stone maces, and horse bones were rare or absent in their settlement sites.
The Suvorovo people in turn acquired many copper ornaments from the Triple and Gumelnitsa towns. After this episode of contact and trade, but still during the period 4200–4000 BCE, about 600 agricultural towns in the Balkans and the lower Danube valley, some of which had been occupied for 2000 years, were abandoned.
Copper mining ceased in the Balkan copper mines, and the cultural traditions associated with the agricultural towns were terminated in the Balkans and the lower Danube valley. The collapse could have been caused by intensified warfare, for which there is some evidence; and warfare could have been worsened by mounted raiding; and the horse-head maces have been interpreted as indicating the introduction of domesticated horses and riding just before the collapse.
However, mounted raiding is just one possible explanation for this complex event. Environmental deterioration, ecological degradation from millennia of farming, and the exhaustion of easily mined oxide copper ores also are cited as causal factors.
Perforated antler objects discovered at Daria and other sites contemporary with Suvorovo have been identified as cheek pieces or saliva for horse bits. This identification is no longer widely accepted, as the objects in question have not been found associated with horse bones, and could have had a variety of other functions.
The oldest possible archaeological indicator of a changed relationship between horses and humans is the appearance about 4800–4400 BCE of horse bones and carved images of horses in Paleolithic graves of the early Khvalynsk culture and the Samara culture in the middle Volga region of Russia. Of these, 26 graves contained parts of sacrificed domestic animals, and additional sacrifices occurred in ritual deposits on the original ground surface above the graves.
At S'yeah, a contemporary cemetery of the Samara culture, parts of two horses were placed above a group of human graves. The pair of horses here was represented by the head and hooves, probably originally attached to hides.
Together these archaeological clues suggest that horses had a symbolic importance in the Khvalynsk and Samara cultures that they had lacked earlier, and that they were associated with humans, domesticated cattle, and domesticated sheep. Thus, the earliest phase in the domestication of the horse might have begun during the period 4800-4400 BCE.
Equine died out in the Western Hemisphere at the end of the last glacial period. A question raised is why and how horses avoided this fate on the Eurasian continent.
While the environmental conditions for equine survival in Europe were somewhat more favorable in Eurasia than in the Americas, the same stressors that led to extinction for the Mammoth had an effect upon horse populations. Thus, some time after 8000 BCE, the approximate date of extinction in the Americas, humans in Eurasia may have begun to keep horses as a livestock food source, and by keeping them in captivity, may have helped to preserve the species.
Horses also fit the six core criteria for livestock domestication, and thus, it could be argued, “chose” to live in proximity to humans. Horses behave as herd animals and need companionship to thrive.
Both historic and modern data shows that foals can and will bond to humans and other domestic animals to meet their social needs. Thus, domestication may have started with young horses being repeatedly made into pets over time, preceding the great discovery that these pets could be ridden or otherwise put to work.
On the other hand, some researchers look to examples from historical times to hypothesize how domestication occurred. For example, while Native American cultures captured and rode horses from the 16th century onwards, most tribes did not exert significant control over their breeding, thus their horses developed a genotype and phenotype adapted to the uses and climatological conditions in which they were kept, making them more of a land race than a planned breed as defined by modern standards, but nonetheless “domesticated”.
A difficult question is if domesticated horses were first ridden or driven. A bit wear may correlate to riding, though, as the modern sycamore demonstrates, horses can be ridden without a bit by using rope and other evanescent materials to make equipment that fastens around the nose.
So the absence of unequivocal evidence of early riding in the record does not settle the question. Thus, on one hand, logic suggests that horses would have been ridden long before they were driven.
Some theorists speculate that a horse could have been controlled from the ground by placing a bit in the mouth, connected to a lead rope, and leading the animal while pulling a primitive wagon or plow. Since oxen were usually relegated to this duty in Mesopotamia, it is possible that early plows might have been attempted with the horse, and a bit may indeed have been significant as part of agrarian development rather than as warfare technology.
While riding may have been practiced during the 4th and 3rd millennia BCE, and the disappearance of “Old European” settlements may be related to attacks by horseback-mounted warriors, the clearest influence by horses on ancient warfare was by pulling chariots, introduced around 2000 BCE. Horses in the Bronze Age were relatively small by modern standards, which led some theorists to believe the ancient horses were too small to be ridden and so must have been driven.
Herodotus' description of the Signal, a steppe people who bred horses too small to ride but extremely efficient at drawing chariots, illustrates this stage. However, as horses remained generally smaller than modern equines well into the Middle Ages, this theory is highly questionable.
The horse of the Iron Age was still relatively small, perhaps 12.2 to 14.2 hands (50 to 58 inches, 127 to 147 cm) high (measured at the withers.) This was shorter overall than the average height of modern riding horses, which range from about 14.2 to 17.2 hands (58 to 70 inches, 147 to 178 cm).
However, small horses were used successfully as light cavalry for many centuries. For example, Fell ponies, believed to be descended from Roman cavalry horses, are comfortably able to carry fully grown adults (although with rather limited ground clearance) at an average height of 13.2 hands (54 inches, 137 cm) Likewise, the Arabian horse is noted for a short back and dense bone, and the successes of the Muslims against the heavy mounted knights of Europe demonstrated that a horse standing 14.2 hands (58 inches, 147 cm) can easily carry a full-grown human adult into battle.
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In Levine, Marsha; Renfrew, Colin; Boyle, Katie (eds.). “Evolution, systematic, and paleogeography of Pleistocene horses in the New World: a molecular perspective”.
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Every horse is an individual and, whether wild or domestic, wants to be recognized entirely for himself. We know that horses are herd animals and have a hierarchical social behavior within the herd.NBS; Within this structure, there is a trusting of individual friendship.
This is why we humans, if done right, can build a special relationship with our horses where they love to be with us. Wild horses and domestic horses are very cautious, aware, sensible, and do not want any trouble.
Nature did not condition horses to deal with the trappings of civilization. Horses graphically portray the basic drive for self-preservation that is shared by all living creatures.
The concern that horses have for their security stays on the surface throughout their lives. Horses can recognize simple patterns of predictability and take confidence in them, but when anything out of the ordinary happens, their nameless dread springs to the forefront.
This is because the horse does not possess the ability to apply known facts to new situations. Example: Your horse may be accustomed to the sight of a tarp in a certain place and walk past it many times without anxiety; but if the tarp is lifted toward him by a sudden gust of wind, he will startle with fright.
Whether wild or domestic, one major difference in their behavior is caution. The most appealing trait of the horse is that if he is loved, if he is given the proper body language and leadership, he begins to put trust above his own fears.
Animals that make good candidates for domestication typically share certain traits: They breed easily in captivity and can undergo multiple periods of fertility in a single year.
One memorable study begun in the Soviet Union in the 1950s found foxes that were bred for domesticable traits began exhibiting Neogene within just a few generations. People also often intentionally select for these juvenile traits in the course of breeding, giving us the pugs, rag doll cats, and dwarf rabbits of today.
Captive Asian elephants, for example, are often misinterpreted as domesticated, because they have been kept by humans for thousands of years. Although then can breed in captivity, like big cats and other wild animals, they are not selectively bred, largely because of their long reproductive cycle.
For this reason, there are no domesticated breeds of Asian elephants : They remain wild animals. Shelters report high numbers of domestic rabbits being abandoned outdoors.
Jump to navigationJump to search This page gives a list of domestic animals, also including a list of animals which are or may be currently undergoing the process of domestication and animals that have an extensive relationship with humans beyond simple predation. This includes species which are semi-domesticated, undomesticated but captive-bred on a commercial scale, or commonly wild-caught, at least occasionally captive-bred, and nameable.
In order to be considered fully domesticated, most species have undergone significant genetic, behavioral and morphological changes from their wild ancestors, while others have changed very little from their wild ancestors despite hundreds or thousands of years of potential selective breeding. A number of factors determine how quickly any changes may occur in a species, but there is not always a desire to improve a species from its wild form.
There are also species that are extensively used or kept as pets by humans, but are not significantly altered from wild-type animals. Most animals on this second table are at least somewhat altered from wild animals by their extensive interactions with humans, albeit not to the point that they are regarded as distinct forms (therefore no separate wild ancestors are noted).
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Whether your first pet is a goldfish that swims in circles all day or a dog who loves to play fetch. Everyone loves their first pet and mine was a horse I got at 4 years old that was all my own.
Now here I am, 20 years old, still the same avid horse lover I was then. While dog and cats are very beautiful animals, there is nothing better than a horse naturally running and playing in a pasture.
Horses are large and delicate creatures who are striking, even at a distance. Whether you have been around horses your life or if you have just seen them for the first time, you can never get over just how beautiful the animals are.
It sounds simple and obvious, but when you think about it, it actually makes horses really special. Horse riding is so extremely diverse with many types of riding and even two different types of saddles for the two main disciplines.
The fact that you can ride a horse gives it a unique status among domesticated animals. Like most other domesticated pets, horses come in all shapes and sizes.
There are many colors like bay or palomino, as well popular breeds like the American Quarter Horse and the Thoroughbred Race Horse breed. Thoroughbred horses have become popular in American culture because of races like the Kentucky Derby and the Legacy of the Triple Crown.
We have both made lasting friendships and family bonds while showing horses together. Report this Content This article has not been reviewed by Odyssey HQ and solely reflects the ideas and opinions of the creator.
Domestic animals like dog and cat are ranked at the top which can understand humans well and learn their training process very well. Other pets like horse and camel could help a man in trading things from one place to another.
By AKC (American Kennel Club) report more than 33 million dogs have been registered as pets. A dog is famous for its various physical and mental qualities such as helpful nature, guarding tendency, hunting, assisting police and military.
A dog is ranked first amongst animals for its influence on humans and is therefore called “Man’s best friend”. Dogs could be trained the way the owner wants to and are listed as one of the intelligent animals in the world.
In total, we have 150 dog breeds in the world that are divided into 8 classes such as sporting, hound, working, terrier, toy, non-sporting, herding, and miscellaneous. According to surveys, the most popular dog name is max followed by Charlie, cooper, buddy, jack and many more.
Cats are extremely loyal and give them a little of attention, and they will return you a lot of love. They can listen to the sound of both higher and lower frequency than humans.
Cat has been domesticated for around 4,000 years, and they were valued for both hunting abilities and for their companionship and loving behavior. Cats communication include a variety of vocalizations such as mewing, purring and trilling.
Pigs at regular domestic farmyards are kept indoors but due to their large size and destructive nature, they are allowed to roam in free space outside. The meat of a pig called Pork is used to make a variety of products such as sausage, bacon and ham.
The newborn pig species can run to their mother’s voices and even recognize their names when they are 2 weeks old. A large ruminant animal with horns and cloven hoofs domesticated for meat or milk.
The terminology used to describe sex of cattle is first a bull calf and after it has grown 2-3 years it is called as an ox. It a hear lower and higher frequencies better than humans and an average dairy cow weighs about 1,200 pounds.
The type of eating is quite different for cows since they do not bite grass instead they curl their tongue around it. Cattle eat a large amount of food with improper chewing and later regurgitates it.
The social animals goat closely related to sheep and communicate with each other by bleating. The intelligent and curious animals have a constant desire to explore and investigate anything unfamiliar that come across.
They even sometimes eat cans, plastic bottles and cardboard lying on the ground which sometimes harm their body badly. The unique looking creatures can be easily recognized by their humps and live in the desert areas of Asia and Africa.
The Wild Bactria camel is critically endangered because domesticated variety eats all their food. One of the most common domestic animals, Chicken have become the culinary art throughout the regions of different cultures around the world.
Chicken can be prepared in a vast range of tastes according to region and country. Chicken is eaten in a variety of ways by boiling, baking, grilling, and frying.
In developed countries like the US and Canada, Chickens are typically subjected to intensive farming methods. As per the estimations of the United States, there is more than 19 billion chicken on earth which outnumbers human.
The species can communicate with 24 vocalizations and each with a distinct meaning that includes a warning to other animals about a different type of predators. Ferrets become sexually mature at approximately 6 months and have an average lifespan of 7-10 years.
All ferret kits have white fur at birth and newborn is too small that it can be fitted into a teaspoon. A long hair domesticated Ovid found throughout the Himalayan region of Indian Subcontinent.
Yaks can survive at high altitudes as they have larger lungs and hearts as compared to cattle at lower latitude. The close relative of buffalo and bison has an average lifespan of 20 years in the wild and slightly longer when in captivity.
Wild Boar is a bulky massive suit animal with small thin legs. The size and weight of an adult boar are completely decided by the environmental conditions they are living in.
The close relative of domestic pig have subspecies of wild boar that are similar in size and appearance, however, different that totally dependent on habitat. The species were mostly seen in Africa, Europe and Asia (mostly in Japan, Indonesia, India and the Far East).
They can very easily survive in different types of habitat that includes grasslands, taiga, tropical rainforests, but they prefer life in deciduous forests. Since ancient times, Sheep is being the most popular domestic animals in Central Asia.
There are numerous uses of the animal’s species where it can be used in medical research focused on cardiovascular disorders and pregnancy. The animal species can be grown unto 25 to 50 inches in height and weighs approximately 99 to 353 pounds.
It loves to graze different types of grass and one sheep consumes approximately 2 to 4.5 pounds of food per day. The animal species are known for its good memories, and they can easily recognize 50 different individuals both in the sense of sheep and humans.
Zebu is known as the oldest breeds of cattle in the world and currently, there are 75 different known species mostly seen in tropical rainforests. Talking about the appearance, they have short and dense fur that can be of various colors such as gray, white, red, brown and black.
The animal species can be easily recognized by the hump on their back. Just like sheep, they are also grazers and loves to eat a different kind of grass.
It can reach unto 31 to 63 inches in height and weight approximately 180 to 1.060 pounds. Talking about the appearance, the animal species has a large head and ears with short and stiff mane on the neck.
The purpose of large ears is to eliminate the excess heat from the body and to measure a deflection of sound in the desert areas. One of the most social and friendly animals, there are numerous people in the country that want the duck to keep it as a pet.
They are very easily recognizable by the yellow bill and creamy white plumage along with orange shanks and toes. One of the oldest domesticated bird species that belongs to the Egyptian hieroglyphics for more than 5,000 years.
The species has a special contribution in the human life especially during the war where they can be used as a messenger and there are various pigeons that have carried vital messages and some have been decorated for their services.