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Are Horses Hybrids

author
James Lee
• Wednesday, 28 October, 2020
• 41 min read

Naming of hybrid species is usually a combination of parts of the parent species names, but there are exceptions to this rule. Horse, Zebra, Zone, and Monkey Pictures and Names (Half zebra and half horse or donkey) Hybrid animals are often referred to by a portmanteau formed by combining the names of the two parent species: traditionally the father’s species forms the first part of the name, hence: male Zebra + female horse Horse and male horse + female zebra Zebra.

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Contents

It is often said to be extinct, but it's uncertain whether wild populations of the Nubian have been in existence since prehistoric times or whether currently existing wild populations are simply feral domestic asses (asses have been domesticated in Egypt and the Middle East for some 6,000 years). Its appearance differs from that of the Somali wild ass primarily in that it lacks the zebra-like leg striping of the latter.

× Capra circus The early medical journal Miscellany Curios (1677, vol. For an extensive discussion of a related cross, see also the separate article on cow-horse hybrids.

Hybrids between male Gravy’s zebras and female asses are easily obtained and grow quickly. Certain facts suggest the animal known as the Somali Wild Ass (E. Africans) is this hybrid: The first thing to consider is that the putative parents come into contact in the geographic region where E. sinus is known to occur.

True wild asses disappeared from most of their African range during Roman times, from Asia, even earlier (Groves 1986), but the ass remains a fairly common beast of burden throughout its original range and feral stocks are widespread. Southward dispersal of these wild or feral asses would be expected to bring them into contact with E. gravy in the Horn of Africa.

The Somali Wild Ass occurs only in this expected region of contact. E. Asinus × E. gravy hybrids are well known and have the same appearance as E. Africans (in particular the zebra-like leg stripes).

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Riley (1911) states that the average gestation time for production of Gravy’s zebra-ass hybrids in an ass dam is 387 days. Antonius 1944b, 1951a † ; Churches 1993 (p. 6); International Zoo Yearbook 1962 (p. 232); Flower 1929a (p. 253); Babinski 1970; Mann 1938; Riley 1910 †, 1911; Roberts 1929; Rommel 1913 † ; Rznicki 1930 †, 1936 † ; Ackerman 1953.

Banning 1948; Breathes 1969; DE Davison 1863; Flower 1929a (p. 254); International Zoo Yearbook 1990 (p. 468); Program 1910; Orig 1903 (p. 218); Wagner 1863 (p. 85). Pension (1985) reported a natural hybrid produced by a mating feral jackass and an E. zebra mare.

Wart (in Riley) says that in about 1775, Lord Clive bred the first recorded zebra hybrid by crossing a female Mountain zebra (which he brought with him on returning from India) with a common ass, and that about a quarter of a century later, in 1801, a similar horse hybrid was bred in Italy. Antonius 1934b †, 1944a †, 1951a † ; Benirschke 1964, 1967; Benirschke et al. 1964; Brown and Jenkins 1987; Chang et al. 1969; Geoffrey Saint-Nazaire 1806, 1808; Gray 1972; Flower 1929a (p. 253), 1931; International Zoo Yearbook 1966 (p. 398); MacClintock and Mocha 1976; Pension 1985, 1988; Program 1910 † ; Riley 1911 (p. 229); Rznicki 1930 †.

× Ovis Aries Genre (Historian Animalism, Fiber I, DE Quadrupeds viviparous, 1551, p. 19) writes, “At present, in the palace of the king of France , they say, an animal is being suckled, which in its anterior portion is like a donkey, but in its posterior parts, like a sheep. And these two parts are each like those two distinct kinds of animals in all things.” (translated by E.M. McCarthy, Original Latin).

And for an extensive discussion of a related cross, see also the separate article on cow-horse hybrids. Note: In regions where they interface, hybridization occurs between all the various populations treated as races of Equus Purcell (Grubs 1981, Fig.

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Note: In crosses of Equus Purcell with other zebras, the striping patterns of the hybrids are generally intermediate between those of the parents (Grubs 1981). In crosses with the horse or ass, the striping in the hybrids is narrower than in the E. Purcell parents (Grubs 1981).

East (1965, p. 58) says a Kenyan taxidermist possessed the skin of a probable hybrid, which may have been of natural origin. Benirschke 1977; Grubs 1981 (p. 6); International Zoo Yearbook 1990 (p. 469); East 1965; Ryder et al. 1978.

Wilson and Reader (2005) state that Equus Ward Ridgeway, 1910 is a hybrid between E. Purcell and E. zebra.” Short ridge (1934), quoting Flower, says such a hybrid survived several years in the Paris Botanic Gardens.

× Cans familiars See the separate article Dog-horse Hybrids.” × Capra circus The following brief announcement is from page 3 (column 3) of the April 15, 1899, issue of The Meridional, a newspaper published in Asheville, Louisiana (source): “What promises to prove an interesting freak of nature is now the property of F. P. Beau xis, of this town and will be on exhibition at his store after tomorrow.

For an extensive discussion of a related cross, see also the separate article on cow-horse hybrids. × Corvus Dreyfus See the separate article Deer-horse Hybrids.

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Blue Bell, the supposed elephant-horse hybrid, who seems to have had few, if any, characteristics of an elephant, other than a naked skin. × Elephant Maximus There are no well-verified reports of this distant cross.

However, an alleged hybrid of this type, known as “Blue Bell,” was toured around the United States in the early 1900s. According to one news report, Blue Bell was the offspring of a mare who had been driven to town by her owner; when a procession of circus elephants passed the spot where she was tied up, pregnancy supposedly resulted.

The report stated that “Her skin on the neck and sides is thin and tender like a horse’s, but on the hips and flanks is tough and coarse like an elephant’s. However, as can be seen in the photo at right, Blue Bell seems to have had nothing in common with an elephant other than naked skin.

The IUCN (Internet Citations: Freq) says that for wild, reintroduced populations of Przewalski’s horse, which is endangered, hybridization is the primary threat to their survival. Moreover, it is suspected that captive stocks of so-called E. ferns are actually composed primarily of animals that are, at least in some degree, domestic horse hybrids.

A backcross of the same type was indistinguishable from E. Catullus (except a prominent dorsal stripe). Areas and Stranger 2005; Allen and Short 1997 † ; Boyd and Out 1994; Hatami-Monazah and Pandit 1979; International Zoo Yearbook 1962 (p. 232), 1967 (p. 315), 1967 (p. 304), 1969 (p. 232), 1970 (p. 266), 1971 (p. 278), 1973 (p. 336); Polisher and Reckon 1966; Ryder et al. 1978; Trommerhausen-Smith et al. 1979; Golf 2003; Wilson and Reader 2005 (p. 1018).

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There is a high rate of spontaneous abortion, and surviving Gravy’s-horse hybrids of both sexes are of very low fertility (sterile?). 138; 143) † ; Lu's 1938 † ; Mann 1938; Riley 1911; Roberts 1929; Rommel 1913 † ; Rzanicki 1936 † ; Short 1967; Webb 1952.

Bell 1837 (p. 392) states that “the Earl of Morton being desirous of obtaining a breed between the Horse and the Quanta, selected a young Mare of seven-eighths Arabian blood and a fine male of the latter species; and the produce was a female hybrid. The same Mare had afterwards first a Filly and afterwards a Colt by a fine black Arabian Horse.

The animal, which is two years and ten months old, was bred on the Wild Horse Plains. The only portion of the creature that at all resembles a kangaroo is the near foreleg, which appears to be withered, and the hoof of which is parted.” However, this distant cross seems not to have been reported elsewhere, nor can even the report quoted be unambiguously interpreted as being consistent with such a hybrid.

A news report about a sheep-horse (Ellensburg, Pennsylvania, Cambria Freeman, Apr. According to Groves (1974), attempts to breed Gravy’s stallions to mountain zebra mares are associated with high rates of abortion.

According to the IUCN (Internet Citation: ONAG1), supposed managers reintroduced in Israel are actually hybrids of this type. Horse rider, role-playing gamer, and science fiction and fantasy fan.

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One possible source for the idea of making hybrids takes us right back to Africa. Where the ranges of the wild ass and the zebra overlap, some natural hybridization occurs.

A mule skeleton is not significantly different from that of a horse without DNA testing. One possible indication is an equine that was found at Pompeii that was first identified as a new breed of horse by one expert, then later re-classified as a donkey.

A mule is the result of a jack (male donkey) breeding with a mare. A Ginny is the result of a stallion breeding with a jenny (female donkey).

There have been a few, extremely rare, cases of molly mules turning out to be fertile. In one case, a molly mule, Old Beck, produced a colt foal that appeared to be entirely horsed.

It's generally considered that john mules would not be fertile, based off of evidence of species crossing in certain cats that results in fertile females and infertile males. However, the hypothesis has never been fully tested as john mules are routinely castrated at an early age to reduce testosterone levels (which are normal in mules) and thus make them more tractable.

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Some mules are also bred using standard sized donkeys (called burros in the west) and pony or small stock horse mares. Horses are a cold steppe animal, whilst donkeys are naturally adapted to the desert.

Mules tend to take on the donkey adaptation and are less likely to suffer from heat exhaustion. This is why mules (as well as asses and burros) have been historically used in the desert southwest and are still valued there today.

A 50" standard mule has been known to jump a 72" fence carrying a pack...from a standing start. Some people prefer the intelligence and somewhat different mind and temperament of a mule over a horse.

They are generally more surefooted, although I admit I have ridden well-trained horses on trails I would not want to walk. Mules have greater endurance than the average horse and also live somewhat longer.

They were shocked when she kept putting on weight despite a diet and the vet informed them she was pregnant. They called the first zoo who swore up and down they had no intact male horses on the premises.

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(I am not clear on the details of just how the zebra got in with the mare or vice versa). Zebra hybrids are extremely quick in both their movements and reactions and are not recommended for novices.

A mule, Coyote Waits, qualified for the Pan American Games in 1999 in that sport and completed the 100-mile race against horses (although he did not win). Special shows called 'mule days' are held all over the country, in which mules compete both under harness and in saddle, including in jumping, dressage, western dressage, trail, barrel racing, steer stopping...you name it, and people will do it with a mule (many of these shows also have donkey classes).

I don't work with mules myself, but I thought it would be fun to highlight that they aren't just for carrying packs and pulling loads. The generic term for a zebra hybrid with a horse, pony, donkey or ass is a zeroed.

Zebras that are hand-reared or reared with domestic horses or donkeys can become tame enough to be led, ridden or used as draft animals. Mules and whinnies are depicted in Egyptian art circa 1400 BC and were valued as draft animals by the Romans.

Jack donkeys are reportedly often reluctant to mate with horse mares and may have to be trained to do so. Miniature mules are produced using smaller breeds of donkey and pony.

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An article in The New York Times, Thursday Feb 22nd, 1968 entitled “Rare Type Of Mule Kicks Up Heels At Children's Zoo” detailed the birth of a foal to a Shetland pony fathered by a burro at New York's Central Park Zoo. This was believed to be due to the donkey mare having a less roomy womb, but the difficulty in impregnation suggests it is largely genetic.

According to the “Illustrated Natural History” by the Rev JG Wood (1853, 1874): The cross-breed between the horse and the ass, which is commonly known by name of the Mule, is a very valuable animal for certain purposes, possessing the strength and power of the horse, with the hardiness and sure foot of the ass. In Spain and in many eastern countries the Mule is an animal of some importance, the parents being selected as carefully as those of the horse itself.

The chief drawback in the rearing of this animal is that it is unproductive, and is incapable of continuing its species, so that there can be no definite breed of Mules, as of horses and asses. In “The Variation Of Animals And Plants Under Domestication” Darwin elaborated: “Colin, who has given in his 'Traits Phys.

Tome 2 pages 537-539, is strongly of opinion that the ass preponderates in both crosses, but in an unequal degree. THE King (The Field, 29th April 1893) Major Hay states that in Tibet the King breeds with the horse, and that their produce is highly valued; and he adds, but not on his own knowledge, that the hybrids are regarded as fertile, which is in the highest degree improbable.

Professor Consort Wart crossed kings (a type of wild ass) to ponies to test the theory that the then newly discovered Przewalski horse was a hybrid rather than a distinct species. The paper by Professor Wart on the wild horse laid on the table at the recent meeting the Royal Society Edinburgh has now been printed and circulated.

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The chestnut Mongol pony was put to a light gray Connemara stallion. Comparison showed that the King horse hybrid differed from Przewalsky's horse in having at the most the merest hock callosities, in not neighing like a horse, in having finer limbs and joints and less specialized hoofs, in the form of the head, in the lips muzzle, and ears, in the dorsal band, and in the absence even at birth of any suggestion of shoulder stripes or of bars on the legs.

The colts brought from Central Asia, they said, were the offspring of escaped Mongol ponies. Others affirmed that they failed to discover any difference between the young wild horses in the London Zoological Gardens and Iceland ponies of a like age.

To test the first of these assertions, I, as already mentioned, mated a chestnut Mongol pony with a young Connemara stallion; to test the second, I purchased last autumn a recently imported yellow dun Iceland mare in foal to an Iceland stallion. The Iceland foal, notwithstanding the upright mane and the woolly coat, for a time of a nearly uniform white color, could never be mistaken for a wild horse, and the older it gets the differences will become accentuated.

(The Field, 25th September 1897) I have noticed some correspondence in your columns concerning the fertility of hybrids and think that the following may be of interest, and at all events it will give an opportunity to some of your readers of thorough investigation. Some years ago I was driving up from Pearl to Corina d'Mezzo, and noticed several very peculiar looking animals, which to my eye were neither mules nor hints.

When a mule gave birth in 2002 in Morocco five years ago, locals feared it signalled the end of the world. The different structure and number usually prevents the chromosomes from pairing up properly and creating successful embryos.

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Since 1527 there have been more than 60 foals born to female mules around the world and probably additional unreported ones. However, mollies have a strong maternal drive and will kidnap foals of horses and donkeys sharing the same paddock.

From The Royal Natural History, edited by Richard Decker and published 1894: There appear to be no authenticated instances of mules breeding among themselves; although the female mule will occasionally produce offspring with the male horse or ass. And it is somewhat remarkable that it does not appear that the hybrids between any other members of the Equine family are mutually fertile.

However, Cornering and Desire stated that in 1873 an Arab mule was fertilized in Africa by a horse stallion, and produced female offspring. Costar Wart gives an account of a recent Indian case in which a female mule gave birth to a male colt.

THE old dictum that hybrids are all sterile and can’t reproduce has, of course, been handled pretty roughly in all these experiments. In some cases it holds, in others it doesn’t. Anyhow, the doctrine seems to have been established originally by reference to the most familiar of domestic hybrids, the mule.

Erasmus Hayworth of Lawrence, Kansas, reports the case of a mule mare that produced a foal sired by a jack. “Old Beck” is only an ancient Texas “cotton mule” mare who has been on this planet long enough to vote, but she has done her bit toward breaking the age-old reproach of sterility leveled at her hybrid race.

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According to Dorcas McClintock in “A Natural History Of Zebras,” a hybrid foal from a Somali wild ass bred to a mountain zebra mare had 2 transverse shoulder stripes, leg bands and zebra-like ear stripes. According to the “Illustrated Natural History” by the Rev JG Wood (1853, 1874): Between the zebras and the domestic ass several curious Mules have been produced, and may be seen in the collection of the British Museum.

It is worthy of notice that wherever a cross-breed has taken place, the influence of the male parent seems to be permanently impressed on the mother, who in her subsequent offspring imprints upon them some characteristics of the interloper. In his “The Variation Of Animals And Plants Under Domestication”, Darwin wrote: “I have seen, in the British Museum, a hybrid from the ass and zebra dappled on its hinder quarters.

A Gravy’s zebra stallion was presented to the USA by King Menelik of Abyssinia. It lived at the National Zoo from 1904 to 1919 and was loaned for a while to the US Dept of Agriculture for use in cross-breeding experiments with horses and asses.

A strange beast came into being a short time ago, and naturally it was the Sells-Floto Circus which seized upon it as thing of interest to the public at large That beast was the ‘Honey,’ a Government animal, now being exhibited with the Circus to show the wonderful results of the propagation and breeding of entirely different animals. As fleet, as graceful as a horse, yet the Honey has all the strength and working power of a mule.

An article from New York Times, June 16th, 1973, announced the birth of a zebra/donkey hybrid at the Jerusalem Zoo. A breeding program at Colchester Zoo, England in 1975 produced three Zedong hybrids from Arabian Black Ass mares and A Chapman's Zebra stallions.

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Previous attempts at crossbreeding zebras with horses and donkeys had failed to produce surviving foals. In latter years, the zoo tried to dissociate itself from the hybridization program by claiming the Zedong were the result of accidental ratings, but continued to claim they'd bred the first ever Zedong, despite the hybrids being bred over 100 years earlier.

IPO the 'Monkey' was born after a zebra stallion climbed out of his enclosure to mate with an endangered donkey at an animal reserve in Florence, Italy. Usually a zebra stallion is paired with a horse mare or ass mare, but in 2005, a Burch ell's zebra named Allison produced a zebras (a secret) called Alex sired by a donkey at Highland plantation in St. Thomas parish, Barbados.

He has obtained new varieties of deer and mules and wonderful crosses between the zebra and the horse. Probably the furthest developed of the new species, of animals he is creating is the cross between the zebra and the horse.

The aim has been to obtain a stronger and better blood than that possessed by the existing equine breeds. Is trying to introduce the febrile, or hybrid horse and zebra into the German Army in place of mules.

This is the prophecy of United States Consul General Richard Gunther, at Frankfort, Germany, who sends a report to the state department on the chances of the zebra, a cross between the horse and zebra, superseding the mule. The opening up of Africa, particularly the eastern part, reveals these fine animals in large numbers.

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Compared with horses and cattle, they possess peculiar advantages, as they are immune against the very dangerous horse disease of Africa, and also against the deadly “title.” The question was therefore raised whether the zebra could not take the place of the mule, commonly used in the tropics. The greatest credit with reference to the solution of this problem is due to Professor Costar Wart, who has been trying since 1895 to produce crosses between horses and zebras, with a view to developing an animal superior in every respect to the mule.

Professor Wart produced crosses from mares of different breeds and zebra stallions of the Purcell kind. The offspring is called zebra, and on account of its form and general bodily condition, especially the hardness of the hoofs, is specially adapted for all transport work heretofore performed by mules.

The zebra stripes are often well-preserved, while the undertone of the skin is generally that of the mother. A full-grown zebra is fourteen hands high and the girdle circumference about 160 centimeters (sixty-three inches).

The experiments so far have been so successful that it is predicted that the zebra during the present century will completely supersede the mule.” They are said to be highly regarded in South Africa, where they are valuable on account of not being affected by the bite of the tsetse fly, which is sure death to the horse or donkey.

It is understood that the government has under consideration the importance of zebras for the purpose of experimental breeding with the horse. The Agricultural Department has been asked to take up this work, but as Uncle James Wilson Is pretty well acquainted with the American mule and his good qualities, it is not sure that he will spend much time or money on the new breed.

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The hybrid between the horse and the zebra are a striped animal with great speed and endurance. It is stronger than a mule and entirely immune from certain diseases which are pretty certain to attack horses and frequently with data) results when imported into certain parts of Africa.

As soon as the German Government were satisfied with the success of this line of crossing, it at once established a breeding station in its African possessions. At this station much attention in being given to the breeding of zebras, and these are now regularly used in handling heavy ordnance, as, for instance, mountain batteries of the colonial service.

The zebra is a hybrid animal, which is secured by crossing the zebra with either a donkey or a horse. The zebras are bred by the German army for experimental purposes for use in Africa.

The zebra has a hide which can resist the insects and flies, and by crossing them with horses the Germans hoped to produce an animal which had the endurance of the horse and those qualities of a zebra which would allow it to be used for domestic purposes in Africa. For the first time in the history of wild animal training zebras and zebras have been taught to perform tricks and obey the will of their trainer.

The striped equine has always been the stumbling block in the paths of educators and trainers of beasts and animals. Many of them after Herculean and patient endeavor have given up in disgust and consigned the convict coated animal to a remote and disagreeable locality, acknowledging that he was beyond all human understanding.

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Christy Bros, trainers for many years concurred in this belief, but heroic perseverance was finally and justly rewarded. These circus kings now have with their great show zebras that give performances which include everything done by the best trick horses.

Interesting in this connection is the appearance and presentation at the same time of several zebras, or equine hybrids, the only ones of their kind, produced by scientific crossing of full-blooded zebras and Kentucky thoroughbred horses.” The zebra, as students of natural history are informed, is the hardest of all four-footed, hay-eating animals to handle.

It is more treacherous than either the lion or tiger, and is ten times more lively, when it comes to kicking, than the well-known Missouri mule. A full-blood zebra possesses bright, black and white stripes in conformation the zebra follows the type of the American horse, and from the infusion of the latter’s blood.

English army officers have become greatly interested in the zebra and have induced the government to request Mr. Heisenberg to breed at least a dozen of them and send them to South Africa, for experimental purposes. The officers believe the zebra will stand the South African climate better and do considerably more work than either the full-blooded mule or horse.

From The evening News, September 7th, 1922: “Science is just now Interested In hybrids of the zebra stock. In Southern Indiana the zebra has been successfully mated with Arabia mares, producing the zeroed, a tough but docile beast of burden.

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Of animals which owe their existence to man the mule and the jennet are the oldest examples, and no one can deny that the mule is a most useful creature Hardy as a donkey, strong as a horse, surefooted and tireless, there is nothing like it for rough country traveling Its success caused the production of the zebra which is a cross between the horse and zebra. If memory serves, one contained a photo of a mixed herd of zebra, wild horses and Negroids where the aggressive zebra stallions stole the horse mares from the feral herds in parts of South Africa.

In “Origin of Species” (1859) Charles Darwin wrote: “In Lord Morton's famous hybrid from a chestnut mare and male quanta, the hybrid, and even the pure offspring subsequently produced from the mare by a black Arabian sire, were much more plainly barred across the legs than is even the pure quanta. In his “The Variation Of Animals And Plants Under Domestication”, Darwin wrote: “I have seen, in the British Museum, a hybrid from the ass and zebra dappled on its hinder quarters.

In “Darwinism An Exposition Of The Theory Of Natural Selection With Some Of Its Applications” (1889), Alfred Russel Wallace commented: “Crosses between the two species of zebra, or even between the zebra and the quanta, or the quanta and the ass, might have led to a very different result.” Raymond Hook of Kabuki, Kenya, is claimed to have bred the first Negroids by crossing a Gravy's zebra stallion with domestic mares (date unknown?).

The hybrids had Grevy-like narrow stripes and a tufted tail, but were more horse like in conformation and color. The strong, sure-footed, docile and mule like Negroids were used as pack animals by climbers on Mount Kenya's lower slopes.

In the year 1815 Lord Morton put a male quanta to a young chestnut mare of seven eighths Arabian blood, which had never before been bred from. He now sold the mare to Sir Gore Outlet, who two years after she bore the hybrid put her to a black Arabian horse.

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During the two following years she had two foals which Lord Morton thus describes: “ They have the character of the Arabian breed as decidedly as can be expected when fifteen sixteenths of the blood are Arabian, and they are fine specimens of the breed; but both in their color and in the hair of their manes they have a striking resemblance to the quanta. The President of the Royal Society saw the foals and verified Lord Morton's statement.

Costar Wart, Professor of Natural History at Edinburgh (1882-1927) and a keen geneticist, crossed a zebra stallion with pony mares in order to disprove telegony, or paternal impression, a common theory of inheritance at the time. When the same mares were subsequently mated with a pony, the resulting foals showed none of the markings or temperamental characteristics of a zebra.

Go de Voogt wrote, in “Our Domestic Animals, their habits, intelligence and usefulness” (translated from the French by Katherine P. Formula; edited for America by Charles William Burnett; Inn and Co.; Boston; 1907): Lately a Scotch naturalist, J. C. Warts, who has made himself a name in this domain, mated a zebra stallion, named Mat opes, with a mare from one of the Scotch islands. The product was a foal which received the name of Romulus, the new race being called ferrules, Sir John, a colt, and the fillies Bundy and Black Agnes, which were both sold to Hamburg ; the English government then bought them and sent them to India, where they were trained for service in a mountain battery.

Romulus, born in 1896, derived from his father only very indistinct stripes, while Sir John has them more clearly defined. These Negroids are strong, manageable, and easy to train both for saddle and harness ; it is hoped that they have inherited the zebra's immunity from equine diseases.

Left, a striped zebra-horse hybrid, produced by mating a mare with a zebra stallion. The same mare was then mated with a horse stallion, and produced the filly shown below, which bears no traces of any effect of the previous sire.

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The experiment was carried out by the US Government and reported in “Genetics in Relation to Agriculture” by E B Babcock and RE Clause. In “The Science of Life” (c 1929) by H G Wells, J Huxley and GP Wells, the authors wrote “To-day it is possible to assert without any question that telegony is a mere fable, which could only have gained ground in the days when men were ignorant of the true mechanism of fertilization and reproduction.

The mare, a pure Arabian, was mated with a zebra stallion, and produced a hybrid foal. On two later occasions, she was bred to a black Arab stallion, and gave birth to two further foals.

Costar Wart, for instance, made a number of horse and zebra crosses to test the validity of the belief. In short, the production of striping (and also of erect mane) in foals is not a very uncommon occurrence in horses ; it may appear whether previous impregnation by a zebra has taken place or not.

The stripes of Lord Morton's foals were a mere coincidence, well illustrating the danger of drawing conclusions from single and therefore possibly exceptional cases, and the need for systematic and repeated experiments.” (The Sketch, 30th July 1902) The accompanying photograph of a remarkable zebra hybrid which Lord Kitchener brought home for presentation to the King is of peculiar interest.

The animal (which, properly speaking, should be described as a “quanta,” being a cross between a zebra and a pony) was bought as a yearling in South Africa by Captain A. C. Webb, of the Johannesburg Remount Depot, who, after training it to the saddle, sent it home by Lord Kitchener as a present to His Majesty. The quanta is an inch and a-quarter over thirteen hands the body-colour brown, lightening to bay on the head and legs, with very peculiar striping.

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The animal is very beautiful and shapely, strongly resembling a well-grown pony, with a quiet, easy temper. When first brought home by Lord Kitchener, it was quartered in the Royal Mews at Buckingham Palace, but, as the King has decided that so remarkable a hybrid specimen should find a place in the Zoological Gardens, it was taken to Regent's Park last week by two of the Royal grooms, who led it quietly through tire busy streets without attracting any attention.

It occupies, for the present, a big loose-box in the Upper Yard in the “Zoo,” where it has apparently made itself quite at home and comfortable. From a scientific point of view, the new-comer is said to be one of the most remarkable animals that have come into the possession of the Society for many years.

In “Animal Life and the World of Nature” (1902-1903), WP Dandy (Fellow of the Zoological Society, London) writes: Much interest has been aroused at the Zoo by the presentation by His Majesty the King of a hybrid Zebra, a cross-breed between a stallion horse and a Burch ell's zebra mare. This animal was sent over to England by Lord Kitchener, who discovered it among the remounts placed at his disposal in the Transvaal during the war.

The zebra markings are fairly distinct on all four legs, also slightly across the loins and at the root of the tail, continuing a few inches up the center of the buttocks. These markings (and the tail itself, which it will be noticed is more like a donkey's than a horse's) are the only characteristics of the zebra which are prominent, the animal lacking the erect mane and other distinguishing features.

In “Wonders of Animal Life” (1930), J A Hammertoe, it noted that crosses were made between Chapman's zebras and a pony during the South African War. A cross was obtained between a Chapman's zebra and a pony and a specimen was captured by the British and presented to King Edward VII by Lord Kitchener.

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Zebras are normally bred to solid color horses /ponies to produce offspring with striping over the whole body. When bred to a piebald (black-and-white) horse (US: piebald pinto) or to a skewbald (brown/bay/chestnut-and-white) horse (US: skewbald pinto) or to varicolored Iranian breeds known as “Paint” and “Appaloosa”, the offspring have a mix of striped colored areas and striped white areas.

In “Origin of Species” (1859) Charles Darwin mentioned four colored drawings of hybrids between the ass and zebra. He noted “In Lord Morton's famous hybrid from a chestnut mare and male quanta, the hybrid, and even the pure offspring subsequently produced from the mare by a black Arabian sire, were much more plainly barred across the legs than is even the pure quanta.

In his “The Variation Of Animals And Plants Under Domestication”, Darwin wrote: “I have seen, in the British Museum, a hybrid from the ass and zebra dappled on its hinder quarters. In “The Variation Of Animals And Plants Under Domestication” Darwin elaborated: “Colin, who has given in his 'Traits Phys.

Ass/Onsager and horse/Onsager hybrids appear to have been bred in the ancient civilizations of Western Asia, these having a similar role to modern mules. As practical a man as Colonel Inch suggested that a cross between the King and the horse would prove a most valuable animal, possessing all the good qualities of the ordinary mule, with greater size and strength.

There were formerly several examples of the Syrian wild ass (Equus Oedipus, St Claire) in the gardens , and in the catalog of animals published in 1896 there is a record of a hybrid between this species and the Asiatic ass, which was bred in 1883. The hybrid foals had no dewlap and, except for their larger ears and their hindquarters pattern, they resembled the plains' zebra parent.

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In the wild, zebra species don't interbreed even where their ranges overlap, or they graze together. This was also true when the quanta and Burch ell's race of plains zebra shared the same area.

According to Crandall, some hybrids (“racial intergrades”) were foaled by a Hartmann's mare and sired by a Cape stallion between 1924 and 1931; one of these was sent to London Zoological Gardens and figured by Antonius (1951:196). Crandall noted that Gray (1954) listed many crosses between zebras and both horses and asses, wild and domestic.

The herd at the National Zoo's breeding farm at Front Royal, Virginia is known to contain domesticated horse blood. Plains zebra groups gather into large herds which may contain sub-groups, but where the structure is more fluid.

Ito, H., Langenhorst, T., Ogden, R. et al. Population genetic diversity and hybrid detection in captive zebras. Hybridization has been recorded between the plains and mountain zebra, though it is possible that these are infertile due to the difference in chromosome numbers between the two species.

It would appear that all the different species of the genus Equus are capable of breeding together and producing hybrid offspring, some of which are perfectly sterile mules, whilst others are apparently fertile, either with one or other parent species if not inter se. Some of these hybrids are of great economic value, and it is deeply to be regretted that the opportunities that have presented themselves in our European zoological collections have not been utilized as they might have been, in introducing new species into the service of man, and in producing other useful hybrids beyond the common mule.

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In the present chapter I propose to enumerate, as far as practicable, the various equine hybrids that have been produced, and of which any definite account has been published, commencing with those of the horse. It appears most probable, though it has not been absolutely proved, that the horse is capable of producing hybrids with every other species of the genus Equus.

The consideration of the breeding and practical utilization of these two hybrids will be fully treated of in the concluding chapters. In the Hardin d'Acclimatization there is at the present time a hybrid between the horse and the Burch ell’s zebra, of bright bay color, with black legs and distinct dorsal stripe.

Some years since I described some hybrids between the horse and the female Burch ell which were in the park of Sir Henry Mex at Theobald. Early in this century a pair of hybrids, bred between the horse and Burghers zebra, were driven about London in the service of the Zoological Society, but I have not been able to ascertain definitely the relative sex of the two parents, but believe they were hints from a zebra mare.

Two hybrids, between a Hermione and a mare, in the Hardin d'Acclimatization, were described by the late Mr. Jenner Weir. Several of these were apparently recorded in the “Knowles Menagerie,” but sufficient care was not taken to distinguish between the two species, namely, the Mountain and Burch ell’s zebras.

Burch ell’s zebra breeds most freely with several of the other species of Equus, and there is no doubt whatever that the hybrids of this most horse-like of the asses and zebras now existing would be exceedingly valuable to man if the animals were mated as carefully as is done in breeding heavy draft mules in Poison, and pack mules for the military service in India. The Burch ell is an animal much better adapted by its structure and form to the use of man than the other wild asses, and where it properly mated and utilized would no doubt produce most valuable hybrid offspring.

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The hybrids of the Burch ell zebra with the horse have already been mentioned ; it also breeds freely with the common ass. In the Gardens of the Zoological Society at Melbourne there are some Burch ell's zebras that were bred in Paris, for this most useful animal breeds freely in confinement.

On September 6th, 1892, an experiment was made by crossing the zebra with a white so-called Siamese ass, which was obviously a variety of the domesticated Equus sinus. The foal was born on October 25th, 1893, showing that the period of gestation in Burch ell's zebra resembles that of the ass in being considerably over twelve months.

As the progeny of the Burch ell zebra are likely to attract much attention, I reproduce the photograph as it was published in the Australasian. In the Hardin d'Acclimatization there is another hybrid between a Burch ell's zebra and a white Egyptian ass, which shows three distinct shoulder stripes, but otherwise is very faintly marked.

A hybrid between a male Burch ell’s zebra and the common ass was bred by the Earl of Derby and figured in the “Knowles Menagerie.” In Colonel Hamilton Smith's unpublished volume he gives a portrait, drawn by himself, of a hybrid, the foal of a quanta and a brood mare.

In the fine collection of plates known as the “Knowles Menagerie” there are numerous illustrations of the wild Equine, more especially of the striped species inhabiting Africa, namely, the Equus zebra, E. burchellii, and E. quanta. There is also a figure of a mule between a Maltese male ass and zebra, in which the head, neck, and legs are well striped, the body less so, and the hind quarters profusely spotted.

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This strange animal may be described as ironware, with a short, narrow dark band on the withers, very faint indications of perpendicular stripes on the sides, distinct dark stripes on the hocks and knees, a horse-like tail, bushy from the base, and a heavy head with a gray hog mane. This creature, singular from its triple parentage, was eight hands high, and was regularly used in harness.

I go here and there, culling out of several books the sentences that best please me, not to keep them (for I have no memory to retain them in), but to transplant them into this; where, to say the truth, they are no more mine than in their first places. Contemporary reports claimed that the hooves of this animal, foaled by a mare, were pointed and “partially double” (i.e., cloven).

Richard Fowler (1767-1863), a physician and a fellow of the Royal Society, occupied a leading position in Salisbury for many years. He served the latter as her Equerry (stable master) and had extensive knowledge of horses.

He also was a member of Parliament, his position as Keeper of the New Forest being only one of many roles he played in public service. Red Deer (Corvus Dreyfus), known also as an Elk or Wapiti in North America.

This remarkable filly (seven months old) was found a short time since in the New Forest, and is evidently of a mixed breed, between the horse and the deer. The mother (a pony mare) was observed to associate with some red deer stags in the New Forest for some months, and, at last, this foal was seen by her side.

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Dr. Fowler, of that city has inspected the hybrid, and is quite satisfied with the correctness of the preceding statement; and Colonel Buckley (a Keeper of the New Forest) has likewise seen that animal, and is of a similar opinion. Its head resembles that of a deer; its legs are slender, but its hoofs are divided; the mane is very curious, and almost baffles description; the color is a bright fawn; the hind quarters are like that of a horse, but the tail is of the deer tribe.

So this animal, born of a mare, exhibited a trait characteristic of deer and other ruminant artiodactyls, animals generally considered only distantly related to horses, that is, horses and deer are assigned to different mammalian orders (Perissodactyla and Artiodactyla, respectively). The presence of the following entry in Sharp’s A New Gazetteer, Or, Topographical Dictionary of the British Islands and Narrow Seas (1852, vol.

The colt, Mr. Mentor says, had a head not much different from that of an ordinary buck deer, and as nearly as he could tell, he believed there were indications that one or more horns might presently grow out. However, the animal is slightly deformed, its lower jaw being two inches longer than the upper, making it necessary to feed the colt with a bottle.

Apparently it is thriving on cows' milk and is as frisky as a real colt and as agile as a fawn. The report appeared in the San Francisco, California, Morning Call (Apr.

Mr. Antifa Hyde, who resides some three and one-half miles south of this city , has something in the way of horse flesh that is a natural curiosity. It is a three-year-old colt with horns resembling those of a deer, protruding out straight about two and one-half inches above each eye.

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(Source: www.horsenation.com)

These horns made their appearance some two or three months ago, have grown with remarkable rapidity, and have now attained considerable length. The colt is a very finely formed animal, about sixteen hands high.

One explanation for the presence of deer hooves in a horse is that the animal was a deer-horse hybrid. For similar accounts, see also: Ackerman (1898, p. 61); Allegiance First- UND Jagd-zeitung (Frankfurt), vol.

In the 1703 edition of his Estuary, (Stud Breeding), a manual on horse breeding, Georg Simon Winter on Adlersflügel, pictures a horse, which he says he not only saw, but also rode and trained himself (Adlersflügel 1703, p. 136), that had cloven, deer-like hooves protruding from the pastern on both front legs just above the ordinary hooves (pictured at right). Adlersflügel was a master equestrian and the author of numerous books on equine medicine.

According to Adlersflügel’s account, a farmer had put the mother mare out to graze, and she was covered by a red deer stag in rut. A deer-donkey hybrid supposedly foaled in the Royal Menagerie (London) in 1681 (source: Adlersflügel 1703).

An anonymous participant in a now defunct page of a hunting and fishing forum posted the picture of an alleged deer-horse hybrid shown at right. I didn’t post this picture or join this forum to be ridiculed and called a liar.

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Given that the White-tailed Deer is the only cervix native to Georgia, the cross alleged would presumably be Odocoileus Virginians × Equus Catullus. A hybrid is the offspring of two organisms belonging to different species, genera, subspecies, breeds, or varieties.

Breeders often breed two different organisms to produce offsprings with desirable traits. It is the offspring of a female horse or mare and a male donkey or jack.

A Ginny is the offspring of a male horse or stallion and a female donkey or Jenny. For example, a donors is an offspring of a zebra dam and a donkey sire.

A zebra is formed by breeding a horse sire and a zebra dam. These offsprings are considered to be more productive than either the domestic cow or the yak.

It results from a cross between domestic cattle and the American bison. Two different species or subspecies of the bear family or Upside mate to give used hybrids.

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A liner, a hybrid offspring of a female tiger and a male lion. Several species and subspecies of the Felipe family have cross-bred in captivity or in the wild to produce offsprings that are fertile or sterile.

It is the largest domesticated cat breed and is very popular among breeders. Although liners and signs were believed to be sterile, some cases of fertile hybrids have been reported.

A hybrid between a female llama and a male dromedary camel is called Came. The first Came was produced by artificial insemination on January 14, 1998, at Dubai’s Camel Reproduction Center.

A male false killer whale and a female common bottlenose dolphin can be crossed to give a dolphin. These hybrids have been born both in the wild and in captivity but their occurrence is very low.

Another dolphin born in Sea Life Park in Hawaii was fertile and gave birth to several calves. However, the Indonesian government recently discouraged such interbreeding as it threatens the survival of the parent species.

For example, cage bird breeders cross-breed finch species to produce hybrids. Domestic fowl and game birds can also breed to give hybrid offsprings.

These bees carry less venom than their European or African counterparts. If their nest is under threat, they come out in swarms to defend their home against the intruder.

Sometimes, multiple stings by these bees deliver enough venom to kill an adult human. Although the killer bees were bred in captivity, a population managed to escape and colonize large parts of South and North America.

While this scientific advance offers the prospect of growing human organs inside animals for use in transplants, it can also leave some people with a queasy feeling. Given the potential advances that this research offers, our objections should probably be based on more than a mild case of nausea.

Whether it is cross-bred animals or racially mixed children, people who see the world as defined by underlying essences tend to reject this “impurity”. But this does not mean that we don’t often rely on this way of thinking to understand what makes a tiger natural in a way that a chair is not.

Mixing human and animal biology is perceived as being unnatural and a bit on the nose (much like a Lassa risotto I once ordered), creating an irrational fear that human-pigs might escape the lab and take over the world (much like I fear the meteoric rise of Italian-Malay cuisine). While the possibility of human-pig chimera wandering the planet is far from reality, just like the Greeks, our fear of hybrids fosters the sense that such creatures would be monstrous.

Harvesting human hearts from goats can shatter this protective belief, leaving us feeling disgusted and dismayed. By keeping thoughts of our animal nature at bay, we conveniently forget that we are nothing more than mortal biological organisms waiting to fertilize the fields.

Another reason that growing a spare liver in the pig on your uncle’s farm while subjecting your own to a bad case of cirrhosis may create unease is that doing so confuses the taste buds. Biologically merging pigs with humans reminds us of our shared similarities, something that we mostly try to forget when savoring the smell of frying bacon.

This article originally appeared on The Conversation, and is republished under a Creative Commons license. A time of Afros, Nixon, and of course, the peak of America’s interest in Buffalo.

That decade, a peak 6,000 ranchers agreed to raise the fertile hybrid. Like mules, the male version of the hybrid is infertile, but female DZO, or demo, are fertile, allowing for the “back breeding” of three-quarter mixes.

The hybrids are larger and stronger than the yaks and cattle of the region, making them ideal pack animals for hauling gear to the base of Mount Everest. Those are European woods bison that once bordered on extinction, but now are on their way to a comeback thanks to reintroduction efforts.

After WWI, many Europeans thought Huron would replace domestic cattle because of their durability and resistance to disease. But scientists didn’t breed the first fertile Huron until 1960, and in 1980 the Polish government discontinued the program because of a lack of interest from state-owned farms.

A single herd of Huron remain in Bialowieski National Park in Poland. Camels weigh six times as much as llamas, so suffice it to say that artificial insemination was the only option for researchers in the United Arab Emirates.

They succeeded in 1998, creating an animal they hoped would have the wool of a llama with the even temperament of a camel. A 1926 edition of the Lyon County Reporter describes the successful cross at Wainwright National Park, one of the Canadian national parks created to maintain the population of American Bison (it was later turned into a military base following WWII).

The animals reportedly made for great meat and shrugged off the Canadian winters, but for some reason never caught on. Usually, such cross-breeding result in nothing or a stillborn, but farmer Klaus Exsternbrink watched his sheep give birth to a perfectly healthy keep named Lisa, pictured above.

While natural sheep/goat hybrids are extremely rare, scientists have perfected a technique to create them in a lab. Scientist bred a male wild boar with a Tamworth sow to create pigs resembling ancient paintings, with one unintended consequence: the meat was delicious.

Mules and Whinnies The most common and most practical of all hybrids are mules (the offspring of a male donkey and a female horse) and whinnies (the offspring of a male horse and a female donkey). Ever since George Washington brought mule breeding to America (you read that right), mules have played a primary labor role as work animals and pack animals for their superior strength and endurance over horses.

Because they have cells tied to each species, sheep/goat chimeras look like sewn together Frankel pets. The first such chimera in 1985 broke open a world of scientific possibilities, allowing researchers to do such things as insert human cells in animals (like testing human livers cells in mice).

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5 www.dictionary.com - https://www.dictionary.com/browse/quite--a--bit
6 en.wiktionary.org - https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/Talk:quite_a_bit