Horses that run faster don't get caught, so faster horses are more common now than in the early stages. Nil means that horses that run faster than predators live longer to reproduce more and raise colts that can run faster.
Announcements, Events & more from Thee and select partners CONTEST: Imagine Sustainable Futures (and Win These Books!) Before city dwellers complained about cars, smog, congestion and the loss of public space, they railed against stinking, fly-ridden horse crap.
In fact, the rise and fall of the horse makes very clear the difficult and troubling character of energy transitions. The horse, one of the most remarkable prime movers on the planet, pretty much ruled 19th century urban life and rural culture in both Europe and North America.
But it took the automobile and tractor nearly 50 years to dislodge the horse from farms, public transport and wagon delivery systems throughout North America. “There were winners and losers,” says Ann Norton Greene, a U.S. historian at the University of Pennsylvania, whose remarkable book, Horses At Work, offers a fascinating portrait of how messy energy transitions can be.
“You can't change the conditions of a system without damaging a lot of people, business, practices and habits that go with it,” says Greene. Although the automobile certainly eliminated piles of manure and dead animals that clogged some 19th century city streets, it introduced a whole new set of global carbon complications.
And so as industrialists built more railroads, canals, ferries and ports, they employed more “living machines” to collect and distribute both factory workers and cheap goods. The horse (and all the small businesses that supported the animal from farriers to buggy whip makers) became the backbone of 19th century life.
But as horses industrialized cities and mechanized agriculture (they pulled all sorts of mowing, harvesting and plowing machines) their scale (along with rising immigrant populations) created a variety of social challenges. Dead horses often clogged city streets and teamsters on tight schedules added menace to public thoroughfares.
Faced with massive influxes of immigrants, political unrest and factory pollution, the professional class of North America's industrial cities concluded that public spaces had become anarchic. Unlike oil and electricity (largely invisible sources of power with distant rural footprints), horsepower gave citizens a fair sense of the direct costs of energy consumption.
With its flies and smells and muscle, “the horse was in your face and it began to make people feel uncomfortable and that was a factor in getting rid of it.” And so urban reformers and public health officials disparaged the horse and saluted the automobile along with the electric trolley.
Cars didn't clean up cities but replaced stationary piles of dung with invisible clouds of pollution that moved with the wind. The automobile also allowed the rich and middle class to abandon public transit as well as street contact with the working poor and immigrants.
The automobile also accelerated oil spending, expanded road infrastructure and played a major role in fouling the atmosphere with greenhouse gas emissions. Ironically, it didn't take long for millions of cheap cars to clog urban thoroughfares so completely that they moved as slowly as horses.
At the peak of horse usage few city dwellers actually owned a “living machine” or private carriage due to their expense. The horse not only represented a highly decentralized system for moving people but also encouraged citizens to use public transport.
Because of its dependence on hay and oats, the horse also connected cities to rural areas and acted as a check on urban sprawl. It drove down the price of grain so dramatically that the U.S. Bureau of Census tagged the horse to car transition as “one of the main contributing factors” to the Great Depression.
Only car buffs bandied the term to compare the might have internal combustion engines that stood in for hundreds of horses. In the end the demise of horse power and the ascent of the automobile ably illustrated two characteristics of energy transitions: they don't always solve problems and rarely perform as advertised.
“Americans wanted bountiful energy and abundant consumer products without having to deal with the moral, social, political, or environmental implications of their choices,” writes Greene. One hundred years later, North Americans still hang onto their stubborn beliefs that there is a quick technological fix to every energy conundrum, says Greene.
Next Wednesday, Andrew Nikiforuk's series The Big Shift explores whether the Soviet collapse was caused by an oil shock. Scientists have made a revolutionary discovery: commuting in cars are faster than walking.
Long Man Jones reports “A discovery which will shake the foundations of the world as we know it.” Others cannot handle the new fact such as Billy Big Bob, who states “This is pure nonsense! Cars are using a motorized combustion engine which allows them to convert fuel, typically petrol and sometimes electric, into movement and have the power of about 120 horses.
This holds true even in the fantasy world in games such as Minecraft and horses can carry people on top of that! Humans are able to travel at a rate of 28 mph, meaning they can go a distance of 28 miles within the time of one hour.
A human can walk continuously at a steady pace while only needing short breaks for a little water and some food. Scientists have put the nail in the coffin of this debate by stating “the practical clause.” If you were living a few miles away from school or work, Google Maps lists cars as taking less time than walking.
After reading about switchgrass I realized that there was another form of transportation that also runs on grass: horses. Caveat: Everything I know about horses is courtesy of a 5-minute Google search that gave me this site and this PDF.
To give the cars their best chance I will go with the Prius and its 50 mpg fuel economy. And there are other issues in this comparison as a horse can only go 25 miles a day, and only at 9mph which wouldn't really cut it for modern transportation.
Now lets look at this it terms of how much land would be required to support the energy, the transportation “footprint”. At 5 dry tons per acre yield of switchgrass (see previous post) that works out to .73 acres/year footprint for a horse.
For the Prius, lets assume you drive 12,000 miles a year at 50mpg = 240 gallons. Interestingly, I was watching a Modern Marvels (still the best show on television) a while back, and they stated that tractors allowed farmers to get rid of approximately 23 million draft animals.
This Modern Marvels also said that fertilizer allowed crop yields to triple, so maybe that is part of it. Unlike human endeavors such as track and field and swimming, records just don't fall in horse racing.
Jerry Brown, who owns Photograph, a service that compiles high-tech speed figures for all the major tracks in the country, says that horses are not just faster than they used to be, but much faster. “There are a lot of high school athletes running faster today than Jesse Owens.
If you think about all the things that happened with human beings over that time–they're bigger, stronger, eat better, train much better. The same holds true for horses, but horses, unlike human beings, have something to say about what gets put in their bodies and human beings are not selectively bred to try to improve the breed.
Brown is the first to acknowledge that his theory does not hold up when looking simply at raw times. A track record falls here or there, but, for the most part, final times are not that much different from they've been since the modern era of racing began.
The answer, says Brown, is that racetracks are far deeper and slower now than they were in the seventies and eighties. To give you an idea of what that means, there was only one day in 2003 at Belmont when the cushion was 3 ½ inches and that was the day when (the moderately talented) Nathan ran the 1:32 1/5 mile (when winning the Westchester Handicap) mile.
The other difference is that in order to get tracks to dry out faster they've gone to a higher sand content. “As far as making tracks deeper now as compared to 20 years ago, I don't necessarily believe that,” Lear said.
He notes that the five fastest winning times since 1946 in stakes races run at six furlongs have all been recorded since 1999. We’ve all been in conversations on the topics of creativity and innovation when Henry Ford’s most famous adage is (excuse the pun) trotted out, usually accompanied by a knowing smirk and air of self-evidence.
The Ford Motor Company did introduce a closed-body Model T, and did so without significantly altering its open-body design, which most observers at the time felt amounted to a reluctant afterthought. I attribute Ford’s failure to respond in a timely and effective manner to competitive innovation in the marketplace to an attitude summed up in a quote he never uttered.
Now you might think that the lesson to be learned from Henry Ford’s faster horses is that when pursuing innovation, it is perilous to ignore customers. Yes, some customers in certain types of businesses are quite capable of verbalizing precisely what sort of innovative product one could build and sell them.
And of course, customers in other types of businesses are wholly incapable of verbalizing, with any sort of fidelity whatsoever, what they need and why they need it. Because by now it should be clear that Ford’s adherence to his vision of the mass-market car and how to materialize that vision was instrumental in both his early success in growing Ford Motor Company and his later failure to respond in a timely and effective manner to rapid innovation in the marketplace.
I'm wondering about a carriage driven by two strong horses, but I'd also like to know about other numbers. If you can't tell, I'm thinking about the typical Hollywood movie scene where the stage coach / horse-drawn carriage can reach alarming speeds.
I'm wondering whether it's actually possible to reach such high speeds in real life or whether they're just making it up. The safety depends on the road conditions and the type of carriage.
He thought it was great and was heading down the road at a good speed. Unfortunately a very small (4 to 6 inch diameter) log had fallen across the road.
It would have been right after WWII out in rural Missouri where they still used horse and buggy as the primary means of transportation. Out here there were towns that were still supplied with horse and wagon up until the late 1950s and early 1960s.
Hobo, The average athletic man can run at 20 mph for short sprints. 25 simply being a slow gallop and 40 or more being that horse's top end speed.
A well-trained pair of horses can pull a carriage at full Gallup. A well conditioned horse can travel several miles at a strong run.
This is a fully loaded Concord coach with a team of six horses and twelve passengers. The horses would be changed out at stops along the way and a fresh, rested team would be hitched to a vehicle.
A typical trip, barring flip-overs, drunk drivers, panicked horses, broken axles or crappy roads would make an average of twenty miles a day. I don't know where some of you are getting your speeds from, but Secretariat was one of the FASTEST horses ever recorded over 1.5 miles.
And if you get a draft horse like a shire or Belgium you are looking at maybe 25 to 30 miles per hour. And to answer your question on to if it is safe of course it is as long as you slow your horse down going around the corners.
I have plenty of horse-drawn carts and I was going about 30 miles per hour with my shire and I could not slow her down going around a corner, and she flipped the whole carriage that god nobody was on with me. This hulking, armored monster is powered by a 6.2-liter supercharged Dodge Demon V8, and can be specified with more ludicrous gadgets than any Bond car ever had.
We're talking smoke bombs, thermal vision, electrified door handles, tire-destroying caltrop droppers and plenty more. When Arnold Schwarzenegger famously convinced AM General to make a road-going variant of its M988 Humvee in the early 1990s, it immediately earned a couple of different reputations.
Early in 2020, GMC announced it was re-releasing the Hummer as an all-electric powerhouse with a truly obscene 1,000 horses and a hilarious 11,500 lb-ft (15,590 Nm) of torque. Priced at US$2.72 million, Project One is Mercedes-AMG's vision of a Formula One car for the road, and a wildly interesting machine.
On McLaren's Speed tail, the rear end tapers off in search of precious drag reduction The “spiritual successor” to the brand's transcendent 1998 F1, McLaren's Speed tail uses the same driver-focused three-seat cabin layout, with the driver front and center, and two passengers well back and out of the way.
Conceived as a 250-mph (402-km/h) hyper-tourer, the Speed tail takes Frank Stephenson's sailfish-inspired design language to new aerodynamic heights with a super-slippery tapered teardrop tail, and flexible ailerons that hydraulically peel themselves upward when needed, in lieu of a spoiler. In a list you'd expect to be populated mainly by Snoopy, bajillion-dollar European exotica sits this electric 4-door family sedan, weighed down by enough batteries to take you more than 400 miles (644 km) on a charge.
Indeed, the design focus here is more about space and luggage capacity than outright tire-frying power, and yet even with the powertrain made as compact as possible, the top “Dream” spec edition pounds out a total of 1,080 horses, giving it a 0-60 mph (0-96 km/h) sprint time of 2.5 seconds, a quarter mile drag strip time of 9.9 seconds and a top speed of 168 mph (270 km/h). Not to be outdone, Elon Musk quickly put together a version of Tesla's own family coupe with even more jumbo than the Air, for cheaper.
Musk believes Tesla will make this thing go round a track faster than any other production car in history, although it's about three seconds off the mark at Laguna Sea in early testing. Still, for a US$140,000, mass-produced 4-door that you'd hardly notice on the road, it's the ultimate sleeper and a muscular demonstration of Tesla's amazing achievements.
The bootylicious back end of Hispano-Suiza's Carmen has recently jumped up a spot on this list by adding a slightly higher-performance Cologne variant with 1,100 horsepower instead of the original car's paltry 1,019. A monster it may be, but the reborn Hispano-Suiza company says the Carmen is as much about exquisite luxury as it is about the crass business of going fast.
The new Deluge D12 rocks a massive 7.6-liter V12, naturally aspirated, with a further hybrid system to boost power and responsiveness. Its tandem cabin will be a nightmare for passengers, but this is a single-minded machine with the Nürburgring Nordschliefe lap record squarely in its sights and ex-F1 champ Jacques Villanueva as its chief development driver.
), but also a magnificently excessive 6.5-liter Cosworth V12 engine that makes a thousand horsepower all by itself, without the aid of forced induction, just so it doesn't sound like a wimpy little turbo. The very thought of it gives me chills; of all the very, very special cars on this list, the Valkyrie is far and away my personal favorite due to its absolutely otherworldly shape and its commitment to loud, shout hybridism.
The Zeno TSR-S is a brutal, 1,177-horsepower track beast with a very special gearbox and some of the most active rear wing aerodynamics we've seen You can't miss the Zeno at a track day; it's the one with the gigantic dancing rear wing on a pair of hydraulic struts, which not only tilts forward as a big of' air brake, but rocks wildly from side to side as you go into corners, lifting the wing up on the inside of the corner to put more downforce onto the inside rear wheel.
These guys, of course, make some of the wildest machines on the road or track in the form of the ultra-lightweight, open-top, face-distorting Ariel Atom 4. Its AWD electric powertrain will deliver 1,180 horsepower and a barely conceivable 9,900 Nm (7,302 lb-ft) of torque, as well as an end to range anxiety thanks to a 35 kW range-extending turbine that can keep the battery topped up if needed.
Straight out of Silicon Valley, the Drake GTE made its 2019 debut as the world's fastest sedan, promising to propel four seats through the air at a mighty 206 mph (332 km/h) thanks to a wild 1,200-horsepower, 8,813 Nm (6,500 lb-ft) electric powertrain. Königsberg's Genera, which we'll meet down the page, ate its lunch in early 2020, but the GTE still looks like an insanely capable machine on the racetrack.
Ultimo RS: A Le Mans Group C inspired machine for the road and track The RS is particularly notable for two things: firstly, it's a kit car, and thus secondly, it's available for a fraction of the price anything else on this list will cost you.
Those hoops are really the only thing limiting this car's performance figures: 2.3 seconds for 0-60 mph (0-98 km/h) is well into the realm of electric acceleration, thanks to the Ultimo's insanely light, 2,094-lb (950-kg) weight. A fascinating project out of California, this monstrous bat mobile's enormous horsepower output may be one of the least interesting things about it.
Best viewed as a highly updated successor to the Divergent Blade, the 21C is particularly remarkable for its manufacturing concept. The car's space frame is built from carbon rods, linked by 3D-printed aluminum nodes and assembled by robots.
Then there's the cabin layout; two seats, centrally located with the hapless passenger right behind the driver and not able to see much as you rocket your way to 100 km/h (62 mph) in just 1.9 seconds from a standstill. China's NIO ruffled more than a few feathers back in 2017 when this raging electric weapon of a thing laid down an outright Nürburgring Nordschliefe record of 6:45:900, a tad over 2 second faster than anything else in history at that point.
Either way, this US$1.48 million-dollar car's a scorcher, its electric motors making a clean megawatt of power and 6,334 Nm (4,672 lb-ft) of torque being allegedly capable of accelerating you to 200 km/h (124 mph) in 7.1 seconds. Billed at the time as “America's first production supercar,” it made 550 horsepower and was good for 220 mph (354 km/h).
This tweaked edition of the Chiron only adds 100 horses to Bugatti's Aaron successor, but features extended and aerodynamically optimized bodywork that's significantly more efficient at speeds above 261 mph (420 km/h). One of the sad facts about almost all these monstrously powerful hyper cars is that they can only evacuate two bowels at once: those of the driver and a single passenger.
Not so with the extraordinary Königsberg Genera, which can unleash the contents of four at a time with the inclusion of an almost sacrilegious pair of back seats. Yes, this is a 1,700-horsepower family hyper-wagon with a genuinely luxurious-looking set of back seats from which the kids can experience top speeds over 400 km/h (249 mph).
It's hard to think of a better place than Singapore to own an electric car; the idea of range anxiety would simply not be an issue on such a small island. On the other hand, we don't know exactly where you'd be able to drop your boot meaningfully into the go-pedal of this all-electric monster, designed locally in conjunction with Williams Advanced Engineering and slated for production in the UK.
Originally promising 1,500 horsepower, the Dendrobium now claims 1,800 ponies, as well as 2,000 Nm (1,475 lb-ft) and a target weight of 1,750 kg (3,858 lb) thanks to extensive use of carbon, composites and alloys. Texan tuning god John Hennessy has been making fast cars faster for nearly 30 years now, and in recent times has also been building his own series of insane hyper cars to keep the Europeans honest in the top speed race.
Bugatti has created a new home for its leviathan quad-turbo, 8-liter W16 engine, and this time it's a lightweight track weapon instead of a luxury hyper-saloon. With a raised rev limit and some extra boost, it makes a horrifying 1,825 horsepower and 1,850 lb-ft (2,508 Nm) of torque, but the Police's ground-hugging, X-winged body weighs a stripped-down 1,240 kg (2,733 lb), compared to the Chiron's 1,995-kg (4,400-lb).
Bugatti's simulated lap times for this thing would break records at Le Mans and be the second-fastest car ever around the Nürburgring. It's got a luxury cabin, active suspension and aerodynamics, and a selection of different fake sounds you can choose from if you're missing the noise of a combustion engine.
Born in Argentina but registered in the USA, Elation is planning an interesting powertrain for this monster, with the front wheels driven via a single-speed gearbox and the back ones getting a two-speed. The rest of the tech in this thing is ludicrous as well, from its facial-recognition door locks, to its mood-detection system that plays soothing music if you're stressed out, to racing line and braking point data for a range of famous racetracks.
Japan's consumer car market might tend toward more practicality than glamour, but you'd be mad to expect this electronics powerhouse of a country to be left behind as the age of the electric hyper car dawns. The Spark Owl promises a hilarious 0-60 mph (0-98 km/h) acceleration time of just 1.69 seconds thanks to its wildly excessive, 1,985-horsepower, 2,000 Nm (1,475 lb-ft) powertrain.
“E-vi-ya” is how you're supposed to pronounce it, and this 2.1-million-dollar beauty is another all-electric beast ready to give you 1,700 Nm (1,254 lb-ft) of electric torque any time you're insolent enough to ask for it. Williams Advanced Engineering has contributed to the project, helping ensure you can drive this thing flat-out for around seven whole minutes before temperature starts to limit the performance.
In track mode, the Evita will actually add power to the outside rear wheel if it thinks a touch of drift will help you tighten your cornering line, and its giant venturi-tunnel air scoops are big enough for your cats to play tag in. An honorable mention must go to the 5,221-horsepower electric Alien Arcane from Bulgaria, which features robotic everything, a 303-mph (488-km/h) top speed, and the longest list of outrageous promises we've ever seen in a press release.
During a recent visit to Tesla’s Nevada Gigafactory, Musk opined on everything from Reno’s housing shortage to the future of self-driving cars. Brian Sandoval, whose administration in 2014 approved a subsidy package worth an estimated $1.3 billion over 20 years to convince Tesla to build in Nevada, Musk veered into the topic of autonomous vehicles.
Tesla has aggressively pushed autonomous driving in recent years with mixed results. Currently, Tesla’s autopilot feature is a combination of driver-assist technology that Musk says will eventually, with software upgrades, be capable of near-full autonomy.
Still, Musk said development of the software is happening quickly and once it’s deployed it will change the way people drive. He also spoke highly of the free-range horses that live in the Virginia Range near the Gigafactory, which manufactures batteries and power trains for Tesla vehicles.
Although Musk’s estimate was about three times the actual population of around 3,000, it’s clear he appreciates the animals.