Odd toed ungulate, or hoofed mammals, such as horses, rhinos, and tapirs, may have their evolutionary origins in the Indian Subcontinent. Remains of the Equus nomadic have been found from Pleistocene levels in India.
The Equus sivalensis lived in the Himalayan foothills in prehistoric times and it is assumed it was extinct during the last Ice Age. An increasing amount of evidence supports the hypothesis that horses were domesticated in the Eurasian Steppes approximately 3500 BCE.
Remains and artifacts ascribed to domesticated horses are limited to Late Harappan times indicating that horses may have been present at Late Harappan times, “when the Vedic people had settled in the north-west part of the subcontinent.” It can therefor not be concluded that the horse was regularly used, or played a significant role, in the Harappan society.
Support for the idea of an indigenous Indo-Aryan origin of the Indus Valley Civilization mostly exists among Indian scholars of Hindu religion and the history and archaeology of India, and has no support in mainstream scholarship. The earliest undisputed finds of horse remains in South Asia are from the Gandhara grave culture, also known as the Swat culture (c. 1400-800 BCE), related to the Indo-Aryans and coinciding with their arrival in India.
Swat valley grave DNA analysis provides evidence of “connections between Steppe population and early Vedic culture in India”. The difficulty of breeding large numbers of horses in the Indian climate meant they needed to be imported in large numbers, usually from Central Asia, but also elsewhere.
A painting at Santa shows horses and elephants that are transported by ship. Sharma (1995), as quoted in Bryant 2001 ^ Parole (1994), as quoted in Bryant 2001 ^ Sharma et al. (1980) p.220-221, as cited in Bryant 2001, p. 170 ^ Sharma 1992-1993, as cited in Bryant 2001, p. 271 ^ The finds include deposits at Mahayana near Allahabad, dated to around 2265 BC to 1480 BC, described as Equus ferns Catullus Line; Hall in Karnataka, c.1500 – 1300 BC, described as Equus ferns Catullus ; Mohenjo-daro ; Harappa (“small horse”); Lethal, a terracotta figurine and a molar horse tooth, dated to 2200 BC; Albanian ; and Juntas, dated to 2300–1900 BC.
Horse remains from the Harappan site Surkotada (dated to 2400-1700 BC) have been identified by A.K. The horse specialist Sandor Colony (1997) later confirmed these conclusions, and stated the excavated tooth specimens could “in all probability be considered remnants of true horses ”.
Law, stated that “The occurrence of true horse (Equus Catullus L.) was evidenced by the enamel pattern of the upper and lower cheek and teeth and by the size and form of incisors and phalanges (toe bones).” According to Erwin Neubauer, Damaged bronze chariot model's yoke was made to fit the horses not was not meant for the bulls.
According to Pilot (1970), various copper vehicle toys having animals with arched neck, described as bulls by some scholars, possibly are of horses. Several Paleolithic period scenes depicted in rock art of India show chariot driven by horses as well.
A damaged cylinder seal dated to 1400-1000 BC depicts a horse driven cart. ^ Renfrew's statement refers to his own Anatolian hypothesis, which is criticized by mainstream scholarship on similar grounds.
^ No support in mainstream scholarship: Tatar 2006 : “there is no scholar at this time seriously arguing for the indigenous origin of Aryans”. Wendy Longer (2017): “The opposing argument, that speakers of Indo-European languages were indigenous to the Indian subcontinent, is not supported by any reliable scholarship.
It is now championed primarily by Hindu nationalists, whose religious sentiments have led them to regard the theory of Aryan migration with some asperity.” Girish Shane (September 14, 2019), in response to Narasimhan et al. (2019): “Hindu activists, however, have kept the Aryan Invasion Theory alive, because it offers them the perfect straw man, 'an intentionally misrepresented proposition that is set up because it is easier to defeat than an opponent's real argument' ...
^ Hastinapur (8th century BCE) is likewise poor in horse remains, even though it is considered as Indo-Aryan. Chattophadhyaya, vol I Part 1) (New Delhi:Center for Studies in Civilizations, 1999) ^ S.R.
Falconer H. and Castle, Fauna Antique Sivalensis, Being the Fossil Zoology of the Diwali Highlands in the North of India, 1849, London. (2000), God-Apes and Fossil Men: Palaeoanthropology of South Asia, Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press Kennedy, Kenneth A.R.
(2012), “Have Aryans been identified in the prehistorical skeletal record from South Asia ? Biological anthropology and concepts of ancient races”, in Eros, George (ed.
), The Indo-Aryans of Ancient South Asia : Language, Material Culture and Ethnicity, Walter de Gruyter Law, B.B. Evidence of Rigged Flora and Fauna & Archaeology, New Delhi: Aryan Books International Malaysian, Mary Melbourne (2016), Shaping World History, Routledge, ISBN 978-1-315-50348-6 Narasimhan, Satheesh M.; Patterson, Nick J.; Moorland, Priya; Hazards, Insight; Mark, Lipton; Malice, Swap an; Roland, Nadia; Bernardo's, Rebecca; Kim, Alexander M. (2018).
Reddy, Krishna (2006), Indian History, Tata McGraw-Hill Education Singh, Under (2009), History of Ancient and Early Medieval India: From the Stone Age to the 12th Century, Long man, ISBN 978-8131716779 Tatar (1996), The theory of Aryan race and India, Delhi: Social Scientist Tatar, Romina (2006). Trauma, Thomas (2005), The Aryan Debate in India, ISBN 0-19-566908-8 Wetzel, Michael E. J.
“Archaeology: Indian fossils support new hypothesis for origin of hoofed mammals”. Antiquity of the Narmada Homo erectus, the early man of India (Report).
Wiki quote has quotations related to: History of the horse in the Indian subcontinent Horse chariot -- Detail of a bronze mirror c. 5th-6th century excavated Eta-Funayama Cumulus in Japan.
Horses in East Asian warfare are inextricably linked with the strategic and tactical evolution of armed conflict. A warrior on horseback or horse-drawn chariot changed the balance of power between civilizations.
When both sides had horses, battles turned on the strength and strategy of their mounted horsemen, or cavalry. King Ruling of Zhao (340 BCE-295 BCE), after realizing the advantages of light cavalry warfare over that of the heavy and cumbersome chariots, instituted reforms generally known as “” (wearing of the Nomadic people's attire, and shooting arrows from horseback), which greatly increased the combat-effectiveness of the army of Zhao.
Conservative forces opposed change, which affected the proportional balance amongst cavalrymen, horse-drawn chariots and infantrymen in Chinese armies. The benefits of using horses as light cavalry against chariots in warfare was understood when the Chinese confronted incursions from nomadic tribes of the steppes.
Feeding horses was a significant problem; and many people were driven from their land so that the Imperial horses would have adequate pastures. Climate and fodder south of the Yangtze River were unfit for horses raised on the grasslands of the western steppes.
The Chinese army lacked a sufficient number of good quality horses. The strategic factor considered most essential in warfare was controlled exclusively by the merchant-traders of the most likely enemies.
The Chinese used chariots for horse-based warfare until light cavalry forces became common during the Warring States era (402-221 BC); and speedy cavalry accounted in part for the success of the Qin dynasty (221 BCE–206 BCE). The Chinese warhorses were cultivated from the vast herds roaming free on the grassy plains of northeastern China and the Mongolian plateau.
The hardy Central Asian horses were generally short-legged with barrel chests. Speed was not anticipated from this configuration, but strength and endurance are characteristic features.
During the Jin dynasty (265–420), records of thousands of “armored horses illustrate the development of warfare in this period. The map of Asia in 800 shows Tang China in relation to its neighbors, including the Uighur Empire of Mongolia.
Horses and skilled horsemen were often in short supply in agrarian China, and cavalry were a distinct minority in most Sui dynasty (581–618) and Tang Dynasty (618–907) armies. The Song (960–1279) through Ming dynasty (1368–1644) armies relied on an officially supervised tea-for-horse trading systems which evolved over centuries.
Although records of horses in Japan are found as far back as the Common period, they played little or no role in early Japanese agriculture or military conflicts until horses from the continent were introduced in the 4th century. The Kojak and Nixon Shoji mention horses in battle.
Samurai fought as cavalry for many centuries, and horses were used both as draft animals and for war. The increasingly elaborate decorations on harnesses and saddles of the samurai suggests the value accorded to these war horses.
Amongst the samurai, Tokugawa Ieyasu (1543–1616) was known as an excellent horseman, which forms the foundation of an anecdote about the shogun's character. One day he and his troops had to cross a very narrow bridge over a raging river.
Ieyasu dismounted, led the horse over the bridge to the other side, and then he re-mounted his steed. At Nikki, the burial place of the horse ridden by Ieyasu Tokugawa in the Battle of Sekigahara is marked with an inscribed stone.
In PRE- Meiji Japan, horses were only considered in a context of warfare and transportation of cargo. As a general rule non-samurai and women did not ride in a saddle as this was reserved for samurai warriors, however, Tome Dozen was an exception to the general rule The appearance of women and non-samurai on horseback in Meiji period prints represented an innovative development.
Since 1958, a statue of a horse at Yasukuni Shrine has acknowledged the equine contributions in Japanese military actions; and opened, full bottles of water are often left at the statues. Other public memorials in other locations in Japan commemorate horses in Japanese warfare, e.g., the Yogi Shrine in Kyoto.
This Villa horse rider pottery is among the National Treasures of Breathe Korean horse is the smallest of the East Asian breeds, but the breed is very strong with noteworthy stamina in terms of its size. In the 12th century, Urchin tribes began to violate the Goryeo-Jurchen borders, and eventually invaded Gorge.
After experiencing the invasion by the Urchin, Korean general Run Gwen realized that Gorge lacked efficient cavalry units. He reorganized the Gorge military into a professional army that would contain decent and well-trained cavalry units.
In 1107, the Urchin were ultimately defeated, and surrendered to Run Gwen. To mark the victory, General Run built nine fortresses to the northeast of the Goryeo-Jurchen borders ( 9, ).
The warhorses of the Mongols were called design Nolan. By 1225 Genghis Khan's empire stretched from the Caspian Sea and northern China; and his horses grew to be highly prized throughout Asia.
Mongolian horses were known for their hardiness, endurance and stamina. Descendants of Genghis Khan's horses remain in great number in Mongolia.
The limited pasture lands in Eastern Europe affected the westward movement of Mongolian mounted forces. The empires of China had at various points in history engaged their nomadic neighbors in combat with reduced effectiveness in cavalry combat, and have a various time instituted reforms to meet a highly mobile adversary that fought principally on horseback; one such important reform as clearly recorded in Chinese historical text was King Ruling of Zhao (340BC-395BC), who advocated the principle of , the “wearing of HU nomadic people's clothing, and the firing of arrows from horseback” during the Spring and Autumn period, which greatly helped increase combat effectiveness against the cavalries of the nomadic combatants.
“The reason why our enemies to the north and west are able to withstand China is precisely because they have many horses and their men are adept at riding; this is their strength. The court constantly tries, with our weakness, to oppose our enemies' strength, so that we lose every battle .... Those who propose remedies for this situation merely wish to increase our armed forces in order to overwhelm the enemy.
They do not realize that, without horses, we can never create an effective military force.” Traditionally, the horse has been used as a pack animal, essential in providing logistical support for military forces.
Wood relief, 17th century Vietnam, showing a mounted archer with his bow fully drawn while galloping forward, in the foreground a kneeling arquebusier is taking aim. HA Hip communal house, HA Day.
“Horse and Pasture in Inner Asian history,” Orient Extremes, Vol. Samurai, Warfare and the State in Early Medieval Japan, p. 96. , p. 96, at Google Books ^ Friday, p. 103. , p. 103, at Google Books ^ a b Nassau, Louis Frederic and Kate Roth.
354-355;, p. 354, at Google Books citing the Kojak and Nixon Shoji. Annals DES emperors Du Japan, p. 119, p. 119, at Google Books ; Sadie Minamoto no Too ().
Hired Swords: The Rise of Private Warrior Power in Early Japan, p. 37, p. 37, at Google Books ^ Turnbull, Stephen R. (2002). Archived 2012-05-18 at the Payback Machine ^ Sidney Institute (NSW, Australia), Tokugawa Ieyasu ^ Chamberlain, Basil Hall.
A Handbook for Travelers in Japan, p. 200. , p. 200, at Google Books ^ Niagara, Hiroshi et al. (1975). The Tale of the Hake, p. 291. , p. 291, at Google Books ^ “About Yasukuni ShrineYasukuni Shrine”.
^ Yogi ninja: image of paired horses. Archived 2010-01-05 at the Payback Machine (in Japanese) ^ Gilda, p. 27. , p. 27, at Google Books ^ Ezra, 120.
A Traveler's History of Russia, p. 14, citing James Chambers, (1979). ISBN 978-0-226-12047-8 ; CLC 221400450 Ezra, Patricia B., Anne Walt hall and James B. Calais.
Pre-Modern East Asia to 1800: A Cultural, Social, and Political History. ISBN 978-0-399-12179-1 ; CLC 4359157 Forbes, Andrew; Henley, David (2011).
Annals DES emperors Du Japan (Nixon DAI Michigan). Paris: Royal Asiatic Society, Oriental Translation Fund of Great Britain and Ireland.
CLC 5850691 Nguyen The DON, 2001 “Collection of LE dynasty weapons in NGC Khan”. When the knowledge spread that horses could be profitably used in warfare as well as for overland transportation and for agriculture, this did not only promote trade relations, but also led to the emergence of new cultural links, often between distant sites, both by land and by sea.
Each article takes its own approach, while, at the same time, opening doors to related academic fields, the main interest lying in the transfer of horses between different regions. Die Erkenntnis, days such Pierre militarism, ALS Transportmittel UND in her Landwirtschaft gewinnbringend anisette lessen, former night our den Handel MIT then, modern less Pierre gang Algerian EU anew Michigan kulturellen Binderies Wijchen Often UND Lantern warden, die formals was oleander entered laden, social Uber Land we Uber den Seeing.
Die einzelnen Barrage been was Them AUF her Basis unterschiedlicher Ansatz an UND bitten jewels Anknupfungspunkte EU benachbarten Discipline. Today nearly 500 Asian wild horses again roam the grasslands of China, Mongolia, and Kazakhstan.
Asian wild horses eat coarse, shrubby plants and tall grasses. The grassy steppes of Eurasia are the Asian wild horse’s historic range, though in recent years humans have forced it to the borders of the stony, sandy Gobi Desert.
Asian wild horses live in small herds, with a stallion, several mares, and young animals traveling together as they roam the grasslands in search of food to eat. Since then, people have worked to preserve habitat and reintroduce animals from zoos to the protected lands.
Asian wild horses have been found on the grasslands of Central Asia for thousands of years. Transfers of horses from the United States, England, and Germany helped the population grow.
In the past, the Minnesota Zoo has supported reintroduction efforts in Asia through the Ulysses S. Seal Conservation Fund. Zoo scientists are currently working to save the species in Mongolia and China through active research under the True Wild Horse Campaign.
Japanese Native Horses Asia Breed Organization Information Japan Equine Affairs Association1-2 Kinda Surugadai Chiyoda-kuTokyo, Japan Although there is still some controversy over the subject, it is generally believed that horses did not exist in Japan during the Paleolithic, Mesolithic or Neolithic periods (Stone Age, Common and early Mayor eras).
It is also believed that all Japanese native horses are descended from animals brought from the mainland of Asia at various times and by various routes. Horses were widely used in warfare until the introduction of firearms in the late 16th century and horsemanship was one of the skills prized by the warriors who founded the Samurai class.
Oddly enough horses were not widely used in agriculture until the Meiji Era, oxen being preferred in most areas for working fields and rice paddies. Horses, on the other hand, were widely used as pack animals to carry goods on the highways and for use in steep mountainous regions.
Throughout the centuries since they were introduced, various breeds of horses developed in Japan each adapting to the local environment. As a result, various rulers and powerful leaders attempted to increase their size and strength by selective breeding and by importing foreign horses.
Records from the Do period indicating the importation of horses by the Dutch to be given as gifts to the Shogun. To encourage this the government introduced training classes throughout Japan to increase the use of horses in agriculture.
The result of these many importations was the almost total disappearance of local Japanese breeds except in very remote areas or on islands. In Japan today there are eight recognized native breeds all of them identified with a particular region and each displaying some differences in color size and conformation.
They do not, in general, have white markings on legs or face but a black dorsal stripe is extremely common. All of these local breeds are known for their endurance, their ability to survive on poor food and in severe weather conditions, and they all share the characteristics of having extremely tough hooves.
They first appear in history in 1697 when the Suzuki family of the Watanabe Clan took animals then grazing wild under its protection and created a stud farm. However, the numbers decreased drastically during World War II and the breed was preserved only by strenuous efforts.
The resulting horses have, under more care and selective breeding, become larger than the original which stood some times only 11 hands (115 cm) at the withers. In 1907, a number of larger horses of European and American origin were introduced and the average size of the breed increased to as much as 13.3 hands (140 cm).
It is said that in the 17th century Lord Hisamatsu of Matsubara Han charged local farmers with the breeding of horses. The smallest of these, the ancestors of the present breed, were particularly useful as pack horses on steep mountainsides and on remote islands.
There are records of horses being raised systematically in the Kiss region of Pagan Prefecture as early as the 6th century. During the Meiji Era, Kiss horses were crossbred with many western breeds and the pure stain virtually disappeared.
The breed is being preserved in the region centering on Aida mural in Kiss County, Pagan Prefecture. Two small herds of about 108 horses remain on the island ranging free and are rounded up once a year for inspection, removal of pests and inoculation.
It is interesting that the people of this island developed a special type of bridle called mogul, which required only a single rein for control. Probably when bison arrived in North America from Central Asia, about 10,000 BC, they ate the grass the horses needed.
When the first people arrived in Central Asia, about a million years ago, they ate apples too. When modern humans arrived, about 100,000 BC, they hunted horses for their meat and especially for their skins, to make into leather hides for clothes and for tents and tools.
But around 4000 BC, people in Central Asia began to tame horses, to domesticate them, to eat them and to use them to carry things. It was probably the Yamaha, living around the Caspian Sea in Central Asia, who first tamed horses for their own use.
Soon the idea of using horses and wagons to carry people and stuff began to spread out of Central Asia. By about 2500 BC, Sumerian people in West Asia were using horses and wagons.
Horses could carry trade goods from one city to another, and they could pull wagons full of people or hay or wheat or pots from one place to another too. By about 1200 BC, in the late Shang Dynasty, people in China were also using horses and chariots.
Having tame horses made a big difference to people’s lives. That made horses and chariots spread quickly around Asia, Europe, and North Africa.
One of the world’s oldest civilizations has kept documentation of horses being used as early at 1600 BC. Chinese horse breeds were generally used for sporting purposes and this tradition lasted for centuries.
It wouldn’t be until the 4th century BC that horseback riding would become part of Chinese culture. Many of the modern horse breeds tend to come out of Europe, but China has been very influential in the development of the equine world as well.
The Living Pony was developed because, in the days after World War II, a stronger horse than the one native to the region was required for transportation purposes. This crossbreeding program created a pony breed of horse that is about 12 hands and incredibly strong.
It prefers to live at higher altitudes and loves to roam open spaces. Adult horses are typically around 11 hands, but the breed has a straight profile and a heavy head.
Strong hooves and legs help it handle the sometimes rough terrain of the Jiangxi region. It has a bristly mane, a beige coat, and many features that look like ancient art that depicts horses.
Oral traditions say that the Tibetan Pony descended from ancient stock, but there is also evidence that shows breeds in the area have been pure-bred for more than 1,000 years. They have strong legs, solid joints, and are fast enough that they are sometimes used for racing and other forms of competition.
It stands at 14 hands on average, with a thick, short neck and a well-muscled frame. Balkan horses are known to live on steppe pastures at temperatures which reach as low as -40F.
Its natural habit is frequently harsh, which has helped the breed develop a superior level of sure-footedness. Balkan horses are often used for transportation purposes because of their ability to carry a heavy pack for dozens of miles every day.
This small pony was developed in a mountainous region of China, with a history of agricultural work that dates to around 800 BC. Trade in the area focused on salt and horses, which made the Guizhou Pony a highly-sought commodity.
Although some other horse breeds have been brought into the region to improve the Guizhou Pony, those attempts have been relatively unsuccessful. Riding Guizhou Ponies have a sloped neck and a chest that has some added depth and width.
It is a land of changing terrain, with tundra and forest biomes both readily available. This makes the region a good agricultural area and has led to the development of the Have horse as one of China’s most versatile breeds.
It’s an obedient horse, which is medium, and ears that are noticeably long. These horses prefer the cold, often staying outside in temperatures lower than -30F without any health issues.
With the need for food locally, however, and an added need for equine work, the breed’s focus since the 1960s has been to create a refined draft-type horse. Emperor Wu of Han China sent tens of thousands of warriors out to the Merchant region simply to bring back horses.
With his first army defeated, he sent a second to negotiate specifically for the horses, which eventually brought 3,000 of them back to establish this breed. It is believed that this was caused by a small worm that would create skin sores that would seep blood without changing the temperament or energy of the horse.
The name translates to “under fruit tree horse.” It is not currently reported as an official breed, partially because it was thought to be extinct. Their ancestry, however, is believed to be free of common source influences like the other Chinese breeds.
Or do you think of the tranquility of trail riding and simply having fun seeing nature close up? Often when we think of equestrian sports we think of Europe or the American West, but Asia has both a 3000-year history with the horse and current facilities for horse riding activities.
People throughout Asia have a growing interest in a diversity of equine sports. Pony clubs for children are active in many countries … and riding for the disabled is proving to be therapeutic and enjoyable for both riders and volunteer helpers.
Find out something about horses and riding before you even go to the arena in the Information section. If you have pictures you would allow us to use then please send us your pictures and your permission to use them (including for clubs and organizations we identify in the website) Send us your questions and suggestions.
Although horses began appearing in cave art as early as 30,000 years ago, Paleolithic humans probably hunted them for their meat, a staple protein in Eurasia and later in North America. The earliest archaeological evidence of horses transition from prey to pets, unearthed several years ago at a site in Kazakhstan associated with the prehistoric Bowie culture, dates back to 3500 B.C.
This theory implies that horses were domesticated similarly to other modern livestock, such as cattle, sheep and goats, said Alessandro Chili, a geneticist at the University of Pa via in Italy. But when Chili and a team of fellow researchers collected maternally inherited mitochondrial genomes from living horses in Asia, Europe, the Middle East and the Americas, a strikingly different picture emerged.
“Taming these animals could generate the food surplus necessary to support the growth of human populations and the capability to expand and adapt into new environments or facilitate transportation.” “Now that many horse lineages have been defined, they could be easily employed not only to analyze other modern breeds, including thoroughbreds, but also to classify ancient remains,” he explained.
The modern domesticated horse (Equus Catullus) is today spread throughout the world and among the most diverse creatures on the planet. The earliest possible hints for domestication would be the presence of what appears to be a set of post molds with lots of animal dung within the area defined by the posts, which scholars interpret as representing a horse pen.
White horses have had a special place in ancient history-according to Herodotus, they were held as sacred animals in the Achaemenid court of Xerxes the Great (ruled 485-465 BC). These stallions are all of Arab, Barb and Turk origin; their descendants are from one of only 74 British and imported mares.
In 2013, researchers led by Ludovic Orlando and ESE Wellesley of the Center for Genetics, Natural History Museum of Denmark and University of Copenhagen (and reported in Orlando et al. 2013) reported on a metaphorical horse fossil which had been found in permafrost within a Middle Pleistocene context in the Yukon territory of Canada and dated between 560,00-780,000 years ago. Amazingly, the researchers found that there were sufficiently intact molecules of collagen within the matrix of the bone to enable them to map the Thistle Creek horse's genome.
Further, using the Thistle Creek DNA as a baseline, they were able to determine that all modern existing equips (donkeys, horses, and zebras) originated from a common ancestor some 4-4.5 million years ago.