Examples of kosher birds include the domestic species of chickens, ducks, geese, turkeys and pigeons. For example, salmon, tuna, pike, flounder, carp and herring are kosher, while catfish, sturgeon, swordfish, lobster, shellfish, crabs and all water mammals are not.
The common custom (practiced by almost all Jews, except certain Yemenite communities) is not to eat the kosher types of locusts either. Six years ago, an episode of Canadian Top Chef featured a moment that would never be replicated on its American counterpart under any circumstances.
As for the taste of it: It’s a red meat, often considered adjacent to both beef and venison, with a touch of generality and sweetness. David McMillan, co-owner of prominent Montreal restaurant Joe Beef, which has often served horse, is a fan of it as a leaner meat choice.
Given the above legal situation, the answer to “Why don’t Americans eat horse?” seems fairly straightforward. The Canadian situation bears this out: Through language and cultural ties to France, the French-speaking province of Quebec is somewhat accepting of horse eating; in Montreal, it’s no challenge to find the meat in a grocery store.
But outside Quebec it’s almost impossible to find, despite the fact that Canada is one of the world’s largest horse meat-producing countries. Activists and academics have often leaned on health and safety arguments for why horse shouldn’t be eaten.
Animal welfare organizations like the ASPCA take issue with the slaughter process: Nancy Perry, senior vice president of government relations at the ASPCA, says she’s concerned that slaughter facilities are made with cows in mind, not horses. Others are more concerned about what’s hiding under horses skin: Dr. Nicholas Rodman, a veterinarian and former director of Tufts University’s animal behavior program, says that retired racing horses are often sold into the meat supply stream.
His concern is that “hardened” track vets have often pumped those animals full of drugs to enhance their performance, which would make them unsafe for consumption, particularly due to the painkiller phenylbutazone (or “but”). “They’re basically walking pharmacies; the racing industry is completely corrupt and self-policing,” Rodman says.
Canada’s Food Inspection Agency is adamant that it won’t tolerate but in horses destined for the dinner plate. Perry points to a history Americans have with horses that Europeans don’t: “They have shared a role in creating the United States,” she says.
“I think it’s culturally appropriate in this province, one of the few French-speaking places in North America, if there was one damn pace to serve horse without repercussions,” he says. Stanford's economics professor Alvin Roth points out that as recently as World War II, the prestigious Harvard Faculty Club was eating it.
For Spell, strip out the emotion and there isn’t a terribly logical explanation for the refusal to eat horse. It’s something Harvard-educated psychologist, and author of Why We Love Dogs, Eat Pigs, and Wear Cows, Melanie Joy has contemplated at length.
While camels are actually not true ruminants they chew cud, and while they do stand on two large toes they lack proper hooves. Although hares and coneys do not ruminate at all, they usually do ranges soft cecal pellets made of chewed plant material right after excretion for further bacterial digestion in their stomach and this serves the same purpose as rumination.
Although not ruminants, hoaxes have complex, multichambered stomachs that allow symbiotic bacteria to break down tough plant materials, though they do not regurgitate. Further clarification of this classification has been attempted by various authors, most recently by Rabbi Nathan Slighting, in a book, entitled The Camel, the Hare, and the Hoax.
Unlike Leviticus 11:3-8, Deuteronomy 14:4-8 also explicitly names 10 animals considered ritually clean: The ox the sheep the goat the deer the gazelle the Amur ; this term, directly taken from the Magnetic Text, is ambiguously used by Arabs to refer to roe deer and to onyx the'o ; this term, directly taken from the Magnetic Text, has traditionally been translated ambiguously.
In Deuteronomy, it has traditionally been translated as wild goat, but in the same translations is called a wild ox where it occurs in Deutero-Isaiah ; the tubal hartebeest lies somewhere between these creatures in appearance and has been regarded as a likely fit for the'o. The Magnetic Text calls it a dish on, meaning springing ; it has thus usually been interpreted as some form of antelope or ibex.
The Magnetic Text calls it a gamer, but Camelopardalis means camel-leopard and refers to the giraffe (giraffe is derived, via Italian, from the Arabic term RAAF meaning assembled ). By contrast, the Levitical rules later go on to add that all quadrupeds with paws should be considered ritually unclean, something not explicitly stated by the Deuteronomy passages; the only quadrupeds with paws are the carnivorous (dogs, wolves, cats, lions, hyenas, bears, etc.
The Leviticus passages thus cover all the large land animals that naturally live in Canaan, except for primates, and equips (horses, zebras, etc. In an attempt to help identify animals of ambiguous appearance, the Talmud, similarly to Aristotle's earlier Historian Animalism, argued that animals without upper teeth would always chew the cud and have split hoofs (thus being ritually clean), and that no animal with upper teeth would do so; the Talmud makes an exception for the case of the camel (which, like the other ruminant even-toed ungulates, is apparently 'without upper teeth' though some citations.
Many Biblical scholars believe that the classification of animals was created to explain pre-existing taboos. Beginning with the Stadia Gain, several Jewish commentators started to explain these taboos nationalistically; Stadia himself expresses an argument similar to that of totem ism, that the unclean animals were declared so because they were worshiped by other cultures.
Due to comparatively recent discoveries about the cultures adjacent to the Israelites, it has become possible to investigate whether such principles could underlie some food laws. Egyptian priests would only eat the meat of even-toed ungulates (swine, came lids, and ruminations), and rhinoceros.
Like the Egyptian priests, Vedic India (and presumably the Persians also) allowed the meat of rhinoceros and ruminations, although cattle were excluded from this, since they were seemingly taboo in Vedic India ; in a particular parallel with the Israelite list, Vedic India explicitly forbade the consumption of came lids and domestic pigs (but not boar). However, unlike the biblical rules, Vedic India did allow the consumption of hare and porcupine, but Harlan did not, and was even more similar to the Israelite regulations, allowing all ruminants, but not other land beasts, and expressly forbidding the meat of camels.
If one believes that religious customs are at least partly explained by the ecological conditions in which a religion evolves, then this too could account for the origin of these rules. In addition to meeting the restrictions as defined by the Torah, there is also the issue of mayoral (tradition).
For instance, there was considerable debate as to the kosher status of zebu and bison among the rabbinical authorities when they first became known and available for consumption; the Orthodox Union permits bison, as can be attested to by the menus of some of the more upscale kosher restaurants in New York City. Leviticus 11:9-12 and Deuteronomy 14:9-10 both state that anything residing in “the waters” (which Leviticus specifies as being the seas and rivers) is ritually clean if it has both fins and scales, in contrast to anything residing in the waters with neither fins nor scales.
Although these biblical rules do not specify the status of animals in the waters with fins but no scales, or scales but no fins, it has traditionally been assumed that these animals are also excluded from the ranks of the ritually clean. These rules restrict the permissible seafood to stereotypical fish, prohibiting the unusual forms such as the eel, lamprey, hagfish, and Lancelot.
In addition, these rules exclude non-fish marine creatures, such as crustaceans (lobster, crab, prawn, shrimp, barnacle, etc. Other creatures living in the sea and rivers that would be prohibited by the rules include the cetaceans (dolphin, whale, etc.
Sharks are regarded as being among the ritually unclean foods according to these regulations, as they appear to have a smooth skin. The sturgeon and related fish, are also sometimes included among the ritually impure foods, as their surfaces are covered in acutes, which are bony armored nodules; however, fish acutes are actually just hardened and enlarged scales.
Nevertheless, Aaron Chopin, a prominent 19th-century rabbi and reformer, declared that the sturgeon was actually ritually pure, and hence permissible to eat. Nachmanides believed that the restrictions against certain fish also addressed health concerns, arguing that fish with fins and scales (and hence ritually clean) typically live in shallower waters than those without fins or scales (i.e., those that were ritually impure), and consequently the latter were much colder and more humid, qualities he believed made their flesh toxic.
The academic perception is that natural repugnance from “weird-looking” fish is a significant factor in the origin of the restrictions. In the Shulchan Arch 3 Signs are given to Kosher birds: Crop, an extra finger, a gizzard that can be peeled.
Although the first ten of the birds identified by the Septuagint seem to fit the descriptions of the Magnetic Text, the suffrage (Latin for bone breaker) being a good example, the correspondence is less clear for most of the remaining birds; it is also obvious that the list in Leviticus, or the list in Deuteronomy, or both, are in a different order in the Septuagint, compared to the Magnetic Text. During the Middle Ages, classical descriptions of the hope were mistaken for descriptions of the lapwing, on account of the lapwing's prominent crest, and the hope's rarity in England, resulting in lapwing being listed in certain bible translations instead of hope ; similarly the sea eagle has historically been confused with the osprey, and translations have often used the latter bird in place of the former.
Variations arise when translations follow other ancient versions of the Bible, rather than the Septuagint, where they differ. Rather than vulture (gyps), the Vulgate has miles, meaning red kite, which historically has been called the glide, on account of its gliding flight; similarly, the Syriac Yeshiva has owl rather than ibis.
The earliest rationalistic explanations of the laws against eating certain birds focused on symbolic interpretations; the first indication of this view can be found in the 1st century BC Letter of Arises, which argues that this prohibition is a lesson to teach justice, and is also about not injuring others. Such allegorical explanations were abandoned by most Jewish and Christian theologians after a few centuries, and later writers instead sought to find medical explanations for the rules; Nachmanides, for example, claimed that the black and thickened blood of birds of prey would cause psychological damage, making people much more inclined to cruelty.
The turkey does not have a tradition, but because so many Orthodox Jews have come to eat it and it possesses the Romania (signs) required to render it a kosher bird, an exception is made, but with all other birds a mayoral is required. Pigeons and doves are known to be kosher based on their permissible status as sacrificial offerings in the Temple of Jerusalem.
Rabbi Chief Like is currently the Orthodox Union's specialist on kosher bird species. The storks, kingfishers, penguins and other fish-eating birds are not kosher.
The identity of the four creatures the Levitical rules list are named in the Magnetic Text using words of uncertain meaning: The Septuagint calls it a brooches, referring to a wingless locust, and older English translations render this as grasshopper in most parts of the Bible, but inconsistently translate it as locust in Leviticus.
In the Book of Nahum, the Aryeh is poetically described as camping in hedges in cold days, but flying off into the far distance when the sun arises; for this reason, a number of scholars have suggested that the Aryeh must actually be the migratory locust. The Talmud describes it as having a long head that is bald in front, for which reason a number of English translations call it a bald locust (an ambiguous term); many modern scholars believe that the Acrid (previously called Trials) is meant, as it is distinguished by its very elongated head.
Hargol ; the Hebrew term literally means strafed (i.e., runs to the right or to the left). The Septuagint calls it an ophiomachos, literally meaning “snake fighter”; the Talmud describes it as having a tail.
This has historically been translated as beetle, but since the 19th century, cricket has been deemed more likely to fit. The Mishnah argues that the ritually clean locusts could be distinguished as they would all have four feet, jumping with two of them, and have four wings which are of sufficient size to cover the entire locust's body.
The Mishnah also goes on to state that any species of locust could only be considered as clean if there was a reliable tradition that it was so. The only Jewish group that continue to preserve such a tradition are the Jews of Yemen, who use the term kosher locust” to describe the specific species of locusts they believe to be kosher, all of which are native to the Arabian Peninsula.
Holed ; the Talmud describes it as a predatory animal that bores underground. Akbar ; in Arabic, the cognate word, Akbar, refers to the Serbia tab ; the Talmud describes it as being similar to a salamander Anaheim ; this Hebrew term literally means groaned, and consequently a number of scholars believe it refers to a gecko, which makes a distinctive croaking sound.
Ko'ah Leta'ah ; the Talmud describes it as being paralyzed by heat but revived with water, and states that its tail moves when cut off home tinseled ; this term literally means blower / breather, this term also appears in the list of birds Galei ; a general term including the weasel, ferret, and the stoat, all of which are predatory animals noticeably attracted to holes in the ground.
Chamaileon ; the chameleon, which puffs itself up and opens its mouth wide when threatened calaboose ; a term derived from chalk meaning rock / claw, and therefore probably the wall lizard Laura ; the lizard in general, possibly here intended to be the skin, since it is the remaining other major group of lizards asphalt ; the mole-rat, although some older English translations, not being aware of the mole-rat's existence, have instead translated this as mole The earthworm, the snake, the scorpion, the beetle, the centipede, and all the creatures that crawl on the ground are not kosher. All reptiles, all amphibians and insects except four types of locust are not kosher.
^ Deuteronomy 14:4 ^ Deuteronomy 14:5 ^ Catholic Encyclopedia, Animals ^ Isaiah 52:20 ^ a b Catholic Encyclopedia, animals ^ Leviticus 11:27 ^ Jewish Encyclopedia ^ a b c d e Jewish Encyclopedia, Dietary Laws ^ Peace's commentary on the Bible ^ Stadia Gain, Kit ab adamant Wall'Tiamat, 117 ^ Porphyry, DE Abstinent 4:7 ^ a b c d e “Laws of Anastasia 1:5, 1:29-39, 2:64 ^ a b c d e Laws of Vanished, 14:38-48, 14:74 ^ Laws of Bandanna, 1:5, 1:12, 14:184 ^ Daniel Colson, Die Saber UND her Strabismus, 2:7 ^ See “Why mammals with split hooves?” ^ Maimonides, commentary to Leviticus 11:9 ^ Midday 6:9 ^ 'Abode Sarah 39b-40a ^ A Guide to Jewish Religious Practice.
No; it is forbidden by Jewish law, because the horse is not a ruminant, nor does it have cloven hooves. EDIT: Just a FYI to another poster: camels are not kosher ; they are one of the animals expressly forbidden as unclean in Leviticus.
Plus it does not chew its cud and most if not all horse meat is from the hind quarter, slaughtering to have to be done in a kosher manner, cows, sheep, goats and camels are kosher A: Providing access to or giving salt every day ensures your horse’s maintenance sodium needs are met, which is vital for hydration.
I believe horses should have salt available at all times when not working, and my preference is a plain white salt block unless your horse prefers the taste of another form. So, if your horses aren’t readily consuming this from block form, I suggest adding the daily maintenance amount of salt to their feed, so you know they got it.
As for the type of loose salt, my go-to is regular iodized table salt, because I find that the small amount of additional iodine is often beneficial in the ration, unless the horse is receiving kelp-based supplements. Kelp-based supplements typically provide several times the daily National Research Council requirement for iodine, and, therefore, I’m not keen in these instances to add more.
The levels of other minerals naturally occurring in mineralized salt are not great enough to make a significant impact on your horse’s ration, except perhaps iron, which is generally in excess in forage-based rations already. But know that at the end of the day they’re all providing sodium chloride and one confers very little additional benefit over the other, and most are more expensive than regular table salt.
Every day at window, we work hard to give you access to instructions and information that will help you live a better life, whether it's keeping you safer, healthier, or improving your well-being. Washout of Exotic Animals: The Buffalo By: Rabbi ARI Z. Zivotofsky, ** Ph.D. reprinted with permission from The Journal of Malacca and Contemporary Society, Fall 1999/Sukkot 5760, Number XXXVIII, published by The Rabbi Jacob Joseph (RJ) School of Staten Island.
** Rabbi Zivotofsky, a certified shocked u'bode, is a researcher at the National Institutes of Health (NIH), Bethesda, MD. A special debt of gratitude is owed to Stanley Sapeles, Curator of Birds at the Cleveland Metro parks Zoo, and Dr.
Rob Lofted, Professor of Theriogenology at the Atlantic Veterinary College, Prince Edward Island, Canada for help with the scientific information in this article. The modern affluent kosher consumer is forever looking for new and varied cuisine to tantalize his palate, making it not only intellectually stimulating but financially significant to investigate the washout of uncommon animals and the criteria for such a determination.
In recent years goose, deer, and buffalo have been added to the menus of several kosher N.Y. restaurants and/or butcher shops 2. They also stated that all animals that do not have upper incisors, canines, or soft front tooth-like structures are ruminants and are kosher, with the singular exception of the young camel.
Other than the wild donkey, 8 no non- kosher species has meat under the tail (? Musculus operator interns?) The kosher animals within the mammalian quadruped category would seem to include not only the animals commonly thought of as kosher such as cows (BOS Taurus), sheep (Ovis Aries), goats (Capra circus), and deer, but such exotic animals as the pronghorn (Antilocapra Americana), moose (Alces), the 6-foot, 1500 pound Giant Eland (Taurotragus Serbians), giraffe (giraffe Camelopardalis), and the Bongo (Boomers eurycerus).
The African buffalo (Synchros coffer) has three subspecies and, as its name applies, is native to Africa, in general sub-Saharan. According to Professor Neruda Felix 12 the water buffalo, at one time found in large numbers in the Hula Valley in Israel and raised by the bedouin there until the 1940s, was known as the mere, an animal that was sacrificed and eaten in biblical times (see II Samuel 6:13; I Kings 1:9,19).
Other authorities identify t'oh, found in the list of kosher animals in Deuteronomy 14:5, with the water buffalo. Again, the problem is that the water buffalo is highly domesticated and the re'em seems to have been a quintessentially undomesticatable animal (see Job 39:9-12).
The European bison is also sometimes identified with the t'oh, although the Talmud (Chaplin 80a), Tar gum Yonatan, and Rash all imply that t'oh is a wild ox. This would lead one to suspect that Rabbi Dismay Ha'action, and hence also the Shulchan Arch, were referring to water buffalo, and they had no doubt that it is a kosher Bahamas (domesticated animal).
The PRI Maggie writes that he is baffled by the suggestion that this Shack should be relevant to the question of the kosher status of an animal, and that a tradition should be needed to establish its admissibility. Nonetheless, and despite the cogency of the PRI Maggadim's argument, the Coachman Adam (36:1) and Bat Markov (41; cited by Pitched T'Shiva) add a puzzling twist to this Shack, and assume he was addressing the kosher status of an animal.
The American Bison and a wide variety of cattle have been interbred regularly since 1957 to produce fertile 19 “Buffalo” offspring, a product that has gained in popularity in the last several decades due to its ease of handling and the lower fat content of its meat. They breed with relative ease and both direct and reciprocal crosses produce fertile females, although the male offspring are usually infertile or sterile.
There is not yet a stampede for kosher buffalo, but based on my informal survey of several cities it certainly appears that there is some desire for it. I do not know how the major washout organizations would rule in a case where there was truly a need for a menorah according to the Charon Is and none existed.
To my knowledge there are no other recent response that address this PRI Maggie vs. Charon Is dispute. 22 The wild Paola (Pseudonym nghetinhensi, also known as the VU Huang Ovid) is the first large land vertebrate discovered in more than 50 years.
The English word kosher is derived from the Hebrew root “kosher,” which means to be pure, proper, or suitable for consumption (1). The laws that provide the foundation for a kosher dietary pattern are collectively referred to as washout and are found within the Torah, the Jewish book of sacred texts.
Kosher dietary laws are comprehensive and provide a rigid framework of rules that not only outline which foods are allowed or forbidden but also mandate how permitted foods must be produced, processed, and prepared prior to consumption (2). Summary Kosher is a term used to describe foods that comply with dietary guidelines set by traditional Jewish law.
After eating meat, you must wait a designated amount of time before consuming any dairy product. Pierre food items are considered neutral and may be eaten alongside either meat or dairy.
Summary Kosher guidelines strictly prohibit the pairing of any meat and dairy product. The term “meat” in the kosher context generally refers to edible flesh from certain types of mammals and fowl, as well any products derived from them, like broth, gravy, or bones.
Although they each have their own separate rules, fish and eggs are both classified as Pierre, or neutral, which means that they do not contain milk or meat. Fish is only considered kosher if it comes from an animal that has fins and scales, such as tuna, salmon, halibut, or mackerel.
Water-dwelling creatures that don’t have these physical features are prohibited, such as shrimp, crab, oysters, lobster, and other types of shellfish. Eggs that come from kosher fowl or fish are permitted as long as they don’t have any traces of blood in them.
Summary Kosher guidelines limit the consumption of animal-based foods to specific animals and cuts of meat which are slaughtered and prepared in a particular manner. Furthermore, if baking pans or other equipment are greased with animal-based fats or otherwise used to cook any meat- or dairy-containing dish, the end product is no longer kosher.
Because these types of processing methods are not typically disclosed on a standard nutrition or ingredient label, bread and grain products must be certified kosher to ensure that the food complies with all relevant guidelines. In fact, the entire kosher wine production process must be carried out and supervised by practicing Jews.
Though there is some variation in adherence to Passover dietary guidelines, all leavened grain products are traditionally forbidden. That said, some of these grains may be permitted as long as they haven’t been in contact with any moisture longer than 18 minutes and do not contain any added leavening agents, such as yeast.
“ Kosher refers to a Jewish dietary framework for food preparation, processing, and consumption. Though variations exist, most guidelines prohibit pairing meat and dairy and only allow certain animals to be eaten.
Foods not considered meat or dairy are generally accepted, provided they’re produced using kosher equipment and practices. First, some basics: Even when your horse isn't in work, he needs at least 10 grams of sodium per day, which is found in two level tablespoons of salt.
Do: Start with a plain, white salt block placed within easy reach and, if possible, protected from precipitation. For a horse at pasture or in light work, a block can suffice, assuming he consumes enough of it (more on that in a moment).
A good rule of thumb: A five-pound salt block used by one horse should be consumed within two months. Keep the block clean and inviting encouraging licking; provide more than one if you have multiple horses, and watch for bullying to make sure everyone has adequate access.
Inadequate sodium intake can promote or aggravate conditions such as anhydrous (lack of or inadequate sweating), tying up (a muscular disorder resulting in stiff and/or trembling muscles after exertion), and a rapid heart rate. It can also influence the horse to avoid drinking water as the body seeks to keep from flushing away sodium.