Are Horses Marsupials

David Lawrence
• Wednesday, 21 October, 2020
• 33 min read

The short gestation time is due to having a yolk-type placenta in the mother marsupial. Placental mammals nourish the developing embryo using the mother’s blood supply, allowing longer gestation times.

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Marsupials also give birth to live babies like placental mammals. A distinctive characteristic common to these species is that most of the young are carried in a pouch.

Well-known marsupials include kangaroos, wallabies, koalas, possums, opossums, wombats, and Tasmanian devils. The only honorees that are alive today are the spiny anteater, or echidna, and the platypus.

The three characteristics are mammary glands, hair and three middle ear bones. Other characteristics often thought to be unique to mammals are found in other species including birds, insects and reptiles.

Placental mammal, (infra class Eutheria), any member of the mammalian group characterized by the presence of a placenta, which facilitates exchange of nutrients and wastes between the blood of the mother and that of the fetus. The placental mammals include such diverse forms as whales, elephants, shrews, and armadillos.

Joeys crawl into their mother’s pouch immediately after birth, and stay there for about six months. Marsupials are notably less intelligent than placental mammals, partly because of their simpler brains.

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It grabs on with its mouth and continues to develop, often for weeks or months depending on the species. Placental mammals nourish the developing embryo using the mother’s blood supply, allowing longer gestation times.

Almost all living primates have prehensile hands and feet, and most have five digits on these appendages, including opposable thumbs. Unlike many other mammals, primates have particularly flexible and limber shoulders and hip joints.

Although the male seahorse has a brood pouch for carrying the eggs, this feature alone does not make the seahorse a marsupial. There are no marine marsupials. Seahorses are fish, not mammals.

Although the male seahorse has a brood pouch for carrying the eggs, this feature alone does not make the seahorse a marsupial. Wallaby, Tasmanian Devil, Wombat, Kangaroo with Joey, Quokka and Koala.

Though marsupials have a number of distinct characteristics, they do fall under the classification of mammal. Marsupials, however, are unique mammals in many ways, and have several specific traits which make them stand out from other animals.

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There are approximately 300 different species of marsupials, (infra class Metatheria, or Marsupials) on earth, and roughly 70% of these live in Australia, Tasmania and New Guinea. These marsupials tend to be the most commonly associated with this class of animal, and include such species as the wombat, kangaroo, and koala.

Image credit: Michael Peseta/Shutterstock.compile most marsupials reside in the Austrial-pacific regions, there are a number of species which live in the Americas. This is also the case in North America, although only one species of marsupial lives here, namely the Virginia Opossum.

Marsupials come in a variety of species, and a full range of sizes and shapes. This species and kangaroos in general, are often the animal most commonly associated with the term marsupial.

This is, in part due to the obvious and pronounced pouch, in which kangaroo joeys can often be seen. These tiny creatures are much less well known, in part due to their size and the fact that their pouch is less obvious.

Collectively, though, marsupials are distinct, and have several characteristics that make them stand out from other mammals. Willis/Shutterstock.Comte most distinctive characteristic of marsupials, and the reason they got this name, is due to the presence of a natural pouch on their body.

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Image credit: Damian Lugosi/Shutterstock.because these animals have pouches, they also generally have very short gestation periods. Marsupials lack what is known as the corpus callosum, which is a nerve tract which communicates between brain hemispheres.

Image credit: Crossbones/Shutterstock.another distinguishing factor common in marsupials is the amount and structure of their teeth. Most placental mammals have three molars and four premolars in both the upper and lower jaw.

Wombats, however, are an exception to this differentiation, as they have a different number of incisors in the upper and lower jaw. In marsupials, babies are born through a central birth canal rather than vaginally.

In most marsupials, these genitalia are used only during reproduction, and are not connected to the urinary tract, like in the case of most other mammals. Marsupials give birth to a live but relatively undeveloped fetus called a joey.

The young kangaroo, or joey, is born at a very immature stage when it is only about 2 cm long and weighs less than a gram. Immediately after birth it crawls up the mother’s body and enters the pouch.

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The baby attaches its mouth to one of four teats, which then enlarges to hold the young animal in place. Marsupials give birth at a very early stage of development; after birth, newborn marsupials crawl up the bodies of their mothers and attach themselves to a teat, which is located on the underside of the mother, either inside a pouch called the marsupial, or open to the environment.

Excess abdominal fat is a major risk factor for diabetes and heart and blood vessel disease. Excess belly fat generates hormones and other toxins called free radicals that cause inflammation, damage blood vessels and have other chronic effects on your health.

In a sense, marsupial mammals traded nipples and lactation for placentas and umbilical cords. Marsupials give birth to a live but relatively undeveloped fetus called a joey.

All female marsupials have pouches which house their baby ‘joeys’ during the fetus’ post-birth development stages. Newborn joeys, also known as ‘jellybeans’, quickly scale a wall of fur to climb into the warmth and safety of their mothers’ cozy pouch.

These include “grunting, growling, hissing, screeching, clicking and teeth-chattering calls, many of which would not be out of place on a horror movie soundtrack”. Baby koalas, called joeys, eat their mothers’ poop.

kangaroo pouch baby joey cute marsupial mammal horse tired vertebrate sleepy cosy foal fauna wolfdog comfortable wildlife grass safe domain
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Man who found Penn's treasure reveals identity Actually a seahorse is a marine fish belonging to the genus Hippocampus of the family Syngnathidae.

Marsupials are land mammals in which the female typically has a pouch (called the marsupial, from which the name 'Marsupial' derives) in which it rears its young through early infancy. The eggs hatch inside the pouch and then the offspring are ejected.

Marsupials are land animals and a seahorse is a type of fish. Marsupials belong to the phylum of mammalia, and they are not fish; a seahorse is not a mammal.

MA: poultry- AIC Alligator- The Forbore warm Tubs Black dogs- Led Zeppelin Boris the Spider- The Who by employing-Tor and the Snow dogs- Rush chilly Turkey- John Lennon Daffy Duck- Animal Collective dogs- Pink Floyd living house of Wolves- My Chemical Romance I'm The Walrus- The Beatles Lol, I variety of were given over excited on the Me. They lack nipples, but the skin over their mammary glands exude milk for their babies.

The relatively primitive prototherian reproductive system evidently evolved after their evolutionary line separated from the other early mammals. Eutheria mothers carry their unborn children within the uterus where they are nourished and protected until an advanced stage is reached. This is made possible by the umbilical cord and placenta which connects the fetus to the uterus wall and enables nutrients and oxygen to get to the offspring as well as provides a means of eliminating its waste.

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At the same time, the placenta functions as a barrier to keep the blood cells and other components of the immune systems of the mother and her fetuses separate to prevent their destruction. Their babies are born at only 1/4 the size predicted for the general placental mammal pattern.

Marsupial babies are born at an even more immature stage because their rudimentary placentas are comparatively inefficient in nurturing fetuses. This is mostly due to the fact that their babies are born more mature, which increases their chances of survival.

The downside is that pregnant placental mammals must consume significantly more calories to nurture their fetuses and themselves, especially during the second half of their pregnancies. Like honorees and marsupials, placental mammals feed their babies with milk from their mammary glands.

Primates, cats, dogs, bears, hoofed animals, rodents, bats, seals, dolphins, and whales are among the dominant placental mammal groups today. The next tutorial in this series, The Primates, investigates all the Linnaeus classification categories below the infra class level for humans, apes, monkeys, and some other closely related animals.

NEWS:A team of researchers led by Wesley Warren at Washington University School of Medicine reported their completion of a draft of the platypus genome sequence in the May 8, 2008, issue of the journal Nature. Other platypus genes show links to reptiles, including those related to egg-laying, vision, and venom production.

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Adult male platypuses can inject their poison with spur just above the heel of each hind foot. Platypuses are also unusual in having sensors in their bills that are used to detect faint electrical fields from their prey when they hunt them underwater.

NEWS:The results of a 5-year global project sponsored by the Union for Conservation of Nature to survey all living mammals has been completed. The researchers concluded in October 2008 that one half of the 5487 mammal species are declining in numbers and at least 1/4 are now threatened with extinction due primarily to habitat destruction, hunting by humans, and climate change (Jan Shipper et al., Science 1165115, 2008).

Mammals and marsupials are two groups of animals that belong to the phylumChordata. The main difference between mammals and marsupials is that mammals are characterized by the presence of mammary glands to feed the young whereas marsupials are characterized by the presence of a pouch to carry the young.

Key Terms: Hair, Marsupials, Mammals, Mammary Glands, Pouch, Teeth, Young, Warm-blooded Animals Mammals refer to the warm-blooded animals that nourish their young with milk secreted by mammary glands and have skin more or less covered by hair.

Approximately, 5,500 species of mammals are found in each and every habitat on the earth such as tropical rainforests, deep sea, and deserts. Generally, mammals grow into a large body size.

bear anteater animals dinosaurs strange marsupials australian horse warrior evolved domesticable could into
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The size of mammals varies from one-ounce (shrews) to 200 tons (Whale). As mammals are warm-blooded animals, they maintain their body temperature independent of the external environment by the heat produced by their endothermic metabolism.

One of the key features of a mammal is the presence of fur or hair growing in some parts of the body. The hair can be in different forms such as thick fur, horns, long whiskers, and defensive quills.

The main function of hair is the insulation of the body against cold. Mammals exhibit internal fertilization and the embryo carried inside the mother.

One of the most significant features of mammals is the presence of mammary glands to breastfeed the young. The lower jawbone of mammals is a single piece of bone directly attached to the skull.

Vertebrates including mammals possess a diaphragm, which aids in the expansion and contraction of lungs. Marsupials are mammals of an order whose members are born incompletely developed and are typically carried and suckled in a pouch on the mother.

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They have approximately 334 species including kangaroos, possums, koalas, and bandits. As marsupials are a group of mammals, they give birth to the young.

Hence, the young can crawl from the mother’s birth channel into the pouch. It attaches to one of the nipples inside the mother’s pouch for many months until it grows into a young animal.

Both mammals and marsupials produce milk to feed the young. Both mammals and marsupials exhibit parental care for the young.

Mammals: Body temperature of placentals and honorees are 38 and 30 degrees Celsius. Mammals: Placentals include humans, cats, horses, whales etc.

The main feature of mammals is the presence of mammary glands and hair that covers the body. Marsupials give birth to undeveloped, very small young that is further developed inside a pouch.

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Therefore, the main difference between mammals and marsupials is the type of development in the young. Marsupial Mammals, University of California Museum of Paleontology, Available here.

The word marsupial comes from marsupial, the technical term for the abdominal pouch. It, in turn, is borrowed from Latin and ultimately from the ancient Greek Mariupol, meaning “pouch”.

In 1816, French zoologist George Cuvier classified all marsupials under the order Marsupials. A. W. Kirsch and others accorded infra class rank to Marsupials.

Comprising over 300 extant species, several attempts have been made to accurately interpret the phylogenetic relationships among the different marsupial orders. Studies differ on whether Didelphimorphia or Paucituberculata is the sister group to all other marsupials.

Though the order Microbiotheria (which has only one species, the monitor Del Monte) is found in South America, morphological similarities suggest it is closely related to Australian marsupials. Molecular analyses in 2010 and 2011 identified Microbiotheria as the sister group to all Australian marsupials.

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However, the relations among the four Australidelphid orders are not as well understood. The cladogram below, depicting the relationships among the various marsupial orders, is based on a 2015 phylogenetic study.

There are, however, striking differences as well as a number of anatomical features that separate them from Lutherans. In addition to the front pouch, which contains multiple teats for the sustenance of their young, marsupials have other common structural features.

Ossified patellae are absent in most modern marsupials (though a few exceptions are reported) and epidemic bones are present. Marsupials (and honorees) also lack a gross communication (corpus callosum) between the right and left brain hemispheres.

Holes (foramen facsimile) are located in the front of the orbit. The cheekbone is enlarged and extends further to the rear.

The angular extension (processes angular is) of the lower jaw is bent toward the center. Another feature is the hard palate which, in contrast to the placental mammals' foramina, always have more openings.

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The teeth differ from that of placental mammals, so that all taxa except wombats have a different number of incisors in the upper and lower jaws. The early marsupials had a dental formula from, that is, per pine half; they have five maxillae or four mandibular incisors, one canine, three premolars and four molars, for a total of 50 teeth.

The dental formula for Pteropodidae (kangaroos and wallabies etc.) Marsupials in many cases have 40 to 50 teeth, significantly more than placental mammals.

The upper jaw has a high number of incisors, up to ten, and they have more molars than premolars. Since these are present in males and touchless species, it is believed that they originally had nothing to do with reproduction, but served in the muscular approach to the movement of the hind limbs.

This could be explained by an original feature of mammals, as these epidemic bones are also found in honorees. Marsupial reproductive organs differ from the placental mammals.

The males have a split or double penis lying in front of the scrotum. Many marsupials have a permanent bag, whereas in others the pouch develops during gestation, as with the shrew opossum, where the young are hidden only by skin folds or in the fur of the mother.

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The arrangement of the pouch is variable to allow the offspring to receive maximum protection. Locomotive kangaroos have a pouch opening at the front, while many others that walk or climb on all fours have the opening in the back.

Usually, only females have a pouch, but the male water opossum has a pouch that is used to accommodate his genitalia while swimming or running. Marsupials have adapted to many habitats, reflected in the wide variety in their build.

The largest living marsupial, the red kangaroo, grows up to 1.8 meters (5 ft 11 in) in height and 90 kilograms (200 lb) in weight, but extinct genera, such as Diprotodon, were significantly larger and heavier. The smallest members of this group are the marsupial mice, which often reach only 5 centimeters (2.0 in) in body length.

Some species resemble placental mammals and are examples of convergent evolution. The ability to glide evolved in both marsupials (as with sugar gliders) and some placental mammals (as with flying squirrels), which developed independently.

Other groups such as the kangaroo, however, do not have clear placental counterparts, though they share similarities in lifestyle and ecological niches with ruminants. The evolution of reproduction in marsupials, and speculation about the ancestral state of mammalian reproduction, have engaged discussion since the end of the 19th century.

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Both sexes possess a cloaca, which is connected to an urogenital sac used to store waste before expulsion. The bladder of marsupials functions as a site to concentrate urine and empties into the common urogenital sinus in both females and males.

Male reproductive system The male thiamine had a pouch that acted as a protective sheath, covering his external reproductive organs while he ran through thick brush. Male marsupials have 1-3 pairs of bulbourethral glands.

There are no ampule, seminal vesicles or coagulating glands. The prostate is proportionally larger in marsupials than in placental mammals.

During the breeding season, the male tam mar wallaby's prostate and bulbourethral gland enlarge. However, there does not appear to be any seasonal difference in the weight of the testes.

Female reproductive system Female reproductive anatomy of several marsupial speciesFemale marsupials have two lateral vaginas, which lead to separate uteri, but both open externally through the same orifice. Some marsupial species are able to store sperm in the oviduct after mating.

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Marsupials give birth at a very early stage of development; after birth, newborn marsupials crawl up the bodies of their mothers and attach themselves to a teat, which is located on the underside of the mother, either inside a pouch called the marsupial, or open to the environment. There they remain for a number of weeks, attached to the teat.

The offspring are eventually able to leave the marsupial for short periods, returning to it for warmth, protection, and nourishment. Key aspects of the first stages of placental mammal embryo development, such as the inner cell mass and the process of compaction, are not found in marsupials.

The cleavage stages of marsupial development are very variable between groups and aspects of marsupial early development are not yet fully understood. An early birth removes a developing marsupial from its mother's body much sooner than in placental mammals, thus marsupials have not developed a complex placenta to protect the embryo from its mother's immune system.

Though early birth puts the tiny newborn marsupial at a greater environmental risk, it significantly reduces the dangers associated with long pregnancies, as there is no need to carry a large fetus to full term in bad seasons. Marsupials are extremely altricial animals, needing to be intensely cared for immediately following birth (cf.precocity).

Because newborn marsupials must climb up to their mother's teats, their front limbs and facial structures are much more developed than the rest of their bodies at the time of birth. This requirement has been argued to have resulted in the limited range of loco motor adaptations in marsupials compared to placentals.

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The blind, furless, miniature newborn, the size of a jelly bean, crawls across its mother's fur to make its way into the pouch, where it latches onto a teat for food. After this period, the joey begins to spend increasing lengths of time out of the pouch, feeding and learning survival skills.

However, it returns to the pouch to sleep, and if danger threatens, it will seek refuge in its mother's pouch for safety. A marsupial joey is unable to regulate its own body temperature and relies upon an external heat source.

The first American marsupial the Europeans encountered was the common opossum. Vicente Lane Pinion, commander of the Nina on Christopher Columbus first voyage in the late 1400s, collected a female opossum with young in her pouch off the Brazilian coast.

He presented them to the Spanish monarchs, though by then the young were lost and the female had died. They have a long tail with which they hang from the trees in which they live continuously, winding it once or twice around a branch.

On their belly they have a pocket like an intermediate balcony; as soon as they give birth to a young one, they grow it inside there at a teat until it does not need nursing anymore. From the start of the 17th century more accounts of marsupials arrived.

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For instance, a 1606 record of an animal, killed on the southern coast of New Guinea, described it as “in the shape of a dog, smaller than a greyhound”, with a snakelike “bare scaly tail” and hanging testicles. The meat tasted like venison, and the stomach contained ginger leaves.

This description appears to closely resemble the dusky watermelon (Thylogale Brunei), in which case this would be the earliest European record of a member of the kangaroo family (Pteropodidae). Dentition of the herbivorous eastern gray kangaroo, as illustrated in Knight's Sketches in Natural History The ancestors of marsupials, part of a larger group called Metatheria, probably split from those of placental mammals (Lutherans) during the mid- Jurassic period, though no fossil evidence of Metatheria themselves are known from this time.

From DNA and protein analyses, the time of divergence of the two lineages has been estimated to be around 100 to 120 MYA. Fossil Metatheria are distinguished from Lutherans by the form of their teeth; Metatheria possess four pairs of molar teeth in each jaw, whereas Eutheria mammals (including true placentals) never have more than three pairs.

Using this criterion, the earliest known Metatheria is Sinodelphys salami, which lived in China around 125 MYA. This makes it a contemporary to some early Eutheria species which have been found in the same area.

While placental fossils dominate in Asia, marsupial fossils occur in larger numbers in North America. The oldest Metatheria fossils are found in present-day China.

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About 100 MYA, the supercontinent Pangaea was in the process of splitting into the northern continent Laurasia and the southern continent Indiana, with what would become China and Australia already separated by the Tethys Ocean. From there, Metatheria spread westward into modern North America (still attached to Eurasia), where the earliest true marsupials are found.

Marsupials are difficult to distinguish from other fossils, as they are characterized by aspects of the reproductive system which do not normally fossilize (including pouches) and by subtle changes in the bone and tooth structure that show a Metatheria is part of the marsupial crown group (the most exclusive group that contains all living marsupials). The earliest definite marsupial fossil belongs to the species Perfected minor, from the Paleocene of Montana, dated to about 65 million years ago.

From their point of origin in Laurasia, marsupials spread to South America, which was possibly connected to North America at around 65 MYA through a ridge that has since moved on to become the Caribbean Archipelago. Laurasia marsupials eventually died off, for not entirely clear reasons; convention has it that they disappeared due to competition with placentals, but this is no longer accepted to be the primary reason.

In South America, the opossums evolved and developed a strong presence, and the Paleogene also saw the evolution of shrew opossums (Paucituberculata) alongside non-marsupial Metatheria predators such as the borhyaenids and the saber-toothed Thylacosmilus. South American niches for mammalian carnivores were dominated by these marsupial and sparassodont Metatheria, which seem to have competitively excluded South American placentals from evolving carnivory.

While placental predators were absent, the Metatheria did have to contend with avian (terror bird) and terrestrial crocodylomorph competition. Marsupials were excluded in turn from large herbivore niches in South America by the presence of native placental ungulates (now extinct) and xenarthrans (whose largest forms are also extinct).

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South America and Antarctica remained connected until 35 MYA, as shown by the unique fossils found there. North and South America were disconnected until about three million years ago, when the Isthmus of Panama formed.

This suggests a single dispersion event of just one species, most likely a relative to South America's monitor Del Monte (a microbiota, the only New World australidelphian). This progenitor may have rafted across the widening, but still narrow, gap between Australia and Antarctica.

The journey must not have been easy; South American ungulate and xenarthran remains have been found in Antarctica, but these groups did not reach Australia. In Australia, marsupials radiated into the wide variety seen today, including not only omnivorous and carnivorous forms such as were present in South America, but also into large herbivores.

Modern marsupials appear to have reached the islands of New Guinea and Sulawesi relatively recently via Australia. A 2010 analysis of retroposoninsertion sites in the nuclear DNA of a variety of marsupials has confirmed all living marsupials have South American ancestors.

The branching sequence of marsupial orders indicated by the study puts Didelphimorphia in the most basal position, followed by Paucituberculata, then Microbiotheria, and ending with the radiation of Australian marsupials. This indicates that Australidelphia arose in South America, and reached Australia after Microbiotheria split off.

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In Australia, terrestrial placental mammals disappeared early in the Cenozoic (their most recent known fossils being 55 million-year-old teeth resembling those of condylarths) for reasons that are not clear, allowing marsupials to dominate the Australian ecosystem. Extant native Australian terrestrial placental mammals (such as hopping mice) are relatively recent immigrants, arriving via island hopping from Southeast Asia.

Genetic analysis suggests a divergence date between the marsupials and the placentals at 160 million years ago. The ancestral number of chromosomes has been estimated to be 2n = 14.

Neogene Pliocene 5.3–1.7 Growing diversity in grazing marsupials as a result of grasslands and arid habitats' development. Middle Miocene 16.4–11 MyaIcehouse conditions result in the number of forest and forest-dwelling marsupials to decrease.

Eocene 53–33.7 MYA Paleocene 65–53 High marsupial diversity in South America. Appearance of the oldest Australian marsupial in late Paleocene.

Dinosaurs are wiped off the Earth after an asteroid collision. Mesozoic Cretaceous Late Cretaceous 97–65 Mate northern landmass, Laurasia, is inhabited by marsupials.

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Early Cretaceous 135–97 First appearance of marsupial and placental fossils. Jurassic 203–135 Daybreak apart from the great southern landmass, Indiana.

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The vast majority of mammals on earth today are placental: fetuses are nurtured in their mother's wombs, by means of a placenta, and they're born in a relatively advanced state of development. Marsupials, by contrast, give birth to undeveloped, fetus-like young, which then must spend helpless months suckling milk in their mothers' pouches.

Because the mammals of the Mesozoic Era were so small--and because soft tissues don't preserve well in the fossil record--scientists can't directly examine the reproductive systems of animals from the Jurassic and Cretaceous periods. Unfortunately, the opening of the Central American isthmus during the Pliocene epoch spelled the doom of these marsupials, as they were completely displaced by better-adapted placental mammals from up north.

A few million years ago, Australia was home to such monstrous marsupials as Diprotodon, aka the Giant Wombat, which weighed upwards of two tons; Procoptodon, the Giant Short-Faced Kangaroo, which stood 10 feet tall and weighed twice as much as an NFL linebacker; Thylacoleo, the 200-pound “marsupial lion”; and the Tasmanian Tiger (genus Thylacinus), a fierce, wolf-like predator that only went extinct in the 20th century. Sadly, like most megafauna mammals worldwide, the giant marsupials of Australia, Tasmania, and New Zealand went extinct after the last Ice Age, survived by their much more petite descendants.

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