It’s made up of several parts, all serving a different purpose, yet working in symmetry to keep the horse sound and healthy. The hoof can be broken into three different areas for better understanding of its structures and purposes: outside, underside and inside.
The hoof wall does not have nerves or blood vessels; it’s a continually growing, gelatinous material that needs to be trimmed or naturally worn off. Farriers will confirm that the quality of the hoof is not affected by its color; all four hooves on a horse are structurally designed the same.
The hoof wall is an inflexible surface and cannot expand when an injury causes the tissues inside to swell. Cracks can make the internal structures vulnerable to potentially damaging substances, like gravel or germs.
Rings on the hoof can indicate that the horse may have some additional health problems that are affecting his hooves, so your veterinarian should be consulted. The people covers the soft area just below the coronary band and helps protect the hoof wall.
The soft area is made up of newly formed hoof wall tissue, and the people helps give it time to harden. The sole is the underside of the hoof, but most of it does not make contact with the ground because it is a bit concave.
It protects the digital cushion beneath it, aids in traction and circulation in the hoof, and partly acts as a shock absorber when the horse moves. The sensitive nerves in the frog communicate to your horse where his feet are and help him feel the surface on which he is standing.
Horses with contracted hooves or sheared heels may have a narrow or deep Julius, which can harbor germs and lead to thrush. This area also contributes to building the sole of the hoof and helps support the horse’s weight.
It does exactly what the name implies: it is a cushion of cartilaginous material with some “give,” acting as one of the main shock absorbers in the hoof. Always keep your horse’s hooves healthy with regular trims, a good diet and plenty of exercise.
Check your horse’s hooves on a daily basis for any irregularities or changes in the outer structures. (1) Coronet band, (2) walls, (3) toe, (4) quarter, (5) heel, (6) bulb, (7) P2 (small pastern)A horse hoof is a structure surrounding the distal phalanx of the 3rd digit (digit III of the basic pentadactyl limb of vertebrates, evolved into a single weight-bearing digit in equips) of each of the four limbs of Equus species, which is covered by complex soft tissue and keratinized (certified) structures.
Since a single digit must bear the full proportion of the animal's weight that is borne by that limb, the hoof is of vital importance to the horse. Details: (1) people, (2) bulb, (3) frog, (4) central Julius, (5) collateral groove, (6) heel, (7) bar, (8) seat of corn, (9) pigmented wall (external layer), (10) water line (inner pigmented layer), (11) white line, (12) apex of frog, (13) sole, (14) toe, (15) how to measure width (fulcrum), (16) quarter, (17) how to measure lengthVascular architecture of a horse soothe hoof is made up by an outer part, the hoof capsule (composed of various certified specialized structures) and an inner, living part, containing soft tissues and bone.
The upper, almost circular limit of the hoof capsule is the coronet (coronary band), having an angle to the ground of roughly similar magnitude in each pair of feet (i.e. fronts and backs). At the heels, the Palmer/plantar portion of the walls bend inward sharply, following the external surface of collateral grooves to form the bars.
The lower surface of the hoof, from the outer walls and the inner frog and bars, is covered by an exfoliating keratinized material, called the 'sole'. In the Palmer/plantar part of the hoof, the people is thicker and more rubbery over the heels, and it merges with frog material.
Dry feet tend to lack this substance, which can be substituted with a hoof dressing. The walls are considered as a protective shield covering the sensitive internal hoof tissues (like the exoskeleton of arthropods), as a structure devoted to dissipating the energy of concussion, and as a surface to provide grip on different terrains.
This layer has predominately protective role, and is not as resistant to ground contact, where it can break and flake away. Its thickness increases proportionally to the distance from the coronet and, in the lower third of the walls, is thicker than the pigmented layer.
It is softer and fibrous in structure and light in color; white in a freshly trimmed hoof, yellowish or gray after exposure to air and dirt. From the underside of the healthy hoof, it is seen as a thin line joining the sole and the walls.
Since the white line is softer than both the walls and the sole, it wears fast where it appears on the surface; it appears as a subtle groove between the sole and the walls, often with some debris or sand inside. If the wall does not wear naturally, from sufficient movement on abrasive terrains, then it will protrude from the solar surface.
It is dark gray-blackish in color and of a rubbery consistency, suggesting its role as shock absorber and grip tool on hard, smooth ground. The frog also acts like a pump to move the blood back to the heart, a great distance from the relatively thin leg to the main organ of the circulatory system.
In the stabled horse, the frog does not wear, but degrades, due to bacterial and fungal activity, to an irregular, soft, slashed surface. If exposed to constant wet or damp environments the frog will develop a bacterial infection called thrush.
It covers the whole space from the perimeter of the wall to the bars and the frog, on the underside of the hoof. If there is no contact, as in shod hooves or when the walls are too long or the movement poor, the lower surface of the sole has a crumbly consistency, and it is easily abraded by scratching it with a hoof pick.
It is often caused by a horse treading on a stone or sharp type of object, landings from high jumps and excessive exposure to snow. The strong structure built up by the extremity of the heel and of the bar is named the 'heel buttress'.
The cerium, a dermo-epidermal, highly vascularized layer between the wall and the coffin bone, has a parallel, laminar shape, and is named the laminae. In the adult horse, it hardens into a fibrocartilaginous tissue when sufficient, consistent concussion stimulates the back of the hoof.
Normal transformation of the digital cushion into fibrocartilagineous tissue is now considered a key goal, both for prevention of, and for rehabilitation of recovering cases of particular syndrome. The flexor tendon lays deeper, just along the posterior surface of the small pastern bone (Pin) and particular bone, and it connects with posterior surface of P3; the particular functions as a pulley.
In part, this is a result of solar concavity, which has a variable depth, in the region of 1–1.5 cm. In part, it is a result of the arched shape of the lateral lower profile of the walls and sole, so that when an unloaded hoof touches a firm ground surface, there is only contact at toe and heels (active contact).
Active contact areas can be seen as slightly protruding spots in the walls and in the callused sole. The plantar arch flattens, the solar concavity decreases in depth and heels spread.
When unloaded, the hoof restores its 'contracted' configuration, the pressure rises and the blood is squeezed out ('systolic phase'). It has no blood vessels and living cells acquire their oxygen and nutrients by fluid exchanges and molecular diffusion, from underlying dermis, flowing into microscopical spaces among individual cells.
The resulting 'dead' superficial layer serves a protective function, saving underlying living tissues from injury, from dehydration and from fungal and bacterial attack. The constant thickness of the certified layer results most commonly from regular superficial exfoliation.
Thus, the specialized certified structures of the hoof are the wall, the sole, the frog and people. The wall does not exfoliate at all; it is constantly growing downward (about 1 cm per month), and self-trims by wearing or chipping by ground contact, in wild and feral horses.
Solar, frog and people material grow outwards and exfoliate at the surface by ground contact and wearing. In the domesticated horse, movement and typical ground hardness are insufficient to allow self-trimming, so humans have to care for them, trimming the walls and the frog, and scraping off the dead sole.
Front and hind hooves are identical in the foal, but differ visibly in the adult horse. Self-adapting capabilities of the hooves show their maximal effectiveness in wild equips (but domesticated horses show this too, to a lesser extent), as shown by the perfect soundness of feral horses, such as Mustangs, in a wide variety of environments.
Wild and domesticated Equus species share a very similar hoof shape and function. The resulting conformation allows a heavy, strong body to move with high speed on any ground, and most efficiently on open, hard, flat areas like prairies and deserts (i.e., 'curatorial specialization').
The colts' reaction made me wonder if the farrier hit a nerve, and the horse felt pain in its hooves. However, the hoofs outer wall, the location horseshoes are attached are void of nerves and feelings; in fact, it’s made of keratin similar to a human toenail.
So horse owners need a firm understanding of basic equine foot anatomy. The wall is the protective outer shell of the horse’s foot that encompasses the coffin bone.
The frog is the triangle located on the bottom of the foot, it starts near the heel and extends approximately halfway to the toe. The hoof wall is made of a rigid fibrous structural protein called keratin, which is the primary material in hair, nails, feathers, and hooves.
It is the portion of the foot you see; the top connects to the coronary band, and looking from the bottom, it encircles the white line. The heel is not as durable as the toe or sides of the foot and is susceptible to damage if trimmed by an inexperienced person.
The inner layer wraps around and secures the hoof to the horse’s coffin bone and provides additional protection to the inner foot. The nerves in the frog are crucial and allow a horse to feel the surface it is standing on and know where his feet are in relation to its body.
When our horses get shod, our grandson typically holds the lead rope during the process. However, sometimes farriers drive a nail into the sensitive area of the foot and hurt a horse.
The horse looks like a furry stuffed animal with an unusually thick coat and long manes and tails. A horses' mane lay over the side of their neck and shields the cold wind.
A thick coat, mane, and tail also protect a horse’s skin from cold moisture. During snowstorms, the natural oils in the hair keep the moisture at bay and encourage it to form an ice barrier to trap body heat but not melt.
With hair, three inches long, the Caution horse has an excellent warm barrier. Horse’s respiratory system efficiently warms the air before it hits their lungs.