We tend to organize everything into neat, tidy categories in our minds, so anything that deviates from the norm seems exciting. While many of these stories in Deadly Equines should be taken with a grain of salt, there is no denying meat is not off the table for horses (pun intended).
Viral videos of a horse eating a chick and a deer eating a bird, as well as the news story of deer scavenging on human corpses at a body farm in Texas, have understandably made a lot of people curious about what is going on. There are also omnivores that eat a little of everything and autotrophs, like plants and algae, that produce their own food.
In general, herbivores have flat teeth for grinding and long digestive systems, carnivores have sharper teeth for tearing meat and shorter digestive systems, and omnivores are somewhere in between. Lean, Mean, Green-Processing Machines The equine digestive system is excellent at turning grass into energy.
Horses teeth continually “erupt” throughout their life, as they are worn down from chewing tough plant matter. Ruminants, like cattle and sheep, use bacteria in their Rubens, a digestive chamber before the stomach, to ferment plant fiber.
In fact, horse stomachs hold a surprisingly small amount, empty quickly, and food passes through their bodies at a rate of about 1 foot per minute. Humans sometimes provide horses with alternate sources of energy, like grain, to give them a boost for harder work.
A typical 1,000-pound horse that is just working on maintaining her body condition needs roughly 15,000 calories a day. A lush, green pasture averages 245 calories per pound, so you can see why horses can spend up to 17 hours per day grazing.
So, how come horses can’t simply eat less food overall if it has a higher calorie and nutrient density? Besides providing energy and nutrients, all of this roughage holds a great deal of water and the sheer mass fills up the horse’s enormous gut.
When a horse’s digestive tract is empty, they are more prone to twisting of the intestines and colic. They can also lose their water reservoir and develop diarrhea, which can result in dehydration.
Since horses were made to be constantly consuming forage, they aren’t set up to handle the feeling of an empty stomach, and they are not sure what to do with all that time they spend not chewing. This can result in sand colic, where the desperate horse spends time sweeping the surrounding ground in an effort to relieve hunger and boredom.
Horses may also turn to chewing wood or other vices like cribbing and weaving. If they were to consume something dangerous or poisonous, it would require prompt veterinary attention.
Sure, they “can” process meat and get some energy and nutrients from it, but they have teeth that need grinding and a belly that needs to be kept full of fiber. The occasional snack of a bit of hot dog or slow chick with poor decision-making probably will not hurt them, but meat cannot be the foundation of a horse’s diet.
If horses are herbivores with a digestive system meant for plants, why are some of them eating meat? Many hooked animals, like cows and deer, are known to eat bones or antlers and some science points to a need for calcium as an explanation for this behavior.
Horses may eat sand, wood, manes/tails, and manure due to boredom or inadequate nutrients. Due to horses willingness to try different foods, they have been fed meat and animal products all over the world throughout history.
While horses in Iceland are generally kept on pasture, in the winter with supplemental hay, farmers may also place barrels of salted herring out for them. Exploration of Antarctica in the early 1900s made use of Siberian and Manchurian ponies to transport supplies.
These ponies were said to have eagerly eaten dried fish, blubber, and raw seal meat. Multiple reports of Tibetan horses from the 1800s through the 1900s said they were fed meat regularly and ones trained to eat it were more valuable.
Lawn clippings can contain dangerous chemicals or weeds that the horse cannot pick out. Horses also have a tendency not to chew clippings, which can lead to choke, colic, or laminates.
Horses are lactose intolerant and dairy products run the risk of causing digestive upset. Meat does not have the correct nutrients to make up a significant portion of their diet.
Apple seeds produce hydrogen cyanide when chewed, which can be deadly in high enough doses. Carrots make an excellent treat, but should only be given in moderation since they do not contain the correct nutrient profile for horses to stay healthy.
Horses have herbivore digestive tracts and don’t need meat to survive. In fact, they require ample plant matter to stay healthy.
Horses may need up to 12 gallons of water per day, depending on their diet and environment. (Source) Some horses might avoid drinking dirty, icy, or strange tasting water, and they run the risk of developing impaction colic.
Keep your horse’s water clean, easy to access, and at a reasonable temperature. What horses DO require is plenty of good quality roughage and clean water to keep their digestive systems running smoothly.
Horse are big and strong animals, after all, and it would seem natural for them to gain strength from a juicy piece of meat. Horses are herbivores which means they eat plants and hay.
Only in Iceland will people feed horses dried fish to give them more proteins. The digestive system of horses is geared toward eating plans and hay and should not have to process meat.
It may seem strange that such a big and strong animal as a horse can live on plants in hay alone. After all, they are often working hard all day, and we tend to think that such labor requires meat in order to develop the muscles and sustain the animal.
Primary producers are organisms that are turning the heat from the sun into energy through photosynthesis. This is a constant and ongoing process in plants such as grass and flowers.
Horses have flat teeth that are perfectly made for chewing plants and grass. That doesn’t mean that your horse will never eat anything that’s animal based.
Once in a while, your horse will need some sort of supplements that are based on proteins or other animal-based food. You will also find that the foal will drink milk from the mother which is full of proteins.
It’s important for the small horse to get the rich proteins from the mother’s milk in order to develop strong and healthy bones. You might find that a horse like the smell and taste meet.
They have been bred and formed by nature to have a digestion system which is based on eating plans and hay. So the next time you will wonder if you should let your horse taste your leftovers, you will need to get rid of the meat first.
It doesn’t have the sharp teeth to eat it and it will not be able to turn the meat into little pieces. You just need to watch the animal carefully if you suspect that your horse has been eating a lot of meat you probably need to take it to the vet.
You will need a professional opinion if you suspect that your horse has become sick or in other way is affected by eating meat. Wild horses, on the other hand, have often been observed to eat other smaller animals.
No harm is done from a horse eating a little mouse or another tiny animal. But you will never see a wild pack of horses eating a bigger dead animal.
They are not predators such as big cats like tigers and jaguars. They would typically keep dry camel meat and feed it to the horse along with other things such as honey.
Wild horses live in flocks but not in order to hunt other animals. Because as you might know, horses do have natural enemies such as bears, alligators, big cats, etc.
Carrots Apples Beets Mango Oranges Peanuts Pineapple Sweet potatoes Berries Coconut Lemons Bananas For the majority of humanity's early existence, wild horses were hunted as a source of protein.
During the Paleolithic, wild horses formed an important source of food for humans. In many parts of Europe, the consumption of horse meat continued throughout the Middle Ages until modern times, despite a papal ban on horse meat in 732.
Horse meat was also eaten as part of Germanic pagan religious ceremonies in Northern Europe, particularly ceremonies associated with the worship of Odin. The earliest horses evolved on the North American continent, and by about 12,000 BC, they had migrated to other parts of the world, becoming extinct in the Americas.
In the 15th and 16th centuries, Spaniards, followed by other European settlers, reintroduced horses to the Americas. Some horses became feral, and began to be hunted by the indigenous Sequence people of what is now Chile and Argentina.
Initially, early humans hunted horses as they did other game; later, they began to raise them for meat, milk and transport. The meat was, and still is, preserved by being sun-dried in the high Andes into a product known as charge.
Hunger during World War II led to horses being eaten. Horse meat gained widespread acceptance in French cuisine during the later years of the Second French Empire. The high cost of living in Paris prevented many working-class citizens from buying meat such as pork or beef ; in 1866, the French government legalized the eating of horse meat, and the first butcher's shop specializing in horse meat opened in eastern Paris, providing quality meat at lower prices.
During the Siege of Paris (1870–1871), horse meat, along with the meat of donkeys and mules, was eaten by anyone who could afford it, partly because of a shortage of fresh meat in the blockaded city, and also because horses were eating grain that was needed by the human populace. Though large numbers of horses were in Paris (estimates suggested between 65,000 and 70,000 were butchered and eaten during the siege), the supply was ultimately limited.
Not even champion racehorses were spared (two horses presented to Napoleon III by Alexander II of Russia were slaughtered), but the meat became scarce. Many Parisians gained a taste for horse meat during the siege, and after the war ended, horse meat remained popular.
Likewise, in other places and times of siege or starvation, horses are viewed as a food source of last resort. Despite the general Anglophone taboo, horse and donkey meat was eaten in Britain, especially in Yorkshire, until the 1930s, and, in times of postwar food shortages, surged in popularity in the United States and was considered for use as hospital food.
Horse meat has a slightly sweet taste reminiscent of beef. Many consumers allege not being able to tell the difference between beef and horse meat.
Meat from younger horses tends to be lighter in color, while older horses produce richer color and flavor, as with most mammals. IDH did find that horses at the age of 6 months had lower value of moisture and protein.
Selected nutrients per 100 g (3.5 oz) Food source Energy Protein(g) Fat(g) Iron(mg) Sodium(mg) Cholesterol(mg) (kJ) (Cal) Game meat, horse, raw 560 133 21 5 3.8 53 52 Beef, strip steak, raw 490 117 23 3 1.9 55 55 In most countries where horses are slaughtered for food, they are processed similarly to cattle, i.e., in large-scale factory slaughterhouses (abattoirs) where they are stunned with a captive bolt gun and bled to death. In countries with a less industrialized food-production system, horses and other animals are slaughtered individually outdoors as needed, in or near the village where they will be consumed.
Kyrgyzstan 155,17723,762 Total 4,262,004642,621 In 2005, the eight principal horse meat-producing countries produced over 700,000 tonnes of this product. As horses are relatively poor converters of grass and grain to meat compared to cattle, they are not usually bred or raised specifically for their meat.
Instead, horses are slaughtered when their monetary value as riding or work animals is low, but their owners can still make money selling them for horse meat, for example in the routine export of the southern English ponies from the New Forest, Ex moor, and Dartmoor. British law requires the use of equine passports even for semi feral horses to enable traceability (also known as “provenance”), so most slaughtering is done in the UK before the meat is exported, meaning that the animals travel as carcasses rather than live.
Ex- racehorses, riding horses, and other horses sold at auction may also enter the food chain ; sometimes, these animals have been stolen or purchased under false pretenses. Even prestigious horses may end up in the slaughterhouse ; the 1986 Kentucky Derby winner and 1987 Eclipse Award for Horse of the Year winner, Ferdinand, is believed to have been slaughtered in Japan, probably for pet food.
A misconception exists that horses are commonly slaughtered for pet food. In many countries, such as the United States, horse meat was outlawed for use in pet food in the 1970s.
American horse meat is considered a delicacy in Europe and Japan, and its cost is in line with veal, so it would be prohibitively expensive in many countries for pet food. Meat from horses that veterinarians have put down with a lethal injection is not suitable for human consumption, as the toxin remains in the meat; the carcasses of such animals are sometimes cremated (most other means of disposal are problematic, due to the toxin).
Remains of euthanized animals can be rendered, which maintains the value of the skin, bones, fats, etc., for such purposes as fish food. This is commonly done for lab specimens (e.g., pigs) euthanized by injection.
Carcasses of horses treated with some drugs are considered edible in some jurisdictions. In Europe, however, the same preparation is not considered to have any such effect, and edibility of the horse meat is not affected.
Horse meat is commonly eaten in many countries in Europe and Asia. It is not generally available food in some English-speaking countries such as the United Kingdom, South Africa, Australia, Ireland, the United States, and English Canada.
Horse meat is not generally eaten in Spain, except in the north, but the country exports horses both as live animals and as slaughtered meat for the French and Italian markets. For example, the Food Standards Code of Australia and New Zealand definition of 'meat' does not include horse.
In Tonga, horse meat is eaten nationally, and Tongan emigrants living in the United States, New Zealand, and Australia have retained a taste for it, claiming Christian missionaries originally introduced it to them. The consumption of horse meat has been common in Central Asian societies, past or present, due to the abundance of steppes suitable for raising horses.
In North Africa, horse meat has been occasionally consumed, but almost exclusively by the Christian Copts and the Hawaii Sunnis; it has never been eaten in the Maghreb. In the eighth century, Popes Gregory III and Zachary instructed Saint Boniface, missionary to the Germans, to forbid the eating of horse meat to those he converted, due to its association with Germanic pagan ceremonies.
The people of Iceland allegedly expressed reluctance to embrace Christianity for some time, largely over the issue of giving up horse meat. The culturally close people of Sweden still have an ambivalent attitude to horse meat, said to stem from this edict.
Horse meat was rejected by the British, but continued to be eaten in other European countries such as France and Germany, where knackers often sold horse carcasses despite the papal ban. Even the hunting of wild horses for meat continued in the area of Westphalia.
Londoners also suspected that horse meat was finding its way into sausages and that offal sold as that of oxen was, in fact, equine. While no taboo on eating horse meat exists per se, it is generally considered by ethnic Russians to be a low-quality meat with poor taste, and it is rarely found in stores.
In 732 AD, Pope Gregory III began a concerted effort to stop the ritual consumption of horse meat in pagan practice. In some countries, the effects of this prohibition by the Roman Catholic Church have lingered, and horse meat prejudices have progressed from taboos to avoidance to abhorrence.
In a study conducted by Fred Simmons, the avoidance of horse meat in American culture is less likely due to lingering feelings from Gregory's prohibition, but instead due to an unfamiliarity with the meat compared to more mainstream offerings. In other parts of the world, horse meat has the stigma of being something poor people eat and is seen as a cheap substitute for other meats, such as pork and beef.
According to the anthropologist Marvin Harris, some cultures class horse meat as taboo because the horse converts grass into meat less efficiently than ruminants. Optimistic taboo is also a possible reason for refusal to eat horse meat as an everyday food, but did not necessarily preclude ritual slaughter and consumption.
Roman sources state that the goddess Upon was widely worshiped in Gaul and southern Britain. In The White Goddess, Robert Graves argued that the taboo among Britons and their descendants was due to worship of Upon, and even earlier rites.
The ancient Indian Kshatriya's engaged in horse sacrifice (Ashamed Mafia) as recorded in the Vedas and Ramayana, but in the context of the ritual sacrifice, it is not 'killed', but instead smothered to death. In 1913, the Finnish Mari people of the Volga region were observed to practice a horse sacrifice.
In ancient Scandinavia, the horse was very important, as a living, working creature, as a sign of the owner's status, and symbolically within the old Norse religion. Horses were slaughtered as a sacrifice to the gods, and the meat was eaten by the people taking part in the religious feasts.
When the Nordic countries were Christianized, eating horse meat was regarded as a sign of paganism and prohibited. A reluctance to eat horse meat is common in these countries even today.
A British agriculture industry website reported that Australian horse meat production levels had risen to 24,000 tons by 2009. On 30 June 2010, Western Australian Agriculture Minister Terry Red man granted final approval to Western Australia butcher Vince Garrett to sell horse meat for human consumption.
Ned lands restaurateur Pierre Ichallalene announced plans to do a taster on Bastille Day and to put horse meat dishes on the menu if the reaction is good. Red man said that the government would “consider extending approvals should the public appetite for horse demand it”.
Vince Garrett is the owner of Mono Di Care, a major wholesale meat supplier, which supplies many cafés, restaurants, and hotels in Western Australia. He commented that no domestic market exists for horse meat, but a successful export market exists, of which he believes Western Australia should have a share.
In October 2019, the ABC revealed that thousands of retired racehorses were being slaughtered annually for the export market in human consumption. Overall, as of 2012 , about 94,000 horses were annually slaughtered, presumably including animals whose meat does not enter the human food chain.
Indonesia In Japanese cuisine, raw horse meat is called Laura () or sakuraniku (, Laura means cherry blossom “, Nike means “meat”) because of its pink color. It can be served raw as sashimi in thin slices dipped in soy sauce, often with ginger and onions added.
Hisashi is popular in some regions of Japan and is often served at Malaya bars. Fat, typically from the neck, is also found as Hisashi, though it is white, not pink.
Tuamotu, Pagan, and Rita are famous for Hisashi, and it is common in the Took region, as well. Some types of canned “corned meat” in Japan include horse as one of the ingredients.
Some dishes include sausages called Kay and Chuck or Suzhou made from the meat using the guts as the sausage skin, Ghana made from hip meat, which is smoked and boiled, JAL (or zeal) made from neck fat which is smoked and boiled, karma made from a section of the rectum that is smoked and boiled, and sure which is kept as dried meat. Mongolia Mongolian cuisine includes salted horse meat sausages called Kay are produced as a regional delicacy by the Kazakhs.
Generally, Mongols prefer beef and mutton (though during the freezing Mongolian winter, some people prefer horse meat due to its low cholesterol). It is kept unfrozen, and traditionally people think horse meat helps warm them up.
Other Asian nations import processed horse meat from Mongolia. Philippines In the Philippines, horse meat (Luka, taping kayo, or kayo) is a delicacy commonly sold in wet markets.
It is prepared by marinating the meat in lemon juice, soy sauce or fish sauce, then fried and served with vinegar for dipping. South Korea Korean Magog- yuk hoe (horse meat tartar)In Tonga, horse meat or lo'i ho'OSI is much more than just a delicacy; the consumption of horse meat is generally only reserved for special occasions.
These special occasions may include the death of an important family member or community member or as a form of celebration during the birthday of an important family member or perhaps the visitation of someone important, such as the king of Tonga. In Tonga, a horse is one of the most valuable animals a family can own because of its use as a beast of burden.
Tonga has long lacked land area compared with its population, so the missionaries introduced horse meat in lieu of cattle. Despite a diaspora into Western countries such as Australia and New Zealand, where consumption of horse meat is generally taboo, Tongans still practice the consumption of horse meat perhaps even more so because it is more readily available and more affordable.
A horse meat steak served at restaurant Oklahoma, Santa, Finland Austria Horse Leverage is available in special horse butcheries and occasionally at various stands, sold in a bread roll. Dumplings can also be prepared with horse meat, spinach, or Tyrolean Graduate (a sour milk cheese).
Such dumplings are occasionally eaten on their own, in a soup, or as a side dish. Belgium In Belgium, horse meat (paardenvlees in Dutch and viands Chevalier in French) is popular in a number of preparations.
Lean, smoked, and sliced horse meat fillet (paardenrookvlees or paardengerookt ; filet Chevalier in French) is served as a cold cut with sandwiches or as part of a cold salad. Horse steaks can be found in most butchers and are used in a variety of preparations.
The city of Vilvoorde has a few restaurants specializing in dishes prepared with horse meat. Horse sausage is a well-known local specialty in Learn and Dendermonde with European recognition.
Smoked or dried horse/pork meat sausage, similar to salami, is sold in a square shape to be distinguished from pork and/or beef sausages. A Flemish Region around the Repel River is also famous for a horse stew named schlep, made out of shoulder chuck (or similar cuts), brown ale, onions, and mustard.
Schlep is typically served with fries, mayonnaise, and a salad of raw Belgian endive. Finland Horse meat is available in butcher shops and shops specializing in meats but it can sometimes be found in supermarkets, especially in ground form.
The most common way to eat horse meat is in a sausage form, especially in the “meetwursti” (“ Bratwurst “); a cured and smoked sausage which often contains pig, cow and horse meat. Finns consume around 400g of horse meat per person, per year and the country produces round 300-400 thousand tons of meat per year, while importing around 1,5 million kilograms per year from countries like Canada, Mexico or Argentine.
Using meat from a horse that has been treated with non-horse medicine or hasn't been inspected by a veterinarian is outright banned. A butcher shop specializing in horse meat in Pesetas, Languid, France In France, specialized butcher shops (butcheries Chevalier) sell horse meat, as ordinary butcher shops were for a long time forbidden to deal in it.
Germany Although no taboo comparable to that in the English-speaking world exists, German law used to proscribe that horse meat be sold only by specialized butchers (Pferdemetzgereien). This proscription was abolished in 1993, but only a small minority of ordinary butchers have since begun to sell horse meat.
As of 2018 , most horse meat was still sold by the specialists, some of whom also delivered by mail order. Many regions of Germany have traditional recipes that include horse meat.
In the Rhineland around Cologne and Düsseldorf, restaurants often offer the traditional Sauerbraten in horse meat, typically with a beef variant to choose from. Other traditional horse meat dishes include the Swabian Pferderostbraten (a joint of roast meat prepared similarly to roast beef), Bavarian sausage varieties such as Ross wurst and Ross-Kochsalami as well as Ross-Leberkäse, a meatloaf dish.
The 2013 meat adulteration scandal started when German authorities detected horse meat in prepared food products including frozen lasagna, where it was declared fraudulently as beef. The mislabeling prompted EU authorities to speed up publication of European Commission recommendations for labeling the origin of all processed meat.
Iceland In Iceland, horse meat is both eaten minced and as steak, also used in stews and fondue, prized for its strong flavor. The people of Iceland supposedly were reluctant to embrace Christianity for some time largely over the issue of giving up horse meat after Pope Gregory III banned horse meat consumption in 732 AD, as it was a major part of many pagan rites and sacrifice in Northern Europe.
Horse meat consumption was banned when the pagan Norse Icelanders eventually adopted Christianity in 1000 AD/ Common Era. The ban became so ingrained that most people would not handle horse meat, let alone consume it.
Even during harsh famines in the 18th century, most people would not eat horse meat, and those who did were castigated. In 1757, the ban was decriminalized, but general distaste for horse meat lasted well into the 19th century, possibly longer, and its consumption often regarded as an indication of poverty.
Even today horse meat is not popular (3.2% of Iceland’s meat production in 2015), although this has more to do with culinary tradition and the popularity of equestrianism than any religious vestiges. Horse meat is used in a variety of recipes: as a stew called pastissada (typical of Verona), served as steaks, as carpaccio, or made into Bristol.
Chefs and consumers tend to prize its uniqueness by serving it as rare as possible. Donkey is also cooked, for example as a stew called staccato d'amino and as meat for sausages e.g. mortadella d'amino.
The cuisine of Parma features a horse meat tartar called pesto DI cavalry, as well as various cooked dishes. In Vent, the consumption of horse meat dates back to at least 1000 BC/ BCE to the Adriatic Genetic, renowned for their horse-breeding skills.
They were used to sacrificing horses to their goddess Ratio or to the mythical hero Diomedes. Throughout the classical period, Vent established itself as a center for horse breeding in Italy; Venetian horses were provided for the cavalry and carriage of the Roman legions, with the white Genetic horses becoming famous among Greeks and Romans as one of the best breeds for circus racing.
As well as breeding horses for military and farming applications, the Genetics also used them for consumption throughout the Roman period, a practice that established the consumption of horse meat as a tradition in Venetian cuisine. In the modern age, horse meat is considered a luxury item and is widely available through supermarkets and butcheries, with some specialized butcheries offering only selected cuts of equine meat.
Prices are usually higher than beef, pork, or any other kind of meat, except game. Typical Pagan specialty: horse flaccid, smoked and salt-cured “frayed threads” of meat In the Province of Paul, horse meat is a key element of the local cuisine, particularly in the area that extends southeast from the city, historically called Sacrifice.
Specialties based on horse meat constitute the main courses and best attractions of several typical restaurants in the zone. They are also served among other regional delicacies at the food stands of many local festivals, related to civil and religious anniversaries.
Most notable is the Fest del Cavalry, held annually in the small town of Leonard and totally dedicated to horses, included their consumption for food. Flaccid DI cavalry : tiny fraying of horse meat, dried and seasoned; to be consumed raw, can be a light and quick snack, more popular as a topping on other dishes: ex.
Cave in UNIDO (traditional horse meat stew from Paul) with grilled plenty Strata : a thin soft horse steak, cut from the diaphragm, variously cooked and dressed on the grill, pan or hot-plate Bisects DI Pedro colt steak, whose preparation is similar to strata Spectating DI cavalry also said cave in UNIDO, small chunks of horse meat, stewed with onion, parsley and/or other herbs and flavors, potatoes, broth, wine, etc., usually consumed with plenty, much appreciated also is a similar stew made of donkey meat, served in traditional tractor, with many variations for different villages: spessadin DE Russo, Russo in UNIDO, Russo in too, Russo in polio Prosciutto DI cavalry : horse ham, served in very thin slices Salome DI cavalry or Alicia DI cavalry : various kinds of salami, variously produced or seasoned, sometimes made of pure equine meat, sometimes mixed with others (beef or pork) Kigali all Hugo DI cavalry : a typical form of fresh pasta, similar to thick rough spaghetti, dressed with sauce like Bolognese sauce, but made with minced horse meat Vanzetti DI cavalry all Hugo : horse stew, seasoned with sauce, vegetables and various peperoncino, widely used in the Silent Chunks (Vanzetti) of horse stew (spectating DI cavalry) According to British food writer Matthew Fort, “The taste for donkey and horse goes back to the days when these animals were part of everyday agricultural life.
In the frugal, unsentimental manner of agricultural communities, all the animals were looked on as a source of protein. In Malta, horse meat (Maltese : LATAM ta-iemel) is seared and slowly cooked for hours in either tomato or red wine sauce.
A few horse meat shops still exist and it is still served in some restaurants. Zuurvlees, a southern Dutch stew, is made with horse meat as main ingredient.
Horse meat is also used in sausages (paardenworst and Afrikaner), fried fast food snacks and ready-to-eat soups. When Norwegians adopted Christianity, horse eating became taboo as it was a religious act for pagans, thus it was considered a sign of heresy.
Older horses are often exported on the hoof to Italy to be slaughtered. Horses in Poland are treated mostly as companions, and the majority of Poles are against live export for slaughter.
Poland has a tradition of eating horse meat (e.g., sausage or steak tartare). Horse meat is generally available in Serbia, though mostly shunned in traditional cuisine.
It is, however, often recommended by general practitioners to persons who suffer from anemia. It is available to buy at three green markets in Belgrade, a market in Is, and in several cities in ethnically mixed Vojvodina, where Hungarian and previously German traditions brought the usage.
Slovenia A horse meat hamburger in restaurant Hot' Horse, Ljubljana, Slovenia : Horse meat is a national delicacy in Slovenia. Horse meat is generally available in Slovenia, and is highly popular in the traditional cuisine, especially in the central region of Carnival and in the Kart region. Colt steak (žrebikov Greek) is also highly popular, especially in Slovenia's capital Ljubljana, where it is part of the city's traditional regional cuisine.
In Ljubljana, many restaurants sell burgers and meat that contain large amounts of horse meat, including a fast-food chain called Hot' Horse. Celina is a cured meat made from beef or horse, and is considered a delicacy.
Horse meat is easily found in supermarkets, and usually prepared as a stew or as steak. A common practice is to serve horse meat to anemic children.
Although no generalized taboo exists in Spain, consumption of horse meat is minor, compared to that of pork, beef, or lamb. It tends to be very thinly sliced and fairly salty, slightly reminiscent of deli-style ham, and as a packaged meat, may list horse meat (as hastiest) as its primary ingredient.
Several varieties of smoked sausage made from horse meat, including Gustafson, are also quite popular, especially in the province of Malaria, where they are produced. Gustafson, similar to salami or met worst, may substitute for those meats in sandwiches.
The laws on foodstuffs of animal origin in Switzerland explicitly list equines as an animal type allowed for the production of food. Horse meat is also used for a range of sausages in the German-speaking north of Switzerland.
As in northern Italy, in Switzerland's Italian-speaking south, local salami (sausages) may be made with horse meat. Ukraine In Ukraine, especially in Crimea and other southern steppe regions, horse meat is consumed in the form of sausages called Mahan and Suzuki.
These particular sausages are traditional food of the Crimean Tatar population. United Kingdom In the United Kingdom, the slaughter, preparation, and consumption of horses for food is not against the law, although it has been rare since the 1930s, and horse meat is not generally available.
The sale of meat labelled as horse meat in UK supermarkets and butchers is minimal, and most actual horse meat consumed in the UK is imported from Europe, predominantly from the south of France, where it is more widely eaten. Horse meat may be eaten without the knowledge of the consumer, due to accidental or fraudulent introduction of horse meat into human food.
A 2003 Food Standards Agency investigation revealed that certain sausages, salami, and similar products such as chorizo and pastrami sometimes contained horse meat without it being listed, although listing is legally required. Horse meat was featured in a segment of a 2007 episode of the Gordon Ramsay series The F Word.
In the segment, Janet Street-Porter convinced locals to try horse meat, though not before facing controversy and being forced to move her stand to a privately owned location. The meat was presented as having a similar taste to beef, but with less fat, a high concentration of omega-3 fatty acids, and as a safer alternative in times of worry regarding bird flu and mad cow disease.
The segment was met with skepticism from many viewers after broadcast for various reasons, either because some felt the practice was cruel and against social norms, or simply a belief that if the taste was really on par with other meats, then people would already be eating it. Their Twitter account my Brittle Pony, states that they are “Determined to make horse a stable part of the British diet.
Horse meat is also for sale at the other end of the country, in Granville Island Market in downtown Vancouver, where according to a Time reviewer who smuggled it into the United States, it turned out to be a “sweet, rich, super lean, oddly soft meat, closer to beef than venison”. Aside from the heritage of French cuisine at one end of the country, most of Canada shares the horse meat taboo with the rest of the English-speaking world.
This mentality is especially evident in Alberta, where strong horse racing and breeding industries and cultures have existed since the province's founding, although large numbers of horses are slaughtered for meat in Fort MacLeod, and certain butchers in Calgary do sell it. In 2013, the consumer protection show Kassensturz of Swiss television SRF reported the poor animal conditions at Bounty Exports, a Canadian horse meat farm in Fort MacLeod, Alberta.
CBC News reported on March 10, 2013, that horse meat was also popular among some segments of Toronto's population. It holds a taboo in American culture very similar to the one found in the United Kingdom.
All horse meat produced in the United States since the 1960s (until the last quarter of 2007) was intended solely for export abroad, primarily to the European Union. However, a thriving horse exportation business is going on in several states, including Texas, primarily exporting horses to slaughterhouses in either Canada or Mexico.
Restriction of human consumption of horse meat in the U.S. has generally involved legislation at local, state, and federal levels. California Proposition 6 (1998) was passed by state voters, outlawing the possession, transfer, reception, or holding any horse, pony, burro, or mule by a person who is aware that it will be used for human consumption, and making the slaughter of horses or the sale of horse meat for human consumption a misdemeanor offense.
In 2007, the Illinois General Assembly enacted Public Act 95-02, amending Chapter 225, Section 635 of the state's compiled statutes to prohibit both the act of slaughtering equines for human consumption and the trade of any horse meat similarly to Texas Agriculture Code's Chapter 149. In addition, several other states introduced legislation to outlaw the practice over the years, such as Florida, Massachusetts, New Mexico, and New York.
At the federal level, since 2001, several bills have been regularly introduced in both the House and Senate to ban horse slaughter throughout the country without success. However, a budgetary provision banning the use of federal funds to carry out mandatory inspections at horse slaughter plants (necessary to allow interstate sale and exports of horse meat) has also been in place since 2007.
This restriction was temporarily removed in 2011 as part of the Consolidated and Further Continuing Appropriations Act for Fiscal Year 2012 but was again included in the FY2014 Agriculture Appropriations Act and subsequent federal budgets, hence preventing the operation of any domestic horse slaughter operation. Until 2007, only three horse meat slaughterhouses still existed in the United States for export to foreign markets, but they were closed by court orders resulting from the upholding of aforementioned Illinois and Texas statutes banning horse slaughter and the sale of horse meat.
The taboo surrounding horse meat in the United States received national attention again in May 2017 when a restaurant in the Lawrenceville section of Pittsburgh served a dish containing horse tartar as part of a special event the restaurant was hosting with French Canadian chefs as guests. A Change.org petition subsequently went up to advocate making serving horse meat illegal in Pennsylvania.
From the 1920s and through the 1950s or 1960s, and with a brief rationing hiccup during WWII, horse meat was canned and sold as dog food by many companies under many brands, most notably by Ken-L Ration. The popularity of horse meat as dog food became so popular that by the 1930s, over 50,000 horses were bred and slaughtered each year to keep up with this specific demand.
Also in Chile, horse meat became the main source of nutrition for the nomadic indigenous tribes, which promptly switched from a guano -based economy to a horse-based one after the horses brought by the Spaniards bred naturally and became feral. This applied specially to the Pampa and Apache nations, who became fierce horseman warriors.
Similar to the Tatars, they ate raw horse meat and milked their animals. It is generally less expensive than beef and somewhat associated with lower social strata.
No foreign food: the American diet in time and place. ^ a b Calvin W. Schwa be, Unmentionable Cuisine, University Press of Virginia, ISBN 0-8139-1162-1 ^ Azzaroli, A.
“Ascent and decline of monodactyl equips: a case for prehistoric overkill” (PDF). “Rapid body size decline in Alaskan Pleistocene horses before extinction”.
“Geo historical Variables in the Evolution of the Sequence Economic System During the Colonial Period”. (Spanish title: El Canada Exotic Y la Transition Productive, Variables Geohistóricas en la Evolution del System Economic Sequence Durante El period colonial).
^ “Études Hygienists DE la chair DE coeval come aliment (Hygienic studies of horseflesh as food)”. ^ Larry mentions in his memoirs how he fed the wounded after the (1809) with bouillon of horse meat seasoned with gunpowder.
Page 83 Archived April 27, 2016, at the Payback Machine (in Google Books). Quoting Dominique-Jean Larry, Memoirs DE chirurgie military ET champagnes, III 281, Paris, Smith.
^ “Nutrition Facts and Analysis for Game meat, horse, raw”. ^ “Nutrition Facts and Analysis for Beef, grass-fed, strip steaks, lean only, raw”.
^ Françoise Aubaile-Sallenave, “Meat among Mediterranean Muslims: Beliefs and Praxis”, Studios Del Hombre 19 :129 (2004) ^ William Ian Miller, “Of Outlaws, Christians, Horse meat, and Writing: Uniform Laws and Saga Iceland”, Michigan Law Review, Vol. 2081-2095 (subscription required) Archived April 1, 2016, at the Payback Machine ^ a b “U.S.D.A.
(quoting a 1997 USDA report said to be no longer available online) ^ Vol 2 pp 7-9 ^ “Archived copy” : (in Russian). CS1 main: archived copy as title (link) ^ Pillsbury, Michael (1998).
No Foreign Food: The American Diet in Time and Place. ^ Powell, T. G. E., 1958, The Celts, Thames and Hudson, London ^ Graves, Robert, The White Goddess, Faber and Faber, London, 1961, p 384 ^ Campbell, Joseph, Oriental Mythology: The Masks of God, Ar kana, 1962, pp190-197 ISBN 0-14-019442-8 ^ Phillip Pulsing; Kirsten Wolf (1993).
^ Andes Andrew; Kristina Jenner; Catarina Radar (2006). Old Norse Religion in Long Term Perspectives: Origins, Changes and Interactions, an International Conference in Land, Sweden, June 3–7, 2004.
^ Victorian Advocates for Animals & Coalition for the Protection of Racehorses protests ^ “Americans squeamish over horse meat”. ^ Time Out 30 May–5 June 2007 ^ “Horse meat exports in doubt after standards complaint”.
^ “Argentina-Horse Meat world production figures, Farming UK, January 17, 2009. ^ Horse meat production in Australia and New Zealand Archived February 29, 2020, at the Payback Machine.
^ Metropolis, “Straight From the Horse's Mouth”, #903, 15 July 2011, pp. ^ Brief Overview of the Draft Revision of Quality Labeling Standard for Canned and Bottled Livestock Products Archived July 6, 2011, at the Payback Machine, Japanese Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries (from Pontifical Argentina Archived February 24, 2010, at the Payback Machine).
^ Archived September 9, 2016, at the Payback Machine 88% percent of this industry is concentrated to Hokkaido and trend is decreasing.(pg. 2, classification “”)(Japan's Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries) ^ Archived September 16, 2016, at the Payback Machine (pg.
)(Japan's Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries) ^ a b Archived August 17, 2016, at the Payback Machine - Japan's Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries(pg. ^ Paw she, Mayor; Cheddar, Chandraprakash D; Pindar, Anjali (January 2016).
^ Exploring EU’s Savory Delicacies Archived June 23, 2011, at the Payback Machine, Korean.or.KR ^ a b “Lovers paardenworsten”. “Species diversity and metabolic impact of the microbiota are low in spontaneously acidified Belgian sausages with an added starter culture of Staphylococcus carious “.
^ Paula Hardy; Abigail Hole; Olivia Poznan (2008). ^ “Irascible or meat rolls filled with pecorino and fat: Authentic Italian recipe of Apulian”.
^ Eating Up Italy: Voyages on a Vespa by Matthew Fort. Many of the village restaurants specializing in rabbit also feature horse meat on their menu.
^ “Micros Bézier Kan Pferdefleisch Meir com Produzenten Bounty AUS Canada” (in German). “Toronto restaurateurs say horse meat a prime dining choice”.
Zurich, Switzerland: Tierschutzbund Zurich (Animal Welfare Foundation) TSB. Prohibition on Slaughter of Horses and Sale of Horse meat for Human Consumption.
^ “USDA Warns Pittsburgh Restaurant That Served Horse Meat”. “THE UNINTENDED CONSEQUENCES OF A BAN ON THE HUMANE SLAUGHTER (PROCESSING) OF HORSES IN THE United STATES” (PDF).
The Animal Welfare Council, Inc., citing FAO-UN Horticultural Database. ^ “México consolidate vent DE care DE cabal lo all exterior (Mexico consolidates horse meat exportation)”.
El Information :: Notices de Jalisco, México, Deported & Entretenimiento (in Spanish). ^ “Care DE cabal lo, El negation tab Que Florence en la Argentina”.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Horse meat. Horses have very specific dietary needs because they are herbivores and have a unique digestive tract quite different from ours.
The natural diet of the horse is pasture grass and tender plants. Pasture grass isn't necessarily the problem, the type of horses we've developed and the lack of exercise are.
Those of us with easy keepers need to limit the amount of fresh grass our horses have access to. For the horse that is a hard keeper, however, good pasture provides the best nutrition.
It helps to have hay tested so that any shortfalls in vitamins and minerals can be compensated for with supplements. Thomas Shampoo / Getty Images Oats are a traditional grain fed to horses.
The seed head of grasses would be the closest thing a wild horse would come to eating grains in their natural environment. Grain also doesn't require the chewing time or contain the silica grass does and this can contribute to things like ulcers and dental problems.
Concentrates are usually a mixture of things like grains, flaxseed, beet pulp, molasses for energy and flavor, bran, vitamins and minerals, and other ingredients. Concentrate mixes, like grain, help make up for any shortfall in nutrition and provide a quick source of energy.
Supplements such as salt and minerals may be included in a concentrate mix or may be offered separately. Some people offer free-choice minerals as well, or it can be added into the horse's grain or concentrate meal.
Many people find that salt is consumed more during the summer months than in the colder weather. These tidbits may include things like apples, carrots or other favorite fruits or vegetables, handfuls of grain, sugar cubes or candies, or sometimes odd things like a bite of a hot dog or boiled egg.
However, it may not be advisable to feed horses meat or too many sugary treats, including fruit. Of course, a horse won't make the connection to the hamburger they ate an hour ago and the discomfort they're having now, so they'll probably eat any food they like over and over again.
Treats need to be considered as part of the overall feeding plan and kept to a minimum if your horse needs to watch its weight. A horse eating pasture grass probably won't drink as much water as one on a hay only diet.
Don't be tempted to throw lawn clippings, garden refuse or compo stables over the fence. If you enjoy munching on raising for a tasty snack, you might wonder if you can share them with your equine friends in the stable.
Horses can safely eat raisins, and they actually enjoy the snack because they are sweet, chewy, and offer sufficient sugar. Raisins pose almost no choking hazard to horses, and they are safe in moderate amounts.
Excessive amounts of raisins may lead to digestive problems or discomfort in horses. Too many raisins can easily disturb this balance and lead to digestive problems such as colic.
The chances of horses choking from raisins are slim, but it can still happen if they try to swallow large gulps at once. To further reduce the risk, give them their raisin treats in multiple small portions.
Bran contains disproportionate amounts of calcium and fate, a form of phosphorus. State hinders the absorption of minerals like calcium, manganese, zinc, and copper.
In moderate amounts, the effect of fate from raisin bran would be relatively insignificant. Aside from the adverse effects of fate, raisin bran offers horses a good source of dietary fiber.
The fiber in raisin bran can contribute to the healthiness of the digestive system. If your horse competes in events where it could be tested for drugs, you should not give it raisin bread containing chocolate.
If your horse is equestrian or participates in competitions, do not give it chocolate raisin cookies or it may fail a randomized drug test. Potassium facilitates the contraction and relaxation of muscles alongside calcium and sodium.
Heme is a part of hemoglobin, the protein that gives blood its red color and carries oxygen. Maintaining an optimal level of magnesium can also help horses resist the adverse effects of stress and tolerate it better.
It also promotes bone formation and muscle function, and it is essential for blood clotting. Vitamin B6 helps the development of a horse’s nervous system and promotes energy metabolism.
In large amounts, raisins will alter the microbial flora of a horse’s gut, and this will lead to various digestive problems. Cooking salt ¼ cup water ½ tbsp.
Directions Add the olive oil to a large skillet and place over medium heat for 1-2 minutes. When the oil is hot, add the raisins, carrot, and apple, and then cook for 3 minutes.
Add brown sugar, salt, and water to the skillet and stir thoroughly for 90 seconds. Directions Add the carrots, raisins, and apples to a bowl, and then stir thoroughly.
Giving them too much might disturb the integrity of their gut and leave them at risk of digestive issues. Canada, Brazil, Mexico, Argentina, and Uruguay all export horse meat to the EU in large quantities and even the United States, where consumption of this animal protein is illegal, has slaughterhouses that produce and export the meat to the world.
Although the animals are often considered intelligent, there is no denying the fact that if horse farming would start, it could produce healthier proteins for households worldwide. In most countries that do eat horse meat on a regular basis, less than 7% of people in an October 2012 survey said that they do so often.
Belgium imports more than 44 million pounds of horse meat per year and most of that comes from North America, making them the largest per capita consumer. In Belgium and in the Netherlands, meat snacks that are low-cost items contain nearly 30% horse meat, although the products aren’t advertised as such or packaged to promote the animal protein.
92% of horses in North America that are sent for slaughter are considered to be in “good” condition, which means that they could lead productive lives at that point. It is not uncommon for horse slaughterhouses to be out of compliance with environmental regulations, with the disposal of blood the most commonly noted violation.
Russia has recently committed to spending RUB180 million to subsidize the production of local horse meat. In North America, for example, horses are often kept in 110F and above temperatures, treated poorly during the transportation process, and the actual slaughtering is not to the highest of standards because there is no local investment in the product.
Why bother following health standards when someone will eat the animal protein half a world away? Aldi and Tesco removed frozen pasta dishes with meat sauce because it found up to 60% horse meat in some of their products.
Authentically farmed horse meat could be incredibly safe and nutritious when handled properly. The issue is that horse meat isn’t handled properly and is instead being substituted as a cheap alternative to beef without public knowledge.
With summer finally here, horse owners are naturally keen to give their four legged friends a cooling treat! The leafy green parts of the tomato plant contain atropine, which slows gut function and can cause colic.
The tomato fruit itself contains hyoscyamine, which increases heart rate, decreases saliva production and intestinal motility, and causes severe constipation and/or diarrhea that can be potentially life-threatening. This plant family contains the chemical Propel disulfide, which damages red blood cells, and in turn can lead to anemia.
Chocolate consumption can cause many health complications, including colic, seizures, metabolic derangement and internal bleeding. Chocolate also contains varying amounts of caffeine, which could cause a competition horse to fail a drug test resulting in disqualification.
Their liver isn't designed to get rid of the residues of meat products, and there is no evidence to suggest what long term side effects this could have. Ingesting rhubarb can cause tremors, and if consumed in higher quantities, can damage their digestive and urinary systems, leading to potential kidney failure.
While a bit of gas is no major problem for us as humans, horses can suffer from severe abdominal pains caused by gas-related colic. Large stones can also pose a choking hazard, so should be removed before offering certain fruits to your horse.
It is always best to check if your horse is insulin resistant before feeding them anything containing sugar and you should always cut up other foods to avoid any choking hazards (take special care with any hard, round fruits and vegetables). IMPORTANT NOTE: ALL FOODS SHOULD BE FED IN MODERATION, OVER FEEDING YOUR HORSE CAN CAUSE UPSET TO A BALANCED DIET.
We often feed our horses treats in return for good work or praise when training, and that’s fine. Treats should also be fed in moderation, feeding your horse too much can have a negative impact on their carefully balanced diet.
However, we were able to find a wide selection of horse jerky from a small company in Wales and have some shipped to our offices in New York. )Cowley's “Black Beauty” horse jerky is 100% beef free.
We decided to do a blind taste test to see if people could tell the difference between horse and beef -- and to see which they liked better. While most of our fifteen contestants (66 percent) were able to correctly identify which meat was which, the beef jerky's taste earned only slightly higher ratings than the horse.
Click the video above to watch the horse meat taste test. At least twice a year, horses from Manitoba are loaded onto a plane in Winnipeg and sent halfway across the world for slaughter.
In Japan horse meat is eaten in the form of sashimi, in thin slices dipped in soy sauce. In 2016, more than 300 horses were shipped from Winnipeg to Japan, according to the Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CIA).
The horses are usually loaded into crates on a plane and inspected by federal veterinarians to see if they are suitable for transport and if there is appropriate aircraft accommodations, the CIA states. “The CIA inspectors work diligently to enforce the Health of Animals Act and Regulations to ensure that all animals, including horses, are properly certified, fit to travel and transported humanely,” Maria Back with the CIA said.
Dr. Maureen Harper, a former veterinarian with the CIA, disagrees with the agency and believes they are breaking its own regulations. According to Section 141.9 of the Health of Animal Regulation, horses over 14 hands in height must be segregated for air transport.
However, the CIA said horses are shipped together in crates and not segregated if they are” assessed to be compatible during travel.” Section 141.9 of the Health of Animal Regulation states the horses heads cannot touch the top of the crates.
Harper said the horses are usually quickly loaded on the crates, meaning it would be nearly impossible for veterinaries to tell which animals know one another. According to a letter from Canada’s Minister of Agriculture and Agri-Food, Lawrence Macaulay, when horses are shipped to Japan by air, professional judgement and previous experience indicate that the horses can travel safely and comfortably without segregation.
Ontario planning to implement province wide lockdown, including school closures: sources Davis said many horse owners, such as herself, inject their animals with an anti-inflammatory pill, known as phenylbutazone (but).
It helps alleviate inflammation in horses, but it’s not fit for human consumption, according to researchers. Most drugs clear out of a horse’s system within six months, but some remain a permanent danger to humans, she said.
“The agency has zero tolerance for phenylbutazone in food, including horse meat for human consumption,” a CIA spokesperson stated in an email. According to the CIA, the federal government tests around 300 samples of horse meat for but annually.
Other countries, like Japan and France, do their own testing of horse meat imported from Canada. Canada has become a major international horse meat supplier since a U.S. federal court ruling in 2007 closed the last horse-processing plant in that country.
In March 2017, 196 horses were shipped from Canada to Japan (shipments usually go out from Calgary, Edmonton and Winnipeg). That’s nearly 13.8 million kilograms of horse meat that was shipped to countries like Japan, Switzerland, France and Belgium in 2016, according to the federal government.
“Our shop fell in love with the taste of Tuamotu horse meat and opened it in November 2005,” Hide to Sakai, an employee of the store said. Although it’s popular meat in other countries, consuming horse can be a taboo industry in Canada, according to Dr. Melanie Joy, a Harvard psychologist and author of Why We Eat Pigs, Love Dogs and Wear Cows.
The group protests the live shipments of horses and documents the animals being sent overseas. Horses are meant to eat roughage, and their digestive system is designed to use the nutrition in grassy stalks.
Horses who spend much of their time in stalls aren’t doing much grazing, but their natural feeding patterns can be replicated by keeping hay in front of them for most of the day. They can nibble at it for a while, take a break and snooze for a while, and then come back to it, keeping some roughage constantly moving through their systems.
If you feed your horse grain, give it in multiple smaller meals rather than one large one. If for some reason you must give your horse a large quantity of grain, consider an additional lunchtime feeding.
When the grass is thick and lush, you can cut back or eliminate hay rations completely, depending on available pasture. Sign up to receive our exclusive e-book full of training techniques, problem-solving and important information about caring for your pet.
If you’re changing the amount of feed, increase or decrease each meal a little at a time, over several weeks if possible. Once you figure out how much your horse’s typical ration weighs, measure that portion at feeding time using a scoop, coffee can, or whatever suits your needs.
A full digestive system gives the horse’s lungs less room to work, and makes exercise much harder on them. In addition, blood flow is diverted away from the digestive organs during periods of exertion, so gut movement slows and colic may be a real danger.