This phenomenon is often called Orphic resonance and/or swarm theory; the beings are part of a shared field of energy with its own identity, yet the individuals are autonomous within the field. As a unified field, it has a unique relationship to other beings and things all on its own.
Neural pathways become ingrained, deeply etched into the psyche of both human and horse and your combined energy field. This means that my intention will inform my feelings, actions and penetrate the field of energy around me.
It is believed that by the time something ends up as disease in the body, it has been developing in the energy field long before it manifests in physical form. A weakened field could also mean that the horse is more susceptible to fight or flight behavior.
Often, we’ve inherited these challenges when we join forces with our new horse companions. An energetic healing technique called soul retrieval, involves going back to the event in the mind’s eye and retrieving the part of yourself that was left behind at the place of the accident and/or trauma.
Many energy healers believe that an injury on the body also leaves a little “hole” in the field of energy, leaving that area of the body that much more vulnerable to something happening again. When we hear the phrase “I was beside myself with worry!” it literally means that to some degree, you left your body and were not operating with all your senses.
I bring up all these possibilities of what can go wrong in the energy field because the good news is that it’s all repairable. You don’t have to be some big energy worker, a magician, or a pet psychic.
When your horse triggers you negatively, you might try a different reaction, like amusement, understanding or curiosity. She is the author of Energy Healing for Animals, A Hands-On Guide for Enhancing the Health, Longevity & Happiness of Your Pets and Communication with all Life, Revelations of an Animal Communicator.
Horses are the most excellent teachers for humans regarding our healing and understanding of our energy field. The ability to read, engage, and move energy within themselves and others comes second nature to a horse.
In the world of Coaching with Horses or Equine Facilitated Learning, horses have stepped up to be our teachers, guides, space holders, and healers for human beings of all types. Through the last fifteen years of facilitating this unique and profound work, I have watched hundreds of horses closely during sessions.
In this work, horses can be authentically themselves releasing all the conditioning and conforming that is typically expected from them when they are with humans. There are many ways that horses work with us and help us to see our energetic contribution (our current energy we are offering others).
Without an understanding of who we are at an emotional and energetic level and how to master agility within our energy field, we can become much like a horse who never matures enough to be trusted or given a job that requires grounding and presence. I have studied horses for years and have found several ways that they move energy.
The horse, as an open vessel or what I call an “acoustical being,” (a being of sound and light waves) receives every aspect of our energy, including our mind, our emotions, and our intentions, both conscious and unconscious. The Horse as a mirror is a widespread concept in the Equine Facilitated Learning field to work.
The horse responds to what the human offers energetically and at all levels of consciousness. If we (or the client) are feeling lonely and rejected, the horse moves away and affirms the deep-seated belief of our worthiness.
A skilled coach knows how to work with the client to help them modulate their emotions and bring energy into check. They respond to information in the energy (emotion) the human is offering in the way that it works for them at that time.
The mirroring effect is powerful and can be stunning or jarring to the client’s experience. If they awaken to the messages, better decisions can be made on an emotional, spiritual, and mental level.
Whenever we are working with any animals, it behooves us to ask: “What is this animal mirroring back to me about my mood, emotional state of consciousness and energy ?” “What is my horse showing me about myself?” When the horse is a mirror, it projects back to the human, the energetic content of the human. Often, this will happen when emotions such as sadness, grief, hopelessness, and a lack of confidence arise in the human.
The human, who may or may not be in touch with the energy of their body, may leave not knowing what transpired in the time with the horse. Often the horses pick up this way of processing energy through the example that the human counterparts are unconsciously modeling.
The human that experiences the Horse as Diffuser may experience emotion arising in their body, and then the feeling alters and subsides. The horse, more than likely, is watching purposefully, licking and chewing and letting the energy move through.
A shift will happen in the energy field of the human, and they often feel uplifted, more hopeful, their heart is more open, and calmness prevails over the confusion, frustration, or anger they felt at the beginning. The human can experience a shift that lasts forever, removing all traces of what was and a new, better present reality is created.
These horses are masterful energetic healers that can hold space for another’s process, and actively help to release and transmute the produced energy patterns or cycles. The horse who is the spiritual alchemist help to awaken consciousness and most often do so in the most subtle of ways.
Beginning in 2020, during some of my programs, I will use a new scientific device to measure the changes in the energy field of humans through their interactions with horses. Included in this course are individual scans that will show you what shifts and changes in your sessions along with underlying patterns in your system.
If you feel drawn to take the next step in your business, I invite you to email me directly to request the complete information packet. The EFL Level One program incorporates multiple aspects of working with Horse.
During the first three days of the program, the Dance of Authenticity through the Wisdom of the Horse workshop offers experiential exercises with a goal of reaching higher levels of authenticity, presence, intuition and emotional intelligence through working directly with horses. This portion teaches how to facilitate sessions employing Horse as a co-coach, teacher or mentor.
I invite you to join me in this ongoing telephone-based program where you will dance and move in the quantum field while accessing new realms of intelligence. The Horse Ancestors will lead you back to the ancient and natural methods of connecting to the Source, giving you comfort, hope and new ways to navigate our often chaotic world.
This program is a very specially designed intensive for you: the individual who is ready to create a more soul-filled life directed by her intuition. I personally invite you to join me for this wonderful and vibrationally expansive ongoing experience.
If you are new to this work of Equine Facilitated Learning and Coaching, or just want to feel inspired by some wonderful stories of how horses teach humans, I invite you to pick up a copy of my book, Hope… From the Heart of Horses. Explore the seven vital energy centers (chakra) within the human body.
In this article you will find a great deal of information about the causes and what you can do about it. Temperament is often a display of the genetic building blocks and the environment in which your horse lives.
The circumstances in which your horse/pony lives and works are very important factors that influence the behavior of your horse/pony. If your horse does not get enough roughage then it could become restless, get stomach ulcers and display unusual behavior like wind sucking or crib biting.
First check the overall health (by a vet, if needed): heart beat, breathing, temperature, condition of the teeth and perhaps also a blood analysis. Also check out your riding: horses are quick to learn to ignore repeated or irregular signals.
The explanation is that the fast releasing energy from oats can raise certain hormone levels, which causes the over- energetic behavior of the horse. In the Ancient Greece, warhorses were already fed oats to increase their energy and prepare them for battle.
Nowadays, oats are still added to the feed of horses who can do with some extra energy or have to deliver an explosive performance. You can re-balance the feed very well with Pave Explosive, which has been specially developed to be fed in combination with oats.
Firstly it is important to know that hard feeds, which are rich in oils have a calming influence on the horse. Hard feeds with a higher oil content are therefore good for ‘hot’ or nervous horses.
Those feeds give the horse energy, but they don’t ‘blow their brains’. This muesli has been specially designed for competition horses that need sufficient stamina without becoming too excited.
Sometimes horses are just like human beings who need a holiday to recharge their batteries. Always do that in combination with Pave Explosive because oats do not contain sufficient vitamins and has an unfavorable calcium/phosphorus ratio.
Early society depended on horses for transportation, farming and other tasks before the engine and the use of fossil fuels dominated industries around the world. Horses benefited the environment during that time as a cleaner source of energy than gas-powered cars.
Here're three ways horses help the environment and make Earth a better place. Farms across the U.S. and the U.K. set up and maintain manure management programs, per their state or local government requirements.
Horse manure, as a fertilizer, increases nutrients, like nitrogen and phosphorus, within the soil. Because a biogas is airtight, it prevents the release of methane into the atmosphere as a greenhouse gas, which cuts air pollution, and instead uses it to generate power.
Certain power companies even offer consumers the option to exclusively purchase green or clean energy. Polluted water sources impact not only people, but can also spread illnesses among a herd of animals.
Policies like manure management plans, as well as the initiative of horse owners, contribute to equines’ role as a source of renewable, clean energy and a resource for supporting the land. The process is simple, and a key component to how horses contribute to smart perennial grassland management.
Overgrazed grass struggles to grow and establish itself in a pasture, which often results in soil erosion and runoff. Grasslands optimized for growth through rotational grazing also prevent erosion because of their established root systems.
Grassland management through horses has expanded to include more than farms, such as areas of conservation and/or rural landscapes, where grassland management techniques are effective and support the local ecosystem. As a grazing animal, horses create a mosaic pattern in their feeding area.
Habitats of animals are also maintained through a horse’s grazing, which prevents the area from becoming overgrown and limited in use for certain species. Seeds germinate well after passing through a horse’s digestive system and benefit from manure, which boosts their growth.
Spreading seeds throughout a habitat, horses encourage its continued growth and establishment. Grazing horses focus on grasses, which protects the growth of other plants, like flowers.
Plants and flowers also receive assistance from horses through the trampling of uneaten and often unwanted vegetation, like weeds. Once the vegetation is dead, plants and flowers don’t have to compete with it for valuable nutrients, water and other resources.
“What’s fascinating about this research is that it shows horses have the ability to read emotions across the species barrier. We have known for a long time that horses are a socially sophisticated species but this is the first time we have seen that they can distinguish between positive and negative human facial expressions,” said Amy Smith, a doctoral student in the university’s mammal vocal communication and cognition research group.
Massey Puff Broomstick Ghost zapper Houdini Bing Bong Horsey McHorseFace Wot sit Noreen Clodhopper Hoofer Badly Transmission Bandit Waikikamukau Rusty Saddle Homer Odor in the Court Overbite Donkey Horsepower Hoarse It was originally developed in 1922 by Mikado Sui a Japanese Buddhist, but has since been adapted by various other teachers of varying traditions.
Our body is composed not only of physical elements such as muscles, bones, nerves, arteries, organs, glands, etc. If our 'life force' is low or blocked, we are more likely to get sick, but if it is high and free flowing, we more easily maintain health and a feeling of well-being.
Stress is often caused by conflicting thoughts and feelings that get lodged in one's subtle energy system. Medical research has determined that continual stress can block the body's natural ability to repair, regenerate and protect itself.
The effects of unreleased stress range from minor aches to major health concerns, such as heart disease, digestive disorders, respiratory and skin problems. Reiki restores energy balance and vitality by relieving the physical and emotional effects of unreleased stress.
It gently and effectively opens blocked meridians, Adas and chakra, and clears the energy bodies, leaving one feeling relaxed and at peace. It also works in conjunction with all other medical or therapeutic techniques to relieve side effects and promote recovery.
Reiki can help maintain your horse’s health, increase the rate of healing for illness and injuries, and even ease the transition between life and death. Some of the more common signs that may show up are anxiety, lack of or too much energy, pain, injury and behavioral problems.
Behavioral issues : Reiki can help your horse relax and reduce their stress and anxiety. Illness or injury : Reiki can help accelerate healing and assist the horse’s body in cleansing toxins.
Also, if your horse is facing a serious illness, Reiki can help bring comfort and be a great complement to conventional treatment. Transition between life and death: Reiki can help bring peace and comfort to you and your horse during this difficult time.
Note: While Reiki is a powerful and effective healing system on its own, it is also a wonderful complement to other therapies that may be helping the animal recover. Horses are very sensitive and aware of energetic frequencies and will immediately understand the nature of the healing they are being offered.
An equine Reiki session can be done with the practitioner's hands directly on the horse or hovering just above the area, or even from a distance. Like a person recovering from illness or responding to a treatment, your horse will need quiet and rest and may need to drink extra water to help flush out toxins from the body.
Carey A. Williams, Ph.D., Extension Specialist in Equine Management The horse, a prey animal, depends on flight as its primary means of survival.
A stimulus unnoticed by humans is often cause for alarm for horses ; as riders and trainers we commonly mistake this reaction for “spookiness” or bad behavior. A prey animal must react instantly to a perceived predator to be able to survive.
If done correctly, human dominance can easily be established during training without causing the horse to become excessively fearful. As a highly social animal, the horse communicates its emotions and intents to its herd mates through both vocalization and body language.
The horse is a precocity species, meaning that the newborn foals are neurologically mature at birth. Even though they have poor color vision, they can differentiate blue and red from gray hues.
They can’t tell a trailer from an endless tunnel, or a mud puddle from a bottomless lagoon. Their perception is improved by about 5 times when using both eyes (binocular vision).
This is why horses cock their head in different ways to see close vs. distant objects. This is why a horse is much flightier on windy days; things that are normally stationary are now moving and perceived as a potential threat.
Never approach a horse without talking to them in these areas; if frightened they will use one of their defense mechanisms, e.g., kick or run. The expression in a horse’s eye is often thought to be a good indicator of their behavior, e.g., wide open with white showing (and not an Appaloosa), scared; half closed, sleepy, etc.
They use their hearing for three primary functions: to detect sounds, to determine the location of the sound, and to provide sensory information that allows the horse to recognize the identity of these sources. They can feel a fly on one single hair and any movement of the rider.
Body SignalsHorses are good at letting us know exactly how they are feeling; the only problem is most people don’t know how to speak “horse”. High: they are alert or excited Low: it is a sign of exhaustion, fear, pain or submission Held high over its back: (as seen in most foals) they are playful or are very alarmed Swishing: they are irritated.
Jaws open with teeth exposed: this shows aggression or possible attack. The Freshmen response: This is caused by an intense or unusual smell, usually in stallions when they sense a mare in heat.
Neutral: is when the ears are held loosely upward, openings facing forward or outward. Pricked: ears held stiff with openings pointed directly forward means the horse is alert.
Vocal noises include a squeal or scream which usually denotes a threat by a stallion or mare. Neighs or whinnies are the most familiar: high-pitched, drawn out sounds that can carry over distances.
Blowing is a strong, rapid expulsion of air resulting in a high-pitched “whooshing” sound, which usually is a sign of alarm used to warn others. Snorting is a more passive, shorter lower pitched version of blowing and is usually just a result of objects entering the nasal passage.
In contrast to signals of aggression within a herd, there are also signs of friendship. Mares and foals nudge and nuzzle each other during nursing or for comfort, and mutual grooming, when two horses nibble at each other, is often seen.
A herd of wild horses consists of one or two stallions, a group of mares, and their foals. The older mare has had more experiences, more close encounters, and survived more threats than any other horse in the herd.
Dominance is established not only through aggression but also through attitudes that let the other horses know she expects to be obeyed. The stallion’s job is to be the herd’s guardian and protector, while maintaining reproductive viability.
The stallion’s harem usually consists of 2 to 21 horses, with up to 8 of those being mares and the rest their offspring. So, when a horse is being submissive, it will simulate eating by lowering its head, chewing, and licking its lips (similar to snapping mentioned above).
Vices are negative activities that occur due to various causes, including stress, boredom, fear, excess energy, and nervousness. When kept in stalls we prevent them from engaging in many natural activities such as grazing, walking, or playing with other horses.
Cribbing occurs when the horse bites onto a fixed surface (e.g., stall door edge, grain bin, fence rail), arches his neck and sucks in air, making a grunting noise. This causes a release of endorphins which relieves the unpleasant situation.
Cribbing can lead to weight loss, poor performance, gastric colic, and excessive tooth wear. Weaving occurs when the horse stands by the stall door and rhythmically shifts its weight back and forth on its front legs while swinging its head.
This is also caused by boredom or excess energy, and can lead to weight loss, poor performance and weakened tendons. To decrease the frequency of this behavior, you might try adding another mealtime, placing toys in the stall, or providing more roughage or turn out time.
Wood chewing, eating bedding, or dirt, and self-mutilation are caused by lack of exercise or boredom. To eliminate this as a cause, provide more roughage to the diet, and free choice salt or minerals.
McDonnell, S. Equine Behavior Lab, University of Pennsylvania, School of Veterinary Medicine. Although horses are very adaptable to cold weather, they must be managed sensibly during winter.
A basic review of energy (heat) exchange in the horse will help to explain why certain management practices are necessary during cold weather. The easiest way to understand the impact of cold weather on a horse is based on the heat (energy) balance equation.
Horses respond in two ways to cold: acutely (immediately) and chronically (adaptive or acclimatization). Horses will seek shelter from the cold and wind, or huddle together, to decrease heat loss.
Shivering and other voluntary muscular activity can generate substantial body heat. The muscular contraction involved in physical activity, such as running, results in heat production.
In the dissipation of this heat, the horse's inner body core (heart, liver, intestine, etc.) Thyroid hormone secretion is increased during sudden cold exposure in adult horses, but this response is short-lived.
Once the LCT is reached, physiological changes and human intervention, such as shelter and/or extra feed, are needed to help the horse cope with the cold. One of the physiological changes is an increase in density and length of the horse's coat.
The temperature of the lower legs, ears and muzzle decrease because blood is shunted from the extremities to reduce surface heat loss. The latter factor, energy intake, is the most critical in determining how readily a horse develops a tolerance for cold.
Horses lose weight if they do not eat enough energy to offset the heat loss to the cold surrounding air. Fat horses are able to mobilize some of their fat deposits as energy during cold snaps but enough good feed is the main solution for keeping horses in good condition through winter.
Yearling horses fed a high quality diet free-choice are able to tolerate temperatures as low as -11 °C with no ill effect. In cold weather, feeding good quality hay free-choice is the simplest way to ensure that the horse will meet its energy requirements.
Large bodied horses, e.g. draft horses, are much more able to withstand cold because of a lower relative body surface area per unit of weight (area:weight ratio). In late pregnancy (9th month and beyond), energy requirements of mares increase and, consequently, cold tolerance decreases.
Poor teeth, parasites and disease also decrease the cold tolerance of horses. A typical shed should be 8 meters deep and should provide an area of 7.5 – 9 m2 per horse for lying down.
Adequate bedding, preferably straw, should be provided in sheds, especially for young horses. Feeding Dietary energy is the only nutrient that must be increased for horses kept at temperatures below their LCT.
Maintenance energy intakes of adult horses must be increased 2.5% per Celsius degree below temperatures of –15 °C or the equivalent of 2% more feed. Feeding good quality hay is the easiest and most suitable way to supply additional energy for idle, adult horses kept outdoors in cold weather.
Horses can be fed hay free-choice without fear of producing laminates (founder). Grouped horses typically have a pecking order for feed and space.
A horse would have to consume ten times its water requirement in snow to meet its needs. Not only is the nutrient quality poor but, in deep snow, the maintenance energy needs of horses can increase by 40% because the horses have to crater or paw through the snow to find low quality feed.
The cost of weight loss in the horse is much higher than most people realize. Finally, the extra cost of feed needed to rehabilitate a thin horse back to normal will equal or exceed the cost of the feed that should have been given to the horse to maintain its body weight.
Coarse over mature hays are low in energy and high in indigestible fiber. Horse Scientific classification Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Class: Mammalian Order: Perissodactyla Family: Equine Genus: Equus Species: Subspecies: Trinomial name Equus ferns Catullus Synonyms The horse (Equus ferns Catullus) is one of two extant subspecies of Equus ferns.
It is an odd-toed ungulate mammal belonging to the taxonomic family Equine. The horse has evolved over the past 45 to 55 million years from a small multi-toed creature, Phipps, into the large, single-toed animal of today.
Horses in the subspecies Catullus are domesticated, although some domesticated populations live in the wild as feral horses. There is an extensive, specialized vocabulary used to describe equine-related concepts, covering everything from anatomy to life stages, size, colors, markings, breeds, locomotion, and behavior.
Horses are adapted to run, allowing them to quickly escape predators, possessing an excellent sense of balance and a strong fight-or-flight response. Related to this need to flee from predators in the wild is an unusual trait: horses are able to sleep both standing up and lying down, with younger horses tending to sleep significantly more than adults.
Female horses, called mares, carry their young for approximately 11 months, and a young horse, called a foal, can stand and run shortly following birth. Most domesticated horses begin training under a saddle or in a harness between the ages of two and four.
They reach full adult development by age five, and have an average lifespan of between 25 and 30 years. Horse breeds are loosely divided into three categories based on general temperament: spirited “hot bloods” with speed and endurance; “cold bloods”, such as draft horses and some ponies, suitable for slow, heavy work; and warm bloods “, developed from crosses between hot bloods and cold bloods, often focusing on creating breeds for specific riding purposes, particularly in Europe.
There are more than 300 breeds of horse in the world today, developed for many uses. Horses and humans interact in a wide variety of sport competitions and non-competitive recreational pursuits, as well as in working activities such as police work, agriculture, entertainment, and therapy.
Horses were historically used in warfare, from which a wide variety of riding and driving techniques developed, using many styles of equipment and methods of control. Many products are derived from horses, including meat, milk, hide, hair, bone, and pharmaceuticals extracted from the urine of pregnant mares.
Humans provide domesticated horses with food, water, and shelter, as well as attention from specialists such as veterinarians and farriers. Specific terms and specialized language are used to describe equine anatomy, different life stages, and colors and breeds.
Depending on breed, management and environment, the modern domestic horse has a life expectancy of 25 to 30 years. Uncommonly, a few animals live into their 40s and, occasionally, beyond.
The oldest verifiable record was Old Billy “, a 19th-century horse that lived to the age of 62. In modern times, Sugar Puff, who had been listed in Guinness World Records as the world's oldest living pony, died in 2007 at age 56.
Regardless of a horse or pony's actual birthdate, for most competition purposes a year is added to its age each January 1 of each year in the Northern Hemisphere and each August 1 in the Southern Hemisphere. The exception is in endurance riding, where the minimum age to compete is based on the animal's actual calendar age.
Most domesticated foals are weaned at five to seven months of age, although foals can be weaned at four months with no adverse physical effects. Colt : A male horse under the age of four.
A common terminology error is to call any young horse a “colt”, when the term actually only refers to young male horses. Filly : A female horse under the age of four.
The term “horse” is sometimes used colloquially to refer specifically to a stallion. Gelding : A castrated male horse of any age.
In horse racing, these definitions may differ: For example, in the British Isles, Thoroughbred horse racing defines colts and fillies as less than five years old. However, Australian Thoroughbred racing defines colts and fillies as less than four years old.
The height of horses is measured at the highest point of the withers, where the neck meets the back. This point is used because it is a stable point of the anatomy, unlike the head or neck, which move up and down in relation to the body of the horse.
In English-speaking countries, the height of horses is often stated in units of hands and inches: one hand is equal to 4 inches (101.6 mm). The height is expressed as the number of full hands, followed by a point, then the number of additional inches, and ending with the abbreviation “h” or “HH” (for “hands high”).
Light riding horses usually range in height from 14 to 16 hands (56 to 64 inches, 142 to 163 cm) and can weigh from 380 to 550 kilograms (840 to 1,210 lb). Larger riding horses usually start at about 15.2 hands (62 inches, 157 cm) and often are as tall as 17 hands (68 inches, 173 cm), weighing from 500 to 600 kilograms (1,100 to 1,320 lb).
Heavy or draft horses are usually at least 16 hands (64 inches, 163 cm) high and can be as tall as 18 hands (72 inches, 183 cm) high. He stood 21.2 1 4 hands (86.25 inches, 219 cm) high and his peak weight was estimated at 1,524 kilograms (3,360 lb).
The current record holder for the world's smallest horse is Tumbling, a fully mature miniature horse affected by dwarfism. She is 17 in (43 cm) tall and weighs 57 lb (26 kg).
The distinction between a horse and pony is commonly drawn on the basis of height, especially for competition purposes. However, height alone is not dispositive; the difference between horses and ponies may also include aspects of phenotype, including conformation and temperament.
The traditional standard for height of a horse or a pony at maturity is 14.2 hands (58 inches, 147 cm). An animal 14.2 h or over is usually considered to be a horse and one less than 14.2 h a pony, but there are many exceptions to the traditional standard.
In Australia, ponies are considered to be those under 14 hands (56 inches, 142 cm). For competition in the Western division of the United States Equestrian Federation, the cutoff is 14.1 hands (57 inches, 145 cm).
The International Federation for Equestrian Sports, the world governing body for horse sport, uses metric measurements and defines a pony as being any horse measuring less than 148 centimeters (58.27 in) at the withers without shoes, which is just over 14.2 h, and 149 centimeters (58.66 in), or just over 14.2 1 2 h, with shoes. Height is not the sole criterion for distinguishing horses from ponies.
Breed registries for horses that typically produce individuals both under and over 14.2 h consider all animals of that breed to be horses regardless of their height. Conversely, some pony breeds may have features in common with horses, and individual animals may occasionally mature at over 14.2 h, but are still considered to be ponies.
Ponies often exhibit thicker manes, tails, and overall coat. They also have proportionally shorter legs, wider barrels, heavier bone, shorter and thicker necks, and short heads with broad foreheads.
They may have calmer temperaments than horses and also a high level of intelligence that may or may not be used to cooperate with human handlers. Conversely, breeds such as the Flagella and other miniature horses, which can be no taller than 30 inches (76 cm), are classified by their registries as very small horses, not ponies.
Bay (left) and chestnut (sometimes called “sorrel”) are two of the most common coat colors, seen in almost all breeds. Horses exhibit a diverse array of coat colors and distinctive markings, described by a specialized vocabulary.
Often, a horse is classified first by its coat color, before breed or sex. Horses of the same color may be distinguished from one another by white markings, which, along with various spotting patterns, are inherited separately from coat color.
Many genes that create horse coat colors and patterns have been identified. Current genetic tests can identify at least 13 different alleles influencing coat color, and research continues to discover new genes linked to specific traits.
The basic coat colors of chestnut and black are determined by the gene controlled by the Melanocortin 1 receptor, also known as the “extension gene” or “red factor,” as its recessive form is “red” (chestnut) and its dominant form is black. Additional genes control suppression of black color to point coloration that results in a bay, spotting patterns such as pinto or leopard, dilution genes such as palomino or dun, as well as graying, and all the other factors that create the many possible coat colors found in horses.
Grays are born a darker shade, get lighter as they age, but usually keep black skin underneath their white hair coat (except pink skin under white markings). The only horses properly called white are born with a predominantly white hair coat and pink skin, a fairly rare occurrence.
Different and unrelated genetic factors can produce white coat colors in horses, including several alleles of dominant white and the sabino-1 gene. However, there are no albino horses, defined as having both pink skin and red eyes.
Gestation lasts approximately 340 days, with an average range 320–370 days, and usually results in one foal ; twins are rare. Horses are a precocity species, and foals are capable of standing and running within a short time following birth.
The estrous cycle of a mare occurs roughly every 19–22 days and occurs from early spring into autumn. Foals are generally weaned from their mothers between four and six months of age.
Horses, particularly colts, sometimes are physically capable of reproduction at about 18 months, but domesticated horses are rarely allowed to breed before the age of three, especially females. Horses four years old are considered mature, although the skeleton normally continues to develop until the age of six; maturation also depends on the horse's size, breed, sex, and quality of care.
These plates convert after the other parts of the bones, and are crucial to development. Depending on maturity, breed, and work expected, horses are usually put under saddle and trained to be ridden between the ages of two and four.
Although Thoroughbred race horses are put on the track as young as the age of two in some countries, horses specifically bred for sports such as dressage are generally not put under saddle until they are three or four years old, because their bones and muscles are not solidly developed. For endurance riding competition, horses are not deemed mature enough to compete until they are a full 60 calendar months (five years) old.
The horse's four legs and hooves are also unique structures. Their leg bones are proportioned differently from those of a human.
For example, the body part that is called a horse's “knee” is actually made up of the carpal bones that correspond to the human wrist. Similarly, the hock contains bones equivalent to those in the human ankle and heel.
The lower leg bones of a horse correspond to the bones of the human hand or foot, and the fetlock (incorrectly called the “ankle”) is actually the proximal sesamoid bones between the cannon bones (a single equivalent to the human metacarpal or metatarsal bones) and the proximal phalanges, located where one finds the “knuckles” of a human. A horse also has no muscles in its legs below the knees and hocks, only skin, hair, bone, tendons, ligaments, cartilage, and the assorted specialized tissues that make up the hoof.
Hooves The critical importance of the feet and legs is summed up by the traditional adage, “no foot, no horse”. The horse hoof begins with the distal phalanges, the equivalent of the human fingertip or tip of the toe, surrounded by cartilage and other specialized, blood-rich soft tissues such as the laminae.
The exterior hoof wall and horn of the sole is made of keratin, the same material as a human fingernail. The end result is that a horse, weighing on average 500 kilograms (1,100 lb), travels on the same bones as would a human on tiptoe.
For the protection of the hoof under certain conditions, some horses have horseshoes placed on their feet by a professional farrier. The hoof continually grows, and in most domesticated horses needs to be trimmed (and horseshoes reset, if used) every five to eight weeks, though the hooves of horses in the wild wear down and regrow at a rate suitable for their terrain.
In an adult horse, there are 12 incisors at the front of the mouth, adapted to biting off the grass or other vegetation. There are 24 teeth adapted for chewing, the premolars and molars, at the back of the mouth.
Stallions and geldings have four additional teeth just behind the incisors, a type of canine teeth called “tushes”. Some horses, both male and female, will also develop one to four very small vestigial teeth in front of the molars, known as “wolf” teeth, which are generally removed because they can interfere with the bit.
There is an empty interdental space between the incisors and the molars where the bit rests directly on the gums, or “bars” of the horse's mouth when the horse is bridled. An estimate of a horse's age can be made from looking at its teeth.
The teeth continue to erupt throughout life and are worn down by grazing. Therefore, the incisors show changes as the horse ages; they develop a distinct wear pattern, changes in tooth shape, and changes in the angle at which the chewing surfaces meet.
This allows a very rough estimate of a horse's age, although diet and veterinary care can also affect the rate of tooth wear. Digestion Horses are herbivores with a digestive system adapted to a forage diet of grasses and other plant material, consumed steadily throughout the day.
Therefore, compared to humans, they have a relatively small stomach but very long intestines to facilitate a steady flow of nutrients. A 450-kilogram (990 lb) horse will eat 7 to 11 kilograms (15 to 24 lb) of food per day and, under normal use, drink 38 to 45 liters (8.4 to 9.9 imp gal; 10 to 12 US gal) of water.
Horses are not ruminants, they have only one stomach, like humans, but unlike humans, they can utilize cellulose, a major component of grass. Cellulose fermentation by symbiotic bacteria occurs in the cecum, or “water gut”, which food goes through before reaching the large intestine.
Horses cannot vomit, so digestion problems can quickly cause colic, a leading cause of death. Senses The horses senses are based on their status as prey animals, where they must be aware of their surroundings at all times.
Their sense of smell, while much better than that of humans, is not quite as good as that of a dog. It is believed to play a key role in the social interactions of horses as well as detecting other key scents in the environment.
The first system is in the nostrils and nasal cavity, which analyze a wide range of odors. These have a separate nerve pathway to the brain and appear to primarily analyze pheromones.
A horse's hearing is good, and the Penna of each ear can rotate up to 180°, giving the potential for 360° hearing without having to move the head. Noise impacts the behavior of horses and certain kinds of noise may contribute to stress: A 2013 study in the UK indicated that stabled horses were calmest in a quiet setting, or if listening to country or classical music, but displayed signs of nervousness when listening to jazz or rock music.
This study also recommended keeping music under a volume of 21 decibels. An Australian study found that stabled racehorses listening to talk radio had a higher rate of gastric ulcers than horses listening to music, and racehorses stabled where a radio was played had a higher overall rate of ulceration than horses stabled where there was no radio playing.
Horses are able to sense contact as subtle as an insect landing anywhere on the body. Horses have an advanced sense of taste, which allows them to sort through fodder and choose what they would most like to eat, and their prehensile lips can easily sort even small grains.
Horses generally will not eat poisonous plants, however, there are exceptions; horses will occasionally eat toxic amounts of poisonous plants even when there is adequate healthy food. All horses move naturally with four basic gaits : the four-beat walk, which averages 6.4 kilometers per hour (4.0 mph); the two-beat trot or jog at 13 to 19 kilometers per hour (8.1 to 11.8 mph) (faster for harness racing horses); the canter or lope, a three-beat gait that is 19 to 24 kilometers per hour (12 to 15 mph); and the gallop.
The gallop averages 40 to 48 kilometers per hour (25 to 30 mph), but the world record for a horse galloping over a short, sprint distance is 70.76 kilometers per hour (43.97 mph). Besides these basic gaits, some horses perform a two-beat pace, instead of the trot.
There also are several four-beat ambling gaits that are approximately the speed of a trot or pace, though smoother to ride. These include the lateral rack, running walk, and told as well as the diagonal fox trot.
Horses are prey animals with a strong fight-or-flight response. Their first reaction to a threat is to startle and usually flee, although they will stand their ground and defend themselves when flight is impossible or if their young are threatened.
They also tend to be curious; when startled, they will often hesitate an instant to ascertain the cause of their fright, and may not always flee from something that they perceive as non-threatening. Most light horse riding breeds were developed for speed, agility, alertness and endurance; natural qualities that extend from their wild ancestors.
Horses are herd animals, with a clear hierarchy of rank, led by a dominant individual, usually a mare. They are also social creatures that are able to form companionship attachments to their own species and to other animals, including humans.
They communicate in various ways, including vocalizations such as nickering or whinnying, mutual grooming, and body language. However, when confined with insufficient companionship, exercise, or stimulation, individuals may develop stable vices, an assortment of bad habits, mostly stereotypes of psychological origin, that include wood chewing, wall kicking, “weaving” (rocking back and forth), and other problems.
Intelligence and learning Domesticated horses may face greater mental challenges than wild horses, because they live in artificial environments that prevent instinctive behavior whilst also learning tasks that are not natural. One trainer believes that “intelligent” horses are reflections of intelligent trainers who effectively use response conditioning techniques and positive reinforcement to train in the style that best fits with an individual animal's natural inclinations.
Temperament Horses are mammals, and as such are warm-blooded, or endothermic creatures, as opposed to cold-blooded, or poikilothermic animals. However, these words have developed a separate meaning in the context of equine terminology, used to describe temperament, not body temperature.
For example, the “hot-bloods”, such as many race horses, exhibit more sensitivity and energy, while the “cold-bloods”, such as most draft breeds, are quieter and calmer. Illustration of assorted breeds; slim, light hot bloods, medium-sized warm bloods and draft and pony-type cold blood breeds”Hot blooded” breeds include oriental horses such as the Akhal-Teke, Arabian horse, Barb and now-extinct Turbofan horse, as well as the Thoroughbred, a breed developed in England from the older oriental breeds.
Hot bloods tend to be spirited, bold, and learn quickly. The original oriental breeds were brought to Europe from the Middle East and North Africa when European breeders wished to infuse these traits into racing and light cavalry horses.
Muscular, heavy draft horses are known as “cold bloods”, as they are bred not only for strength, but also to have the calm, patient temperament needed to pull a plow or a heavy carriage full of people. Well-known draft breeds include the Belgian and the Clydesdale.
Some, like the Percheron, are lighter and livelier, developed to pull carriages or to plow large fields in drier climates. Others, such as the Shire, are slower and more powerful, bred to plow fields with heavy, clay-based soils.
“ Warm blood breeds, such as the Takeover or Hanoverian, developed when European carriage and war horses were crossed with Arabians or Thoroughbreds, producing a riding horse with more refinement than a draft horse, but greater size and milder temperament than a lighter breed. Certain pony breeds with warm blood characteristics have been developed for smaller riders.
Sleep patterns When horses lie down to sleep, others in the herd remain standing, awake or in a light doze, keeping watch. In an adaptation from life in the wild, horses are able to enter light sleep by using a stay apparatus in their legs, allowing them to doze without collapsing.
A horse kept alone will not sleep well because its instincts are to keep a constant eye out for danger. Unlike humans, horses do not sleep in a solid, unbroken period of time, but take many short periods of rest.
Horses spend four to fifteen hours a day in standing rest, and from a few minutes to several hours lying down. Total sleep time in a 24-hour period may range from several minutes to a couple of hours, mostly in short intervals of about 15 minutes each.
They only have to lie down for an hour or two every few days to meet their minimum REM sleep requirements. However, if a horse is never allowed to lie down, after several days it will become sleep-deprived, and in rare cases may suddenly collapse as it involuntarily slips into REM sleep while still standing.
This condition differs from narcolepsy, although horses may also suffer from that disorder. From left to right: Size development, biometrical changes in the cranium, reduction of toes (left forefoot)The horse adapted to survive in areas of wide-open terrain with sparse vegetation, surviving in an ecosystem where other large grazing animals, especially ruminants, could not.
The earliest known member of the family Equine was the Hyracotherium, which lived between 45 and 55 million years ago, during the Eocene period. The extra toe on the front feet soon disappeared with the Mesohippus, which lived 32 to 37 million years ago.
Over time, the extra side toes shrank in size until they vanished. All that remains of them in modern horses is a set of small vestigial bones on the leg below the knee, known informally as splint bones.
Their legs also lengthened as their toes disappeared until they were a hooked animal capable of running at great speed. By about 5 million years ago, the modern Equus had evolved.
Equip teeth also evolved from browsing on soft, tropical plants to adapt to browsing of drier plant material, then to grazing of tougher plains grasses. Thus, photo- horses changed from leaf-eating forest-dwellers to grass-eating inhabitants of semi-arid regions worldwide, including the steppes of Eurasia and the Great Plains of North America.
By about 15,000 years ago, Equus ferns was a widespread Arctic species. Horse bones from this time period, the late Pleistocene, are found in Europe, Eurasia, Bering, and North America.
Yet between 10,000 and 7,600 years ago, the horse became extinct in North America and rare elsewhere. The reasons for this extinction are not fully known, but one theory notes that extinction in North America paralleled human arrival.
Another theory points to climate change, noting that approximately 12,500 years ago, the grasses characteristic of a steppe ecosystem gave way to shrub tundra, which was covered with unpalatable plants. A small herd of Przewalski's Horses A truly wild horse is a species or subspecies with no ancestors that were ever domesticated.
Therefore, most “wild” horses today are actually feral horses, animals that escaped or were turned loose from domestic herds and the descendants of those animals. The Przewalski's horse (Equus ferns przewalskii), named after the Russian explorer Nikolai Przhevalsky, is a rare Asian animal.
It is also known as the Mongolian wild horse; Mongolian people know it as the take, and the Kerry people call it a airbag. The subspecies was presumed extinct in the wild between 1969 and 1992, while a small breeding population survived in zoos around the world.
In 1992, it was reestablished in the wild due to the conservation efforts of numerous zoos. Today, a small wild breeding population exists in Mongolia.
There are additional animals still maintained at zoos throughout the world. The Tarzan or European wild horse (Equus ferus) was found in Europe and much of Asia.
It survived into the historical era, but became extinct in 1909, when the last captive died in a Russian zoo. Attempts to have been made to recreate the Tarzan, which resulted in horses with outward physical similarities, but nonetheless descended from domesticated ancestors and not true wild horses.
Periodically, populations of horses in isolated areas are speculated to be relict populations of wild horses, but generally have been proven to be feral or domestic. For example, the Roche horse of Tibet was proposed as such, but testing did not reveal genetic differences from domesticated horses.
Similarly, the Sorrier of Portugal was proposed as a direct descendant of the Tarzan based on shared characteristics, but genetic studies have shown that the Sorrier is more closely related to other horse breeds and that the outward similarity is an unreliable measure of relatedness. The most common hybrid is the mule, a cross between a “jack” (male donkey) and a mare.
A related hybrid, a Ginny, is a cross between a stallion and a jenny (female donkey). Other hybrids include the horse, a cross between a zebra and a horse.
With rare exceptions, most hybrids are sterile and cannot reproduce. Bhimbetka rock painting showing a man riding on a horse, IndiaDomestication of the horse most likely took place in Central Asia prior to 3500 BC.
Two major sources of information are used to determine where and when the horse was first domesticated and how the domesticated horse spread around the world. The first source is based on pathological and archaeological discoveries; the second source is a comparison of DNA obtained from modern horses to that from bones and teeth of ancient horse remains.
The earliest archaeological evidence for the domestication of the horse comes from sites in Ukraine and Kazakhstan, dating to approximately 3500–4000 BC. By 3000 BC, the horse was completely domesticated and by 2000 BC there was a sharp increase in the number of horse bones found in human settlements in northwestern Europe, indicating the spread of domesticated horses throughout the continent.
The most recent, but most irrefutable evidence of domestication comes from sites where horse remains were interred with chariots in graves of the Sintashta and Petrov cultures c. 2100 BC. Domestication is also studied by using the genetic material of present-day horses and comparing it with the genetic material present in the bones and teeth of horse remains found in archaeological and pathological excavations.
The variation in the genetic material shows that very few wild stallions contributed to the domestic horse, while many mares were part of early domesticated herds. This is reflected in the difference in genetic variation between the DNA that is passed on along the paternal, or sire line (Y-chromosome) versus that passed on along the maternal, or dam line (mitochondrial DNA).
There are very low levels of Y-chromosome variability, but a great deal of genetic variation in mitochondrial DNA. There is also regional variation in mitochondrial DNA due to the inclusion of wild mares in domestic herds.
Another characteristic of domestication is an increase in coat color variation. In horses, this increased dramatically between 5000 and 3000 BC.
Before the availability of DNA techniques to resolve the questions related to the domestication of the horse, various hypotheses were proposed. One classification was based on body types and conformation, suggesting the presence of four basic prototypes that had adapted to their environment prior to domestication.
Another hypothesis held that the four prototypes originated from a single wild species and that all different body types were entirely a result of selective breeding after domestication. However, the lack of a detectable substructure in the horse has resulted in a rejection of both hypotheses.
Feral horses are born and live in the wild, but are descended from domesticated animals. Many populations of feral horses exist throughout the world.
Studies of feral herds have provided useful insights into the behavior of prehistoric horses, as well as greater understanding of the instincts and behaviors that drive horses that live in domesticated conditions. There are also semi-feral horses in many parts of the world, such as Dartmoor and the New Forest in the UK, where the animals are all privately owned but live for significant amounts of time in “wild” conditions on undeveloped, often public, lands.
Owners of such animals often pay a fee for grazing rights. The concept of purebred bloodstock and a controlled, written breed registry has come to be particularly significant and important in modern times.
Sometimes purebred horses are incorrectly or inaccurately called “thoroughbreds”. Thoroughbred is a specific breed of horse, while a “purebred” is a horse (or any other animal) with a defined pedigree recognized by a breed registry.
Horse breeds are groups of horses with distinctive characteristics that are transmitted consistently to their offspring, such as conformation, color, performance ability, or disposition. These inherited traits result from a combination of natural crosses and artificial selection methods.
An early example of people who practiced selective horse breeding were the Bedouin, who had a reputation for careful practices, keeping extensive pedigrees of their Arabian horses and placing great value upon pure bloodlines. These pedigrees were originally transmitted via an oral tradition.
In the 14th century, Cartesian monks of southern Spain kept meticulous pedigrees of bloodstock lineages still found today in the Andalusian horse. Breeds developed due to a need for “form to function”, the necessity to develop certain characteristics in order to perform a particular type of work.
Thus, a powerful but refined breed such as the Andalusian developed as riding horses with an aptitude for dressage. Heavy draft horses were developed out of a need to perform demanding farm work and pull heavy wagons.
Other horse breeds had been developed specifically for light agricultural work, carriage and road work, various sport disciplines, or simply as pets. Some breeds developed through centuries of crossing other breeds, while others descended from a single foundation sire, or other limited or restricted foundation bloodstock.
One of the earliest formal registries was General Stud Book for Thoroughbreds, which began in 1791 and traced back to the foundation bloodstock for the breed. Worldwide, horses play a role within human cultures and have done so for millennia.
Horses are used for leisure activities, sports, and working purposes. The Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) estimates that in 2008, there were almost 59,000,000 horses in the world, with around 33,500,000 in the Americas, 13,800,000 in Asia and 6,300,000 in Europe and smaller portions in Africa and Oceania.
The American Horse Council estimates that horse-related activities have a direct impact on the economy of the United States of over $39 billion, and when indirect spending is considered, the impact is over $102 billion. In a 2004 “poll” conducted by Animal Planet, more than 50,000 viewers from 73 countries voted for the horse as the world's 4th favorite animal.
Communication between human and horse is paramount in any equestrian activity; to aid this process horses are usually ridden with a saddle on their backs to assist the rider with balance and positioning, and a bridle or related headgear to assist the rider in maintaining control. Many horses are also driven, which requires a harness, bridle, and some type of vehicle.
Historically, equestrians honed their skills through games and races. Equestrian sports provided entertainment for crowds and honed the excellent horsemanship that was needed in battle.
Many sports, such as dressage, evening and show jumping, have origins in military training, which were focused on control and balance of both horse and rider. Other sports, such as rodeo, developed from practical skills such as those needed on working ranches and stations.
Horse racing of all types evolved from impromptu competitions between riders or drivers. All forms of competition, requiring demanding and specialized skills from both horse and rider, resulted in the systematic development of specialized breeds and equipment for each sport.
The popularity of equestrian sports through the centuries has resulted in the preservation of skills that would otherwise have disappeared after horses stopped being used in combat. Horses are trained to be ridden or driven in a variety of sporting competitions.
Examples include show jumping, dressage, three-day evening, competitive driving, endurance riding, gymkhana, rodeos, and fox hunting. Horse shows, which have their origins in medieval European fairs, are held around the world.
They host a huge range of classes, covering all the mounted and harness disciplines, as well as “In-hand” classes where the horses are led, rather than ridden, to be evaluated on their conformation. The method of judging varies with the discipline, but winning usually depends on style and ability of both horse and rider.
Examples of these sports of partnership between human and horse include jousting, in which the main goal is for one rider to unseat the other, and burkas, a team game played throughout Central Asia, the aim being to capture a goat carcass while on horseback. Horse racing is an equestrian sport and major international industry, watched in almost every nation of the world.
There are three types: “flat” racing; steeple chasing, i.e. racing over jumps; and harness racing, where horses trot or pace while pulling a driver in a small, light cart known as a sulky. A major part of horse racing's economic importance lies in the gambling associated with it.
There are certain jobs that horses do very well, and no technology has yet developed to fully replace them. For example, mounted police horses are still effective for certain types of patrol duties and crowd control.
Cattle ranches still require riders on horseback to round up cattle that are scattered across remote, rugged terrain. Search and rescue organizations in some countries depend upon mounted teams to locate people, particularly hikers and children, and to provide disaster relief assistance.
Horses can also be used in areas where it is necessary to avoid vehicular disruption to delicate soil, such as nature reserves. They may also be the only form of transport allowed in wilderness areas.
Law enforcement officers such as park rangers or game wardens may use horses for patrols, and horses or mules may also be used for clearing trails or other work in areas of rough terrain where vehicles are less effective. Although machinery has replaced horses in many parts of the world, an estimated 100 million horses, donkeys and mules are still used for agriculture and transportation in less developed areas.
This number includes around 27 million working animals in Africa alone. Some land management practices such as cultivating and logging can be efficiently performed with horses.
In agriculture, less fossil fuel is used and increased environmental conservation occurs over time with the use of draft animals such as horses. Logging with horses can result in reduced damage to soil structure and less damage to trees due to more selective logging.
The first archaeological evidence of horses used in warfare dates to between 4000 and 3000 BC, and the use of horses in warfare was widespread by the end of the Bronze Age. Although mechanization has largely replaced the horse as a weapon of war, horses are still seen today in limited military uses, mostly for ceremonial purposes, or for reconnaissance and transport activities in areas of rough terrain where motorized vehicles are ineffective.
Horses have been used in the 21st century by the Janjaweed militias in the War in Darfur. The horse-headed deity in Hinduism, Hayagriva Modern horses are often used to reenact many of their historical work purposes.
Horses are used, complete with equipment that is authentic or a meticulously recreated replica, in various live action historical reenactments of specific periods of history, especially recreations of famous battles. Horses are also used to preserve cultural traditions and for ceremonial purposes.
Countries such as the United Kingdom still use horse-drawn carriages to convey royalty and other VIPs to and from certain culturally significant events. Public exhibitions are another example, such as the Budweiser Clydesdale's, seen in parades and other public settings, a team of draft horses that pull a beer wagon similar to that used before the invention of the modern motorized truck.
Horses are frequently used in television, films and literature. They are sometimes featured as a major character in films about particular animals, but also used as visual elements that assure the accuracy of historical stories.
The horse frequently appears in coats of arms in heraldry, in a variety of poses and equipment. The mythologies of many cultures, including Greco-Roman, Hindu, Islamic, and Norse, include references to both normal horses and those with wings or additional limbs, and multiple myths also call upon the horse to draw the chariots of the Moon and Sun.
People of all ages with physical and mental disabilities obtain beneficial results from an association with horses. Therapeutic riding is used to mentally and physically stimulate disabled persons and help them improve their lives through improved balance and coordination, increased self-confidence, and a greater feeling of freedom and independence.
The benefits of equestrian activity for people with disabilities has also been recognized with the addition of equestrian events to the Paralympic Games and recognition of para-equestrian events by the International Federation for Equestrian Sports (FEI). Hippo therapy and therapeutic horseback riding are names for different physical, occupational, and speech therapy treatment strategies that utilize equine movement.
In hippo therapy, a therapist uses the horse's movement to improve their patient's cognitive, coordination, balance, and fine motor skills, whereas therapeutic horseback riding uses specific riding skills. Horses also provide psychological benefits to people whether they actually ride or not.
“Equine-assisted” or “equine-facilitated” therapy is a form of experiential psychotherapy that uses horses as companion animals to assist people with mental illness, including anxiety disorders, psychotic disorders, mood disorders, behavioral difficulties, and those who are going through major life changes. There are also experimental programs using horses in prison settings.
Exposure to horses appears to improve the behavior of inmates and help reduce recidivism when they leave. Products collected from living horses include mare's milk, used by people with large horse herds, such as the Mongols, who let it ferment to produce Luis.
Horse blood was once used as food by the Mongols and other nomadic tribes, who found it a convenient source of nutrition when traveling. Drinking their own horses blood allowed the Mongols to ride for extended periods of time without stopping to eat.
The drug Remain is a mixture of estrogens extracted from the urine of pregnant mares (pregnant ma res' your in e), and was previously a widely used drug for hormone replacement therapy. The tail hair of horses can be used for making bows for string instruments such as the violin, viola, cello, and double bass.
Horse meat has been used as food for humans and carnivorous animals throughout the ages. Approximately 5 million horses are slaughtered each year for meat worldwide.
It is eaten in many parts of the world, though consumption is taboo in some cultures, and a subject of political controversy in others. Horse hooves can also be used to produce animal glue.
Specifically, in Italian cuisine, the horse tibia is sharpened into a probe called a Shinto, which is used to test the readiness of a (pig) ham as it cures. In Asia, the saga is a horsehide vessel used in the production of Luis.
Checking teeth and other physical examinations are an important part of horse care. Horses are grazing animals, and their major source of nutrients is good-quality forage from hay or pasture.
They can consume approximately 2% to 2.5% of their body weight in dry feed each day. Sometimes, concentrated feed such as grain is fed in addition to pasture or hay, especially when the animal is very active.
When grain is fed, equine nutritionists recommend that 50% or more of the animal's diet by weight should still be forage. Horses require a plentiful supply of clean water, a minimum of 10 US gallons (38 L) to 12 US gallons (45 L) per day.
Although horses are adapted to live outside, they require shelter from the wind and precipitation, which can range from a simple shed or shelter to an elaborate stable. Horses require routine hoof care from a farrier, as well as vaccinations to protect against various diseases, and dental examinations from a veterinarian or a specialized equine dentist.
If horses are kept inside in a barn, they require regular daily exercise for their physical health and mental well-being. When turned outside, they require well-maintained, sturdy fences to be safely contained.
Regular grooming is also helpful to help the horse maintain good health of the hair coat and underlying skin. System natural per Regina trial natural :second classes, or dines, genera, species, cum characterizes, differential, synonyms, Louis.
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