The horse was an integral element in warfare and conquest, in transportation and travel, and in art and sport. Since ancient times, the horse has been depicted and revered as the noble bearer of heroes, champions, and gods.
In its design, form, and function, the horse is superbly suited as a purely riding animal. Its stature is tall, a feature that lends any rider a towering advantage in hunting, sport, and warfare.
The speed and ability to cover ground has made horses invaluable to people, and remains so today. Their intrinsic nature is to seek a relationship, which offers mutual benefit, ensuring kinship and protection.
Isolated feral populations of horses are often named for their geographic location. Several populations of feral horses exist, including those in the western United States and Canada, often called mustangs.
English Takeover gelding, Subaru in standing pose, marked with major points of the horse. All equips of the family Equine date back approximately 54 million years to the Eocene period in what is now North America. Horses and other equips are odd-toed ungulates of the order Perissodactyla, a relatively ancient group of browsing and grazing animals that first appeared in the fossil record less than 10 million years after the dinosaurs became extinct at the about 65 MYA.
Perissodactyls were the dominant group of large terrestrial browsing animals until the Miocene (about 20 million years ago), when even-toed ungulates, with stomachs better adapted to grass digestion, began to out-compete them. It lived in the Northern Hemisphere (in Asia, Europe, and North America) during the Eocene, between 60 and 45 million years ago.
It should be noted that some scientists remain unconvinced that Hyracotherium had any connection with horses The vestiges of the first and second toes were not present, but the addition of a new “grinding” tooth was significant in that it signaled a transition to improved capacity for browsing on tougher plant material, which would allow grazing not just on leafy plants but also on plains grasses.
The genus Equus, to which all living equips belong, evolved a few million years ago. The Patagonian Flagella, usually considered the smallest horse in the world, compares in size to a German shepherd dog.
Other early evidence for domestication dates from Central Asia to approximately 4000 B.C.E. A second school, the “Single Foundation” school, holds that only one breed of horse underwent domestication, and it diverged in form after domestication through human selective breeding (or in the case of feral horses, through ecological pressures).
Until the middle of the twentieth century, the horse was employed primarily in warfare and in lesser numbers for domestic transportation. Conquerors maintained countless numbers of horses in order to traverse vast tracts of land and territory.
It was because of the swiftness of the horse that the armies of the Huns, Alexander the Great, the Romans, the Ottomans, Napoleon, and so many others were able to vanquish foes and rule over empires. Although still used for practical work in parts of the world, in general, horses today are used mainly for competitive sport and pleasure.
Horse racing is considered the world's most popular spectator sport historically. Humankind raced horse-drawn chariots in early Mesopotamia, in the original Olympic Games in Ancient Greece, and in the great Roman circus.
These contests were often brutal as teams of fierce stallions were galloped by ruthless warriors, the latter who would commit atrocities to win at any cost. Sport horses are equines involved in the so-called English disciplines, such as dressage, show jumping, three-day evening, endurance riding, driving, polo, fox hunting, and their related activities.
However, they are known to defend themselves when cornered and the fight instinct is also triggered when offspring, such as a foal (young horse), is threatened. At the center of the herd is the alpha or dominant mare (female horse).
At the center of the herd is the alpha or dominant mare (female horse). Punishment is delivered in the form of expulsion from the herd on a temporary or even permanent basis.
The dominant stallion (male horse) lives on the periphery of the herd, and it is his role to stand as the herd sire to produce offspring, as well as to repel challenges for dominance from other stallions who might become a successor. The dominant stallion lives in the most dangerous and tenuous position in the equine world.
Living on the periphery, he is exposed to predators and other bachelors who will fight him for the role of dominant stallion. In stark contrast to the mythology of the stallion and his (ownership implied) harem, he has no value to the herd itself beyond reproduction.
The male dominance hierarchy ensures an immediate replacement by a strong and healthy successor at any time. When colts (male foals) become mature, they are cast out by the dominant stallion and are no longer welcome in the herd.
For what may be years, they form small bachelor herds and roam until the time when they may battle for the privilege of becoming the next dominant stallion. Contention for dominance can be risky since one well-placed kick to a leg could cripple another horse to such an extent that it would be defenseless, exposed, and possibly unable to get to water.
Survival dictates that the herd members ultimately cooperate and stick together. The alpha or dominant mare exercises control over herd members to moderate aggressive behavior.
Horses resist being separated from the herd, because to be alone is to be exposed to predators on all sides. In pastures, it is the rule that horses tend to gravitate around the most mature and confident members.
A horse that is afraid more than necessary will expend energy needlessly and may not be able to escape when the threat is real. Once horses have been deterred from kicking and biting humans to secure dominance over them, a cooperative relationship can be maintained.
Rehabilitation of a horse that has been forced to aggressively defend itself against humans is very difficult and not without real risk. Horses and humans have lived and worked together for thousands of years; an extensive specialized vocabulary has arisen to describe virtually everything to do with equines.
Diagram showing the location of the withers. The English-speaking world measures the height of horses in hands. The walk is a “four-beat” lateral gait in which a horse must have three feet on the ground and only one foot in the air at any time.
The trot or jog (“trot” for English riding, “jog” for Western riding) is a “two beat” diagonal gait in which a foreleg and opposite hind leg (often called “diagonals”) touch the ground at the same time. It is the fastest of all gaits; a fit, racing thoroughbred can course at a gallop over forty miles an hour.
Bay (left) and chestnut (sometimes called “sorrel”) are two of the most common coat colors, seen in almost all breeds. Horses exhibit a diverse array of coat colors and distinctive markings, and a specialized vocabulary has evolved to describe them.
Another famous modern breed of hot blood is the American Quarter Horse. The most popular breed in the United States, it is commonly believed to be the world's fastest horse, some having been clocked at 55 mph at the finish line in racing events.
True hot bloods usually offer greater riding rewards than do other horses. Their sensitivity and intelligence enable quick learning and greater communication and cooperation with their riders.
Draft horses originate mainly from Northern Europe, and especially from Great Britain. The best of their carriage or cavalry horses were bred to Arabian, Anglo-Arabian, and thoroughbred sires.
Currently, the warm blood name has become the term to specifically refer to the sport horse breed registries that began in Europe. These registries, or societies, such as the Hanoverian, Oldenburg, Trakkhener, and Holstein er have dominated the Olympics and World Equestrian Games in Dressage (competitive horse training) and Show Jumping since the 1980s.
Tack refers to the equipment worn by the horse, normally when being ridden for exercise. Steeple chasing involves racing on a track where the horses also jump over obstacles.
This sport, in which the Arabian horse dominates at the top level, has become very popular in the United States and in Europe. Endurance races take place over a given, measured distance and the horses have an even start.
Ride and Tie involves three equal partners: two humans and one horse. Competitive dressage has the goal of showing the horse carrying out, on request, the natural movements that it performs while running loose.
One dressage master has defined it as “returning the freedom of the horse while carrying the rider.” At the Grand Prix horse racing level fences may reach a height of as much as 6 feet.
Evening, combined training, horse trials, “the military,” or “the complete test.” Saddle seat (also known as Park or English Pleasure riding) is a uniquely American discipline developed to show to the best advantage the extravagantly animated movement of high-stepping gained breeds such as the American Saddle bred and the Tennessee Walker.
Riders also commonly show Arabians and Morgans saddle seat in the United States. This refers to those classes where the position of the rider is judged rather than the form or movement of the horse.
Western riding evolved stylistically from traditions brought to the Americas by the Spanish, and its skills stem from the working needs of the cowboy in the American West. A main differentiating factor comes from the need of the cowboy to rope cattle with a lariat (or lasso).
Once the cowboy has twirled the lariat and thrown its loop over a cow's head, he must snub the rope to the horn of his saddle. Considered by some the “dressage” of the Western riding world, reining requires horse and rider to perform a precise pattern consisting of canter circles, rapid “spins” (a particularly athletic turn on the haunches), and the sliding stop (executed from a full gallop).
More than any other, this event highlights the “cow sense” prized in stock breeds such as the quarter horse. A popular timed event in which a team of 3 riders must select 3 to 5 marked steers out of a herd and drive them into a small pen.
The catch: the riders cannot close the gate to the pen till they have corralled all the cattle inside. Illustrated Atlas of Clinical Equine Anatomy and Common Disorders of the Horse.
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Contrary to conventional wisdom, those of us who work with horses can’t rely on the simple concepts of “dominance” and “leadership” to explain herd dynamics. Instead, an egalitarian social organization appears to be the rule, with any number of horses making decisions and coordinating group movement, 1,2 and with relatively little competition or aggression.
A recent study by Lea Board, Sci, MSCI, PhD, and colleagues, 4 How stallions influence the dynamic of collective movements in two groups of domestic horses, from departure to arrival,” explored what, if any, influence the stallion has on collective movement of the herd. They found that, although the stallion rarely initiates group movement, he does appear to play a unique role in from the rear position by keeping stragglers in line and maintaining vigilance.
To study collective movement, Board and her colleagues observed two semi-free-ranging herds of domestic horses in eastern France. In this study, leadership was defined as the ability to initiate, recruit, synchronize, and coordinate the movement of others.
For more than one hundred group movement events, the researchers recorded the identity of the horse who initiated group movement, and the order, timing, and position of the other horses as they joined as followers. The researchers looked for patterns that supporting either consistent leadership (the same horse initiating group movement and traveling in front) or distributed leadership (several individuals initiating movement and taking the front position).
From the rear position, the stallion has a superior vantage point to scan for threats, monitor the herd, and keep the group together. Researchers have observed these behavioral differences between stallions and mares in other contexts, as well.
Indeed, after the stallion’s removal, following took five times longer and mares were more spatially dispersed. Removing the stallion didn’t alter other herd dynamics during group movement; for example, the same mares were most likely to initiate, and following patterns were not significantly affected.
In polygamous societies, the prevailing belief is that the male holds high status and controls group activities. Although the stallion will defend his harem from competitors, a growing body of scientific evidence suggests that, within the herd, the prevailing social structure is egalitarian, in which the stallion isn’t dominant and no mare is boss.
(2017) How stallions influence the dynamic of collective movements in two groups of domestic horses, from departure to arrival. (2012) The behavior of stallions in a semi feral herd in Iceland: time budgets, home ranges, and interactions.
Some horses that live in a feral state but may be occasionally handled or managed by humans, particularly if privately owned, are referred to as semi-feral “. Feral horses live in groups called a herd, band, harem or mob.
Horse “herds” in the wild are best described as groups of several small bands who share the same territory. However, in a closed ecosystem (such as the isolated refuges in which most feral horses live today), to maintain genetic diversity, the minimum size for a sustainable free-roaming horse or burro population is 150–200 animals.
When Europeans reintroduced the horse to the Americas, beginning with the arrival of the Conquistadors in the 15th century, some horses escaped and formed feral herds known today as Mustangs. The Australian name equivalent to the 'Mustang' is the Crumby, feral descendants of horses brought to Australia by English settlers.
In Portugal, there are two populations of free-ranging feral horses, known as Sorrier in the southern plains and Warrant in the northern mountain chains. Others may have been deliberately brought to various islands by settlers and either left to reproduce freely or abandoned when assorted human settlements failed.
More than 400 feral horses live in the foothills of Cancer mountain, between Lino and Cures, Bosnia and Herzegovina, in an area of approximately 145 square kilometers (56 sq mi). These animals, which descend from horses set free by their owners in the 1950s, enjoy a protected status since 2010.
A modern feral horse population (Shanghai fur) is found in the Dibru-Saikhowa National Park and Biosphere reserve of Assam, in north-east India, and is a herd of approximately 79 feral horses descended from animals that escaped army camps during World War II. In North America, feral horses are the offspring of horses that were domesticated in Europe, although many ancient, prehistoric subspecies now extinct evolved in North America.
Africa North America see also Free-roaming horse management in North America or Alberta Willie, in the foothills of the Eastern Slopes of the Rocky Mountains of Alberta, Canada Banker horse on the Outer Banks of North Carolina, United States Chincoteague Pony on Assateague Island off the coasts of Virginia and Maryland, United States Cumberland Island horse on Cumberland Island off the coast of southern Georgia, United States Exegesis Virus Wild Horse (Cayuse) in the Remain Valley, British Columbia, Canada Mustang in the western United States, legally protected by the Wild and Free-Roaming Horses and Burros Act of 1971 Dakota horse in North Dakota, United States Sable Island horse on Sable Island, Nova Scotia, Canada South AmericaAsiaEuropeOceania In the United Kingdom, herds of free-roaming ponies live in apparently wild conditions in various areas, notably Dartmoor, Ex moor, Cambria (Fell Pony) and the New Forest.
Similar horse and pony populations exist elsewhere on the European continent. These animals, however, are not truly feral, as all of them are privately owned, and roam out on the moors and forests under common grazing rights belonging to their owners.
A proportion of them are halter-broken, and a smaller proportion broken to ride but simply turned out for a while for any of a number of reasons (e.g., a break in training to allow them to grow on, a break from working to allow them to breed under natural conditions, or retirement). Cam argue horse, in marshes of the Rhone delta, southern France Dartmoor pony, England; predominantly domesticated, also lives in semi-feral herds Ex moor pony, England; predominantly domesticated, also lives in semi-feral herds Fell pony, predominantly domesticated, also lives in semi-feral herds in northern England, particularly Cambria.
Gotlandsruss, lives in a semi-feral herd in Lost Moor on the Swedish Island of Got land. New Forest pony, predominantly domesticated, also lives in semi-feral herds in the area of Hampshire, England Bottom, predominantly domesticated, also lives in semi-feral herds in the western Pyrenees.
Feral populations are usually controversial, with livestock producers often at odds with horse aficionados and other animal welfare advocates. Where feral horses had wild ancestors indigenous to a region, a controlled population may have minimal environmental impact, particularly when their primary territory is one where they do not compete with domesticated livestock to any significant degree.
However, in areas where they are an introduced species, such as Australia, or if the population is allowed to exceed available range, there can be significant impacts on soil, vegetation (including overgrazing), and animals that are native species. If a feral population lives close to civilization, their behavior can lead them to damage human-built livestock fencing and related structures.
In some cases, where feral horses compete with domestic livestock, particularly on public lands where multiple uses are permitted, such as in the Western United States, there is considerable controversy over which species is most responsible for degradation of rang eland, with commercial interests often advocating for the removal of the feral horse population to allow more grazing for cattle or sheep, and advocates for feral horses recommending reduction in the numbers of domestic livestock allowed to graze on public lands. Certain populations have considerable historic or sentimental value, such as the Chincoteague pony that lives on Assateague Island, a national seashore with a delicate coastal ecosystem, or the Miami pony of Japan that lives on a small refuge within the municipal boundaries of Fukushima.
Most sustained feral populations are managed by various forms of culling, which, depending on the nation and other local conditions, may include capturing excess animals for adoption or sale. In some nations, management may include the often-controversial practice of selling captured animals for slaughter or simply shooting them.
Introduced Mammals of the World: Their History, Distribution and Influence (Cabin Publishing) by John L. Long (ISBN 9780851997483) ^ “Wild horse sanctuary for Sri Lanka's Delft Island”. ^ “Daily Post: Latest North Wales news, sport, what's on and business”.
Many of our crew and passengers find matriarchies fascinating, likely due to the fact that males are often expected to be the dominant sex in the animal world. Simply put, a matriarchy is a form of social organization in which the mother or oldest female heads the family.
In this example of a matriarchal society, the queen does not leave the hive and is the only bee to mate within the colony. Unlike Honey Bees, all the sexually mature females in a herd aim to breed.
Once a calf is born, it is raised and protected by all the females in the herd (this is similar to Killer Whales, but we’ll talk more about that later!) Yet another fascinating example of a matriarchal society, which is again completely unique in their social organization, is the Bonobo Ape.
This is unique in the sense that an individual’s ability to exert power over an aggressive male (who is generally bigger) entirely depends on her success in bonding with other females in the clan. Other matriarchal societies in the animal kingdom include, Markets, Lions and Killer Whales.
The Southern Resident Killer Whales (Show) that inhabit the waters of the Pacific Northwest have particularly complex and stable social structures. Some researchers guessed that J16 (the much older female) was simply babysitting while mother J36 was recovering from the birth.
However, this was a clear example of how the females in Show pods share the responsibility of raising young. Removal of one or more of these highly intelligent and extremely social animals, especially a matriarch, may have a devastating effect on the survival of the family group.
After a quick phone consultation with a colleague who had an interest in such cases the veterinarian returned with a diagnosis: The gelding was in simple terms sleep-deprived. For nearly a week the poor horse had not been able to settle into that deep restorative sleep that comes only when he lies down.
Joe Bert one, DVD, MS, Davis, the veterinarian consulted about the gelding at the state fair, has documented nearly 127 similar cases during his 24-year career. These horses he says were unable to get enough paradoxical and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, the deepest forms of slumber.
Bert one recently presented papers on this condition at several national veterinary meetings. First comes the deep restfulness phase during which a horse is relaxed but still easily roused.
Finally, a horse may enter paradoxical sleep so named because the brain is just as active during this phase of slumber as it is during wakefulness. REM sleep, characterized by rapid movement of the eyes under closed eyelids, occurs during this period.
In the paradoxical phase of sleep, rapid eye movements, loss of reflexes and muscle function, and increased brain activity occur. “Based on the cases I've collected and depending on a number of factors the horses that show these clinical signs can usually go about seven to 14 days without paradoxical sleep but after that we begin to see 'sleep attacks,'” he continues.
That was the problem for a 23-year-old gelding who suddenly began to experience episodes of near collapse several times a day. Fearing the horse was entering his final decline his owners asked Bert one for help.
But the physical exam revealed no significant health problems, other than osteoarthritis in both front legs. Sure enough after a few days the old horse was seen lying on the ground sleeping and his collapsing episodes ended.
The physical examination turned up only one significant finding: two small scars and hair loss over his front fetlocks. During his stay the staff noticed that the horse would never lie down but occasionally seemed to partially collapse.
The horse's lab work and physical findings were normal so Bert one decided to investigate further with chest X-rays. During surgery to remove the stones the surgeon also discovered that the large colon was stuck to the diaphragm.
Almost immediately after the horse returned to his stall after surgery he was flat on his side asleep. Mental Causes: Too Much Stimulation Often it's not physical pain but emotional discomfort or stress that keeps a horse from getting adequate rest.
A 10-year-old Quarter Horse gelding had been seen several times a day in near collapse when Bert one was called in. The owners were afraid the horse had equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM) but he had no other neurological signs so Bert one knew that this was unlikely.
The gelding was known to roll frequently which ruled out the possibility that a physical problem prevented him from lying down. Instead, Bert one focused on finding a behavioral basis for the gelding's strange problem.
The horse, it turns out, had been purchased and shipped to his new home about two weeks before the first collapsing episodes began. At his previous home he had shared a large pasture with about 150 horses including several mares.
Many horses need a strong female presence in the herd in order to feel comfortable enough to sleep explains Bert one. Mares are responsible for the day-to-day well-being of the herd and act as sentinels watching over other horses as they rest,” he says.
In a similar case Bert one was called to consult on a 10-year-old Paint gelding who frequently came near collapse when he was placed in cross ties. When a younger gelding was added to the group the Paint would challenge and chase the new horse almost constantly.
Even under saddle the Paint's attitude changed--he became disagreeable and unpredictable, tossing his head and using evasive behaviors. The collapsing episodes and behavior problems led the owner to sell the Paint shortly after her first consultation with Bert one.
She also mentioned that the Paint was now part of a herd where a mare was at the top of the pecking order, but he had adapted readily and stuck close to her all day. This horse, Bert one theorizes, was exhausting himself trying to enforce the pecking order of his old herd.
Unfortunately and typically these horses have been diagnosed with all sorts of things, usually EPM or Hype, and treated to no avail.” Bert one has developed a simple diagnostic protocol involving three basic questions to help identify otherwise healthy horses who are suffering from sleep deprivation.
“One case of sleep loss was the result of a nearby highway under 24-hour repair for the previous seven days,” says Bert one. In that case moving the horse to a paddock farther away from the construction solved the problem.
Matriarchy is a term used for a society where the political government and moral authority resides in the hands of women, especially the senior members. The evolution of this concept has been fashioned by inputs from various systems of thoughts ranging from religion and mythology to sociology, anthropology and more recently feminism.
Eventually however this hypothesis came to be discredited in the later twentieth century with anthropologists and researchers pointing out that there is no definite proof that matriarchy existed as a form of ‘proto-society’. Because of the lack of concrete information on the patterns of the earliest societies all over the world, contemporary theorists point out the difficulty of arriving at a watertight definition of matriarchy.
The Nair or Nagar community of Kerala has been put forward as an example of social group which was strongly matrilineal till the nineteenth century. Historically, Nears lived in large family units called Theravada that housed descendants of one common ancestress and could consist of 80 or more members.
Despite the largely matrilineal traits, the caravan or the oldest male member in the Theravada, had the decision-making authority including the power to manage common property. One of the best known researchers into the matrilineal underpinnings of the erstwhile Nair community was E. Kathleen Golf who is famous for her works like The Traditional Kinship System of the Layers of Malabar, Harvard University, 1954.
In the 16th century or earlier After the Iroquoian-speaking peoples coalesced as distinct tribes, based mostly in present-day central and upstate New York. Among the researchers who did memorable work studying the matriarchal tendencies of the Iroquois is Lewis Henry Morgan, an American anthropologist, who delivered a lecture, The Laws of Descent of the Iroquois1856 and whose seminal work remains Systems of Consanguinity and Affinity written in 1871.
In his book Argonauts Of The Western Pacific, Malinowski reveals a matrilineal construction of the islanders' societies and the high position enjoyed by the females of the social group. A matrilineal system indicates that the succession of rank and membership in all the social groups descended in the maternal line.
Interestingly though, despite a matrilineal basis, the Trobriand followed a patriarchal system where the wife would go and stay with the family of her husband. Still however Gyros are one of the few remaining matrilineal societies in the world, even though modern life and Christianity have brought about vast changes in their culture.
The Nazi are thought to have come originally from Tibet and now form one of the 56 ethnic groups officially recognized by the People's Republic of China. In the matrilineal stage, women acted as heads of the family and thus gave inheritance to the children either through the mother, or to her nephews through her brothers.
Most of the research work into the matrilineal underpinnings of Nazi society was done by Joseph Francis Charles Rock, an Austrian-American explorer, geographer, linguist and botanist. Today experts in anthropology and sociology believe that is highly unlikely matriarchy ever existed in a pure, unambiguous form.
Chillingly, that same logic was used by police and pseudo-experts in “occult crime” to describe the Robin Hood Hills murders in West Memphis, Arkansas (which occurred on May 5th 1993) as “satanic cult killings” (though no evidence has ever suggested there was any truth to this). Non-violent incidents in Scotland in April of this year left a number of horses shorn of their manes, forelocks and tails.
Naturally, the sensationalist Daily Mail does not miss an opportunity to create headlines using the word “satanic” and has followed these stories closely. Apparently Britain is not alone; an article from the FORTRAN Times describes similar horse mutilations happening across Sweden more than two decades ago.
And why is there a rumor of satanism permeating the countryside, as people are unable to account for the motivations behind these attacks? It was in a school textbook and a standard representation of the first woman who led an armed struggle against Spanish colonizers in the Philippines in 1763.
I can still call to mind how she looked on the page: dark hair loose, face fierce, her magnificent horse rearing up. She had gritted unlike the mythical data (forest nymph) Maria Mailing, who vanished after putting a curse on two men who had killed her chosen suitor.
She sacrificed in a different sense to Maria Clara, the tragic maiden in Nola Me Tangier, the 1887 Filipino novel that shed light on colonial abuses. Filipinos grow up in matriarchal networks, where women make decisions about most things including money.
In the traditional Filipino Catholic wedding ceremony, the groom gives the bride 13 coins known as arras, which symbolize his promise to provide for her and their family. According to a community worker friend on the southern island of Mindanao, it is not unusual for husbands to happily 'surrender' their ATM cards or cash wage to their wives.
I've seen this dynamic in public schools in the provinces as well, where students are expected to help clean the rooms and grounds. One of them, a guy working in tech in Australia was unsettled by how common male managers are, after having being used to women in senior positions.
Even in school-based military reserve training (which was dropped from high school and made optional at university, is now being revived as mandatory, to some criticism), girls were as likely to become officers as boys. Corazón Aquino not only helped unseat the man who had ruled for more than two decades, she outlasted several coup-attempts while president, ensured a democratic succession of power, then retired from politics.
The prevailing sense among Filipino female friends was that we were allowed to pursue whatever we wanted, and that we achieved much on merit. This is we expectation we carry when we move overseas, which means that we tend to struggle with customs and structures that hold women back.
The prevailing sense among Filipino female friends was that we were allowed to pursue whatever we wanted, and that we achieved much on merit. One of them, a guy working in tech in Australia was unsettled by how common male managers are, after having being used to women in senior positions.
The crude machismo of President Rodrigo Duterte is not only a matter of style; under his government, women who dissent have been detained, removed from office, and charged with tax offenses. The latest Global Gender Gap report published by the World Economic Forum (We), the Philippines ranks 8 overall among 149 countries.
What it means is that Australians of Filipino background have a lot to contribute to conversation and decisions about gender equality.