Horse Scientific classification Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Class: Mammalian Order: Perissodactyla Family: Equine Genus: Equus Species: Subspecies: Trinomial name Equus ferns Catullus Synonyms The horse (Equus ferns Catullus) is one of two extant subspecies of Equus ferns. Humans began domesticating horses around 4000 BC, and their domestication is believed to have been widespread by 3000 BC.
Horses in the subspecies Catullus are domesticated, although some domesticated populations live in the wild as feral horses. There is an extensive, specialized vocabulary used to describe equine-related concepts, covering everything from anatomy to life stages, size, colors, markings, breeds, locomotion, and behavior.
Horses are adapted to run, allowing them to quickly escape predators, possessing an excellent sense of balance and a strong fight-or-flight response. Female horses, called mares, carry their young for approximately 11 months, and a young horse, called a foal, can stand and run shortly following birth.
Most domesticated horses begin training under a saddle or in a harness between the ages of two and four. They reach full adult development by age five, and have an average lifespan of between 25 and 30 years.
Horse breeds are loosely divided into three categories based on general temperament: spirited “hot bloods” with speed and endurance; “cold bloods”, such as draft horses and some ponies, suitable for slow, heavy work; and warm bloods “, developed from crosses between hot bloods and cold bloods, often focusing on creating breeds for specific riding purposes, particularly in Europe. There are more than 300 breeds of horse in the world today, developed for many uses.
Horses and humans interact in a wide variety of sport competitions and non-competitive recreational pursuits, as well as in working activities such as police work, agriculture, entertainment, and therapy. Horses were historically used in warfare, from which a wide variety of riding and driving techniques developed, using many styles of equipment and methods of control.
Many products are derived from horses, including meat, milk, hide, hair, bone, and pharmaceuticals extracted from the urine of pregnant mares. Humans provide domesticated horses with food, water, and shelter, as well as attention from specialists such as veterinarians and farriers.
Specific terms and specialized language are used to describe equine anatomy, different life stages, and colors and breeds. Depending on breed, management and environment, the modern domestic horse has a life expectancy of 25 to 30 years.
Uncommonly, a few animals live into their 40s and, occasionally, beyond. The oldest verifiable record was Old Billy “, a 19th-century horse that lived to the age of 62.
In modern times, Sugar Puff, who had been listed in Guinness World Records as the world's oldest living pony, died in 2007 at age 56. Regardless of a horse or pony's actual birthdate, for most competition purposes a year is added to its age each January 1 of each year in the Northern Hemisphere and each August 1 in the Southern Hemisphere.
Most domesticated foals are weaned at five to seven months of age, although foals can be weaned at four months with no adverse physical effects. Colt : A male horse under the age of four.
A common terminology error is to call any young horse a “colt”, when the term actually only refers to young male horses. Filly : A female horse under the age of four.
Gelding : A castrated male horse of any age. In horse racing, these definitions may differ: For example, in the British Isles, Thoroughbred horse racing defines colts and fillies as less than five years old.
However, Australian Thoroughbred racing defines colts and fillies as less than four years old. The height of horses is measured at the highest point of the withers, where the neck meets the back.
This point is used because it is a stable point of the anatomy, unlike the head or neck, which move up and down in relation to the body of the horse. In English-speaking countries, the height of horses is often stated in units of hands and inches: one hand is equal to 4 inches (101.6 mm).
The height is expressed as the number of full hands, followed by a point, then the number of additional inches, and ending with the abbreviation “h” or “HH” (for “hands high”). Larger riding horses usually start at about 15.2 hands (62 inches, 157 cm) and often are as tall as 17 hands (68 inches, 173 cm), weighing from 500 to 600 kilograms (1,100 to 1,320 lb).
Heavy or draft horses are usually at least 16 hands (64 inches, 163 cm) high and can be as tall as 18 hands (72 inches, 183 cm) high. He stood 21.2 1 4 hands (86.25 inches, 219 cm) high and his peak weight was estimated at 1,524 kilograms (3,360 lb).
The current record holder for the world's smallest horse is Tumbling, a fully mature miniature horse affected by dwarfism. She is 17 in (43 cm) tall and weighs 57 lb (26 kg).
The distinction between a horse and pony is commonly drawn on the basis of height, especially for competition purposes. However, height alone is not dispositive; the difference between horses and ponies may also include aspects of phenotype, including conformation and temperament.
The traditional standard for height of a horse or a pony at maturity is 14.2 hands (58 inches, 147 cm). In Australia, ponies are considered to be those under 14 hands (56 inches, 142 cm).
For competition in the Western division of the United States Equestrian Federation, the cutoff is 14.1 hands (57 inches, 145 cm). The International Federation for Equestrian Sports, the world governing body for horse sport, uses metric measurements and defines a pony as being any horse measuring less than 148 centimeters (58.27 in) at the withers without shoes, which is just over 14.2 h, and 149 centimeters (58.66 in), or just over 14.2 1 2 h, with shoes.
Height is not the sole criterion for distinguishing horses from ponies. Breed registries for horses that typically produce individuals both under and over 14.2 h consider all animals of that breed to be horses regardless of their height.
Conversely, some pony breeds may have features in common with horses, and individual animals may occasionally mature at over 14.2 h, but are still considered to be ponies. Ponies often exhibit thicker manes, tails, and overall coat.
They also have proportionally shorter legs, wider barrels, heavier bone, shorter and thicker necks, and short heads with broad foreheads. They may have calmer temperaments than horses and also a high level of intelligence that may or may not be used to cooperate with human handlers.
Conversely, breeds such as the Flagella and other miniature horses, which can be no taller than 30 inches (76 cm), are classified by their registries as very small horses, not ponies. Bay (left) and chestnut (sometimes called “sorrel”) are two of the most common coat colors, seen in almost all breeds.
Horses exhibit a diverse array of coat colors and distinctive markings, described by a specialized vocabulary. Often, a horse is classified first by its coat color, before breed or sex.
Horses of the same color may be distinguished from one another by white markings, which, along with various spotting patterns, are inherited separately from coat color. Many genes that create horse coat colors and patterns have been identified.
Current genetic tests can identify at least 13 different alleles influencing coat color, and research continues to discover new genes linked to specific traits. The basic coat colors of chestnut and black are determined by the gene controlled by the Melanocortin 1 receptor, also known as the “extension gene” or “red factor,” as its recessive form is “red” (chestnut) and its dominant form is black.
Additional genes control suppression of black color to point coloration that results in a bay, spotting patterns such as pinto or leopard, dilution genes such as palomino or dun, as well as graying, and all the other factors that create the many possible coat colors found in horses. Grays are born a darker shade, get lighter as they age, but usually keep black skin underneath their white hair coat (except pink skin under white markings).
The only horses properly called white are born with a predominantly white hair coat and pink skin, a fairly rare occurrence. Different and unrelated genetic factors can produce white coat colors in horses, including several alleles of dominant white and the sabino-1 gene.
However, there are no albino horses, defined as having both pink skin and red eyes. Gestation lasts approximately 340 days, with an average range 320–370 days, and usually results in one foal ; twins are rare.
Horses are a precocity species, and foals are capable of standing and running within a short time following birth. The estrous cycle of a mare occurs roughly every 19–22 days and occurs from early spring into autumn.
Foals are generally weaned from their mothers between four and six months of age. Horses, particularly colts, sometimes are physically capable of reproduction at about 18 months, but domesticated horses are rarely allowed to breed before the age of three, especially females.
Horses four years old are considered mature, although the skeleton normally continues to develop until the age of six; maturation also depends on the horse's size, breed, sex, and quality of care. These plates convert after the other parts of the bones, and are crucial to development.
Depending on maturity, breed, and work expected, horses are usually put under saddle and trained to be ridden between the ages of two and four. Although Thoroughbred race horses are put on the track as young as the age of two in some countries, horses specifically bred for sports such as dressage are generally not put under saddle until they are three or four years old, because their bones and muscles are not solidly developed.
For endurance riding competition, horses are not deemed mature enough to compete until they are a full 60 calendar months (five years) old. Skeletal system The skeletal system of a modern horseshoe horse skeleton averages 205 bones.
Their leg bones are proportioned differently from those of a human. For example, the body part that is called a horse's “knee” is actually made up of the carpal bones that correspond to the human wrist.
Similarly, the hock contains bones equivalent to those in the human ankle and heel. The lower leg bones of a horse correspond to the bones of the human hand or foot, and the fetlock (incorrectly called the “ankle”) is actually the proximal sesamoid bones between the cannon bones (a single equivalent to the human metacarpal or metatarsal bones) and the proximal phalanges, located where one finds the “knuckles” of a human.
A horse also has no muscles in its legs below the knees and hocks, only skin, hair, bone, tendons, ligaments, cartilage, and the assorted specialized tissues that make up the hoof. Hooves The critical importance of the feet and legs is summed up by the traditional adage, “no foot, no horse”.
The horse hoof begins with the distal phalanges, the equivalent of the human fingertip or tip of the toe, surrounded by cartilage and other specialized, blood-rich soft tissues such as the laminae. The exterior hoof wall and horn of the sole is made of keratin, the same material as a human fingernail.
The end result is that a horse, weighing on average 500 kilograms (1,100 lb), travels on the same bones as would a human on tiptoe. For the protection of the hoof under certain conditions, some horses have horseshoes placed on their feet by a professional farrier.
The hoof continually grows, and in most domesticated horses needs to be trimmed (and horseshoes reset, if used) every five to eight weeks, though the hooves of horses in the wild wear down and regrow at a rate suitable for their terrain. Teeth Horses are adapted to grazing.
In an adult horse, there are 12 incisors at the front of the mouth, adapted to biting off the grass or other vegetation. There are 24 teeth adapted for chewing, the premolars and molars, at the back of the mouth.
Stallions and geldings have four additional teeth just behind the incisors, a type of canine teeth called “tushes”. Some horses, both male and female, will also develop one to four very small vestigial teeth in front of the molars, known as “wolf” teeth, which are generally removed because they can interfere with the bit.
There is an empty interdental space between the incisors and the molars where the bit rests directly on the gums, or “bars” of the horse's mouth when the horse is bridled. An estimate of a horse's age can be made from looking at its teeth.
The teeth continue to erupt throughout life and are worn down by grazing. Therefore, the incisors show changes as the horse ages; they develop a distinct wear pattern, changes in tooth shape, and changes in the angle at which the chewing surfaces meet.
This allows a very rough estimate of a horse's age, although diet and veterinary care can also affect the rate of tooth wear. Digestion Horses are herbivores with a digestive system adapted to a forage diet of grasses and other plant material, consumed steadily throughout the day.
Therefore, compared to humans, they have a relatively small stomach but very long intestines to facilitate a steady flow of nutrients. Horses are not ruminants, they have only one stomach, like humans, but unlike humans, they can utilize cellulose, a major component of grass.
Cellulose fermentation by symbiotic bacteria occurs in the cecum, or “water gut”, which food goes through before reaching the large intestine. Horses cannot vomit, so digestion problems can quickly cause colic, a leading cause of death.
Senses The horses senses are based on their status as prey animals, where they must be aware of their surroundings at all times. Their sense of smell, while much better than that of humans, is not quite as good as that of a dog.
It is believed to play a key role in the social interactions of horses as well as detecting other key scents in the environment. The first system is in the nostrils and nasal cavity, which analyze a wide range of odors.
These have a separate nerve pathway to the brain and appear to primarily analyze pheromones. A horse's hearing is good, and the Penna of each ear can rotate up to 180°, giving the potential for 360° hearing without having to move the head.
Noise impacts the behavior of horses and certain kinds of noise may contribute to stress: A 2013 study in the UK indicated that stabled horses were calmest in a quiet setting, or if listening to country or classical music, but displayed signs of nervousness when listening to jazz or rock music. This study also recommended keeping music under a volume of 21 decibels.
The most sensitive areas are around the eyes, ears, and nose. Horses are able to sense contact as subtle as an insect landing anywhere on the body.
Horses have an advanced sense of taste, which allows them to sort through fodder and choose what they would most like to eat, and their prehensile lips can easily sort even small grains. Horses generally will not eat poisonous plants, however, there are exceptions; horses will occasionally eat toxic amounts of poisonous plants even when there is adequate healthy food.
All horses move naturally with four basic gaits : the four-beat walk, which averages 6.4 kilometers per hour (4.0 mph); the two-beat trot or jog at 13 to 19 kilometers per hour (8.1 to 11.8 mph) (faster for harness racing horses); the canter or lope, a three-beat gait that is 19 to 24 kilometers per hour (12 to 15 mph); and the gallop. The gallop averages 40 to 48 kilometers per hour (25 to 30 mph), but the world record for a horse galloping over a short, sprint distance is 70.76 kilometers per hour (43.97 mph).
Besides these basic gaits, some horses perform a two-beat pace, instead of the trot. There also are several four-beat ambling gaits that are approximately the speed of a trot or pace, though smoother to ride.
These include the lateral rack, running walk, and told as well as the diagonal fox trot. Horses are prey animals with a strong fight-or-flight response.
Their first reaction to a threat is to startle and usually flee, although they will stand their ground and defend themselves when flight is impossible or if their young are threatened. They also tend to be curious; when startled, they will often hesitate an instant to ascertain the cause of their fright, and may not always flee from something that they perceive as non-threatening.
Most light horse riding breeds were developed for speed, agility, alertness and endurance; natural qualities that extend from their wild ancestors. Horses are herd animals, with a clear hierarchy of rank, led by a dominant individual, usually a mare.
They communicate in various ways, including vocalizations such as nickering or whinnying, mutual grooming, and body language. However, when confined with insufficient companionship, exercise, or stimulation, individuals may develop stable vices, an assortment of bad habits, mostly stereotypes of psychological origin, that include wood chewing, wall kicking, “weaving” (rocking back and forth), and other problems.
Intelligence and learning Domesticated horses may face greater mental challenges than wild horses, because they live in artificial environments that prevent instinctive behavior whilst also learning tasks that are not natural. Horses are animals of habit that respond well to regimentation, and respond best when the same routines and techniques are used consistently.
One trainer believes that “intelligent” horses are reflections of intelligent trainers who effectively use response conditioning techniques and positive reinforcement to train in the style that best fits with an individual animal's natural inclinations. Temperament Horses are mammals, and as such are warm-blooded, or endothermic creatures, as opposed to cold-blooded, or poikilothermic animals.
However, these words have developed a separate meaning in the context of equine terminology, used to describe temperament, not body temperature. For example, the “hot-bloods”, such as many race horses, exhibit more sensitivity and energy, while the “cold-bloods”, such as most draft breeds, are quieter and calmer.
Illustration of assorted breeds; slim, light hot bloods, medium-sized warm bloods and draft and pony-type cold blood breeds”Hot blooded” breeds include oriental horses such as the Akhal-Teke, Arabian horse, Barb and now-extinct Turbofan horse, as well as the Thoroughbred, a breed developed in England from the older oriental breeds. Hot bloods tend to be spirited, bold, and learn quickly.
Muscular, heavy draft horses are known as “cold bloods”, as they are bred not only for strength, but also to have the calm, patient temperament needed to pull a plow or a heavy carriage full of people. Well-known draft breeds include the Belgian and the Clydesdale.
Some, like the Percheron, are lighter and livelier, developed to pull carriages or to plow large fields in drier climates. Others, such as the Shire, are slower and more powerful, bred to plow fields with heavy, clay-based soils.
The cold-blooded group also includes some pony breeds. “ Warm blood breeds, such as the Takeover or Hanoverian, developed when European carriage and war horses were crossed with Arabians or Thoroughbreds, producing a riding horse with more refinement than a draft horse, but greater size and milder temperament than a lighter breed.
Certain pony breeds with warm blood characteristics have been developed for smaller riders. Sleep patterns When horses lie down to sleep, others in the herd remain standing, awake or in a light doze, keeping watch.
Horses are able to sleep both standing up and lying down. In an adaptation from life in the wild, horses are able to enter light sleep by using a stay apparatus in their legs, allowing them to doze without collapsing.
Horses sleep better when in groups because some animals will sleep while others stand guard to watch for predators. A horse kept alone will not sleep well because its instincts are to keep a constant eye out for danger.
Unlike humans, horses do not sleep in a solid, unbroken period of time, but take many short periods of rest. Horses spend four to fifteen hours a day in standing rest, and from a few minutes to several hours lying down.
Total sleep time in a 24-hour period may range from several minutes to a couple of hours, mostly in short intervals of about 15 minutes each. The average sleep time of a domestic horse is said to be 2.9 hours per day.
Horses must lie down to reach REM sleep. They only have to lie down for an hour or two every few days to meet their minimum REM sleep requirements.
However, if a horse is never allowed to lie down, after several days it will become sleep-deprived, and in rare cases may suddenly collapse as it involuntarily slips into REM sleep while still standing. This condition differs from narcolepsy, although horses may also suffer from that disorder.
The extra toe on the front feet soon disappeared with the Mesohippus, which lived 32 to 37 million years ago. Over time, the extra side toes shrank in size until they vanished.
All that remains of them in modern horses is a set of small vestigial bones on the leg below the knee, known informally as splint bones. Their legs also lengthened as their toes disappeared until they were a hooked animal capable of running at great speed.
By about 5 million years ago, the modern Equus had evolved. Equip teeth also evolved from browsing on soft, tropical plants to adapt to browsing of drier plant material, then to grazing of tougher plains grasses.
Thus, photo- horses changed from leaf-eating forest-dwellers to grass-eating inhabitants of semi-arid regions worldwide, including the steppes of Eurasia and the Great Plains of North America. By about 15,000 years ago, Equus ferns was a widespread Arctic species.
Horse bones from this time period, the late Pleistocene, are found in Europe, Eurasia, Bering, and North America. Yet between 10,000 and 7,600 years ago, the horse became extinct in North America and rare elsewhere.
The reasons for this extinction are not fully known, but one theory notes that extinction in North America paralleled human arrival. Another theory points to climate change, noting that approximately 12,500 years ago, the grasses characteristic of a steppe ecosystem gave way to shrub tundra, which was covered with unpalatable plants.
A small herd of Przewalski's Horses A truly wild horse is a species or subspecies with no ancestors that were ever domesticated. Therefore, most “wild” horses today are actually feral horses, animals that escaped or were turned loose from domestic herds and the descendants of those animals.
The Przewalski's horse (Equus ferns przewalskii), named after the Russian explorer Nikolai Przhevalsky, is a rare Asian animal. It is also known as the Mongolian wild horse; Mongolian people know it as the take, and the Kerry people call it a airbag.
The subspecies was presumed extinct in the wild between 1969 and 1992, while a small breeding population survived in zoos around the world. In 1992, it was reestablished in the wild due to the conservation efforts of numerous zoos.
Today, a small wild breeding population exists in Mongolia. There are additional animals still maintained at zoos throughout the world.
The Tarzan or European wild horse (Equus ferus) was found in Europe and much of Asia. It survived into the historical era, but became extinct in 1909, when the last captive died in a Russian zoo.
Attempts to have been made to recreate the Tarzan, which resulted in horses with outward physical similarities, but nonetheless descended from domesticated ancestors and not true wild horses. Periodically, populations of horses in isolated areas are speculated to be relict populations of wild horses, but generally have been proven to be feral or domestic.
For example, the Roche horse of Tibet was proposed as such, but testing did not reveal genetic differences from domesticated horses. Similarly, the Sorrier of Portugal was proposed as a direct descendant of the Tarzan based on shared characteristics, but genetic studies have shown that the Sorrier is more closely related to other horse breeds and that the outward similarity is an unreliable measure of relatedness.
The most common hybrid is the mule, a cross between a “jack” (male donkey) and a mare. A related hybrid, a Ginny, is a cross between a stallion and a jenny (female donkey).
Other hybrids include the horse, a cross between a zebra and a horse. With rare exceptions, most hybrids are sterile and cannot reproduce.
Bhimbetka rock painting showing a man riding on a horse, IndiaDomestication of the horse most likely took place in Central Asia prior to 3500 BC. Two major sources of information are used to determine where and when the horse was first domesticated and how the domesticated horse spread around the world.
The first source is based on pathological and archaeological discoveries; the second source is a comparison of DNA obtained from modern horses to that from bones and teeth of ancient horse remains. The earliest archaeological evidence for the domestication of the horse comes from sites in Ukraine and Kazakhstan, dating to approximately 3500–4000 BC.
By 3000 BC, the horse was completely domesticated and by 2000 BC there was a sharp increase in the number of horse bones found in human settlements in northwestern Europe, indicating the spread of domesticated horses throughout the continent. The most recent, but most irrefutable evidence of domestication comes from sites where horse remains were interred with chariots in graves of the Sintashta and Petrov cultures c. 2100 BC.
Domestication is also studied by using the genetic material of present-day horses and comparing it with the genetic material present in the bones and teeth of horse remains found in archaeological and pathological excavations. The variation in the genetic material shows that very few wild stallions contributed to the domestic horse, while many mares were part of early domesticated herds.
This is reflected in the difference in genetic variation between the DNA that is passed on along the paternal, or sire line (Y-chromosome) versus that passed on along the maternal, or dam line (mitochondrial DNA). There are very low levels of Y-chromosome variability, but a great deal of genetic variation in mitochondrial DNA.
There is also regional variation in mitochondrial DNA due to the inclusion of wild mares in domestic herds. Another characteristic of domestication is an increase in coat color variation.
Before the availability of DNA techniques to resolve the questions related to the domestication of the horse, various hypotheses were proposed. One classification was based on body types and conformation, suggesting the presence of four basic prototypes that had adapted to their environment prior to domestication.
Another hypothesis held that the four prototypes originated from a single wild species and that all different body types were entirely a result of selective breeding after domestication. However, the lack of a detectable substructure in the horse has resulted in a rejection of both hypotheses.
Feral horses are born and live in the wild, but are descended from domesticated animals. Many populations of feral horses exist throughout the world.
Studies of feral herds have provided useful insights into the behavior of prehistoric horses, as well as greater understanding of the instincts and behaviors that drive horses that live in domesticated conditions. There are also semi-feral horses in many parts of the world, such as Dartmoor and the New Forest in the UK, where the animals are all privately owned but live for significant amounts of time in “wild” conditions on undeveloped, often public, lands.
Owners of such animals often pay a fee for grazing rights. The concept of purebred bloodstock and a controlled, written breed registry has come to be particularly significant and important in modern times.
Sometimes purebred horses are incorrectly or inaccurately called “thoroughbreds”. Thoroughbred is a specific breed of horse, while a “purebred” is a horse (or any other animal) with a defined pedigree recognized by a breed registry.
Horse breeds are groups of horses with distinctive characteristics that are transmitted consistently to their offspring, such as conformation, color, performance ability, or disposition. These inherited traits result from a combination of natural crosses and artificial selection methods.
An early example of people who practiced selective horse breeding were the Bedouin, who had a reputation for careful practices, keeping extensive pedigrees of their Arabian horses and placing great value upon pure bloodlines. These pedigrees were originally transmitted via an oral tradition.
In the 14th century, Cartesian monks of southern Spain kept meticulous pedigrees of bloodstock lineages still found today in the Andalusian horse. Thus, a powerful but refined breed such as the Andalusian developed as riding horses with an aptitude for dressage.
Heavy draft horses were developed out of a need to perform demanding farm work and pull heavy wagons. Other horse breeds had been developed specifically for light agricultural work, carriage and road work, various sport disciplines, or simply as pets.
Some breeds developed through centuries of crossing other breeds, while others descended from a single foundation sire, or other limited or restricted foundation bloodstock. One of the earliest formal registries was General Stud Book for Thoroughbreds, which began in 1791 and traced back to the foundation bloodstock for the breed.
Worldwide, horses play a role within human cultures and have done so for millennia. Horses are used for leisure activities, sports, and working purposes.
The Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) estimates that in 2008, there were almost 59,000,000 horses in the world, with around 33,500,000 in the Americas, 13,800,000 in Asia and 6,300,000 in Europe and smaller portions in Africa and Oceania. There are estimated to be 9,500,000 horses in the United States alone.
The American Horse Council estimates that horse-related activities have a direct impact on the economy of the United States of over $39 billion, and when indirect spending is considered, the impact is over $102 billion. In a 2004 “poll” conducted by Animal Planet, more than 50,000 viewers from 73 countries voted for the horse as the world's 4th favorite animal.
Communication between human and horse is paramount in any equestrian activity; to aid this process horses are usually ridden with a saddle on their backs to assist the rider with balance and positioning, and a bridle or related headgear to assist the rider in maintaining control. Sometimes horses are ridden without a saddle, and occasionally, horses are trained to perform without a bridle or other headgear.
Many horses are also driven, which requires a harness, bridle, and some type of vehicle. Historically, equestrians honed their skills through games and races.
Equestrian sports provided entertainment for crowds and honed the excellent horsemanship that was needed in battle. Many sports, such as dressage, evening and show jumping, have origins in military training, which were focused on control and balance of both horse and rider.
Other sports, such as rodeo, developed from practical skills such as those needed on working ranches and stations. Horse racing of all types evolved from impromptu competitions between riders or drivers.
All forms of competition, requiring demanding and specialized skills from both horse and rider, resulted in the systematic development of specialized breeds and equipment for each sport. The popularity of equestrian sports through the centuries has resulted in the preservation of skills that would otherwise have disappeared after horses stopped being used in combat.
Horses are trained to be ridden or driven in a variety of sporting competitions. Examples include show jumping, dressage, three-day evening, competitive driving, endurance riding, gymkhana, rodeos, and fox hunting.
Horse shows, which have their origins in medieval European fairs, are held around the world. They host a huge range of classes, covering all the mounted and harness disciplines, as well as “In-hand” classes where the horses are led, rather than ridden, to be evaluated on their conformation.
The method of judging varies with the discipline, but winning usually depends on style and ability of both horse and rider. Sports such as polo do not judge the horse itself, but rather use the horse as a partner for human competitors as a necessary part of the game.
Horse racing is an equestrian sport and major international industry, watched in almost every nation of the world. There are three types: “flat” racing; steeple chasing, i.e. racing over jumps; and harness racing, where horses trot or pace while pulling a driver in a small, light cart known as a sulky.
A major part of horse racing's economic importance lies in the gambling associated with it. There are certain jobs that horses do very well, and no technology has yet developed to fully replace them.
For example, mounted police horses are still effective for certain types of patrol duties and crowd control. Cattle ranches still require riders on horseback to round up cattle that are scattered across remote, rugged terrain.
Search and rescue organizations in some countries depend upon mounted teams to locate people, particularly hikers and children, and to provide disaster relief assistance. Horses can also be used in areas where it is necessary to avoid vehicular disruption to delicate soil, such as nature reserves.
They may also be the only form of transport allowed in wilderness areas. Law enforcement officers such as park rangers or game wardens may use horses for patrols, and horses or mules may also be used for clearing trails or other work in areas of rough terrain where vehicles are less effective.
Although machinery has replaced horses in many parts of the world, an estimated 100 million horses, donkeys and mules are still used for agriculture and transportation in less developed areas. This number includes around 27 million working animals in Africa alone.
Some land management practices such as cultivating and logging can be efficiently performed with horses. In agriculture, less fossil fuel is used and increased environmental conservation occurs over time with the use of draft animals such as horses.
Logging with horses can result in reduced damage to soil structure and less damage to trees due to more selective logging. The first archaeological evidence of horses used in warfare dates to between 4000 and 3000 BC, and the use of horses in warfare was widespread by the end of the Bronze Age.
Although mechanization has largely replaced the horse as a weapon of war, horses are still seen today in limited military uses, mostly for ceremonial purposes, or for reconnaissance and transport activities in areas of rough terrain where motorized vehicles are ineffective. Horses have been used in the 21st century by the Janjaweed militias in the War in Darfur.
The horse-headed deity in Hinduism, Hayagriva Modern horses are often used to reenact many of their historical work purposes. Horses are used, complete with equipment that is authentic or a meticulously recreated replica, in various live action historical reenactments of specific periods of history, especially recreations of famous battles.
Horses are also used to preserve cultural traditions and for ceremonial purposes. Countries such as the United Kingdom still use horse-drawn carriages to convey royalty and other VIPs to and from certain culturally significant events.
Public exhibitions are another example, such as the Budweiser Clydesdale's, seen in parades and other public settings, a team of draft horses that pull a beer wagon similar to that used before the invention of the modern motorized truck. Horses are frequently used in television, films and literature.
They are sometimes featured as a major character in films about particular animals, but also used as visual elements that assure the accuracy of historical stories. Both live horses and iconic images of horses are used in advertising to promote a variety of products.
The horse frequently appears in coats of arms in heraldry, in a variety of poses and equipment. The mythologies of many cultures, including Greco-Roman, Hindu, Islamic, and Norse, include references to both normal horses and those with wings or additional limbs, and multiple myths also call upon the horse to draw the chariots of the Moon and Sun.
The horse also appears in the 12-year cycle of animals in the Chinese zodiac related to the Chinese calendar. People of all ages with physical and mental disabilities obtain beneficial results from an association with horses.
Therapeutic riding is used to mentally and physically stimulate disabled persons and help them improve their lives through improved balance and coordination, increased self-confidence, and a greater feeling of freedom and independence. The benefits of equestrian activity for people with disabilities has also been recognized with the addition of equestrian events to the Paralympic Games and recognition of para-equestrian events by the International Federation for Equestrian Sports (FEI).
Hippo therapy and therapeutic horseback riding are names for different physical, occupational, and speech therapy treatment strategies that utilize equine movement. In hippo therapy, a therapist uses the horse's movement to improve their patient's cognitive, coordination, balance, and fine motor skills, whereas therapeutic horseback riding uses specific riding skills.
Horses also provide psychological benefits to people whether they actually ride or not. “Equine-assisted” or “equine-facilitated” therapy is a form of experiential psychotherapy that uses horses as companion animals to assist people with mental illness, including anxiety disorders, psychotic disorders, mood disorders, behavioral difficulties, and those who are going through major life changes.
There are also experimental programs using horses in prison settings. Exposure to horses appears to improve the behavior of inmates and help reduce recidivism when they leave.
Products collected from living horses include mare's milk, used by people with large horse herds, such as the Mongols, who let it ferment to produce Luis. Horse blood was once used as food by the Mongols and other nomadic tribes, who found it a convenient source of nutrition when traveling.
Drinking their own horses blood allowed the Mongols to ride for extended periods of time without stopping to eat. The drug Remain is a mixture of estrogens extracted from the urine of pregnant mares (pregnant ma res' your in e), and was previously a widely used drug for hormone replacement therapy.
The tail hair of horses can be used for making bows for string instruments such as the violin, viola, cello, and double bass. Horse meat has been used as food for humans and carnivorous animals throughout the ages.
Approximately 5 million horses are slaughtered each year for meat worldwide. It is eaten in many parts of the world, though consumption is taboo in some cultures, and a subject of political controversy in others.
Specifically, in Italian cuisine, the horse tibia is sharpened into a probe called a Shinto, which is used to test the readiness of a (pig) ham as it cures. In Asia, the saga is a horsehide vessel used in the production of Luis.
Checking teeth and other physical examinations are an important part of horse care. Horses are grazing animals, and their major source of nutrients is good-quality forage from hay or pasture.
They can consume approximately 2% to 2.5% of their body weight in dry feed each day. Sometimes, concentrated feed such as grain is fed in addition to pasture or hay, especially when the animal is very active.
When grain is fed, equine nutritionists recommend that 50% or more of the animal's diet by weight should still be forage. Horses require a plentiful supply of clean water, a minimum of 10 US gallons (38 L) to 12 US gallons (45 L) per day.
Although horses are adapted to live outside, they require shelter from the wind and precipitation, which can range from a simple shed or shelter to an elaborate stable. Horses require routine hoof care from a farrier, as well as vaccinations to protect against various diseases, and dental examinations from a veterinarian or a specialized equine dentist.
If horses are kept inside in a barn, they require regular daily exercise for their physical health and mental well-being. When turned outside, they require well-maintained, sturdy fences to be safely contained.
Regular grooming is also helpful to help the horse maintain good health of the hair coat and underlying skin. System natural per Regina trial natural :second classes, or dines, genera, species, cum characterizes, differential, synonyms, Louis.
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^ “2012 United States Equestrian Federation, Inc. Rule Book”. ^ “Annex XVII: Extracts from Rules for Pony Riders and Children, 9th edition” (PDF).
^ For example, the Missouri Fox Trotter, or the Arabian horse. 52–63 ^ Cane, p. 200 ^ “Chromosome Numbers in Different Species”.
^ “Sequenced horse genome expands understanding of equine, human diseases”. Cornell University College of Veterinary Medicine.
“A misses mutation in the gene for melanocyte-stimulating hormone receptor (MC1R) is associated with the chestnut coat color in horses “. ^ a b “Introduction to Coat Color Genetics”.
Haas B; Brooks SA; Schlumbaum A; et al. (2007). “Allele Heterogeneity at the Equine KIT Locus in Dominant White (W) Horses ".
MAU, C.; Ponce, P. A.; Butcher, B.; Stranger, G.; Raider, S. (2004). “Genetic mapping of dominant white (W), a homozygous lethal condition in the horse (Equus Catullus)”.
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“What Big Brown Couldn't Tell You and Mr. Ed Kept to Himself (part 1)”. 194–197 ^ a b Price, p. 15 ^ Bonging, entry 87 ^ Singer, pp.
Conquerors: The Roots of New World Horsemanship (First ed.). 122–123 ^ Examples are the Australian Riding Pony and the Connemara, see Edwards, pp.
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^ “An extraordinary return from the brink of extinction for worlds last wild horse”. The Foundation for the Preservation and Protection of the Przewalski Horse.
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“Widespread origins of domestic horse lineages”. ^ a b c CAI, D. W.; Tang, Z. W.; Han, L.; Speller, C. F.; Yang, D. Y. Y.; Ma, X. L.; Can, J. E.; AHU, H.; Zhou, H.; et al. (2009).
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The non-weight-bearing toes are either present, absent, vestigial, or positioned posteriorly. Despite their very different appearances, they were recognized as related families in the 19th century by the zoologist Richard Owen, who also coined the order name.
While rhinos have only sparse hair and exhibit a thick epidermis, tapirs and horses have dense, short coats. Most species are gray or brown, although zebras and young tapirs are striped.
The main axes of both the front and rear feet pass through the third toe, which is always the largest. The remaining toes have been reduced in size to varying degrees.
Living rhinos have three toes on both the front and hind feet. Rhinos and tapirs, by contrast, have hooves covering only the leading edge of the toes, with the bottom being soft.
The incisors and canines can be very small or completely absent, as in the two African species of rhinoceros. The surface shape and height of the molars is heavily dependent on whether soft leaves or hard grass makes up the main component of their diets.
Restriction of their habitat and poaching threaten the survival of most rhino species, including the Indian rhinoceros shown hearth present distribution of most perissodactyl species is only a small fraction of their original range. Horses and tapirs arrived in South America after the formation of the Isthmus of Panama in the Pliocene, around 3 million years ago.
In North America, they died out around 10,000 years ago, while in Europe, the tartans disappeared in the 19th century. Hunting and habitat restriction have reduced the present-day species to fragmented relict populations.
In contrast, domesticated horses and donkeys have gained a worldwide distribution, and feral animals of both species are now also found in regions outside their original range, such as in Australia. Tapirs are solitary and inhabit mainly tropical rainforests.
Rhinos tend to live alone in rather dry savannas, and in Asia, wet marsh or forest areas. Horses inhabit open areas such as grasslands, steppes, or semi-deserts, and live together in groups.
A close family relationship with hoaxes was suspected based on similarities in the construction of the ear and the course of the carotid artery. Recent molecular genetic studies, however, have shown the ungulates to be polyphyletic, meaning that in some cases the similarities are the result of convergent evolution rather than common ancestry.
Molecular genetic findings suggest that the cloven Artiodactyla (containing the cetaceans as a deeply nested subclade) are the sister taxon of the Perissodactyla; together, the two groups form the Ungulate. More distant are the bats (Chiroptera) and Feral (a common taxon of carnivorous, Carnivora, and pangolins, Pholidota).
In a discredited alternative scenario, a close relationship exists between perissodactyls, carnivores, and bats, this assembly comprising the Pegasoferae. However, a close relationship can be worked out to perissodactyls by means of protein sequencing and comparison with fossil collagen from remnants of phylogenetically young members of the Meridiungulata (specifically Macrauchenia from the Litopterna and London from the Notoungulata).
The separation of horses from other perissodactyls took place according to molecular genetic analysis in the Paleocene some 56 million years ago, while the rhinos and tapirs split off in the lower-middle Eocene, about 47 million years ago. They were generally characterized in their late phase by a bony horn at the transition from the nose to the frontal bone and flat molars suitable for chewing soft plant food.
The Brontotheroidea, which were almost exclusively confined to North America and Asia, died out at the beginning of the Upper Eocene The Equine (equines) also developed in the Eocene. The Palaeotheriidae are known mainly from Europe; their most famous member is Phipps, which became extinct in the Oligocene.
Over time this group saw a reduction in toe number, extension of the limbs, and the progressive adjustment of the teeth for eating hard grasses. The Chalicotherioidea represented another characteristic group, consisting of the families Chalicotheriidae and Lophiodontidae.
The Chalicotheriidae developed claws instead of hooves and considerable extension of the forelegs. The Rhinocerotoidea (rhino relatives) included a large variety of forms from the Eocene up to the Oligocene, including dog-size leaf feeders, semiaquatic animals, and also huge long-necked animals.
The Hyracodontidae developed long limbs and long necks that were most pronounced in the Paraceratherium (formerly known as Baluchitherium or Indricotherium), the second largest known land mammal ever to have lived (after Palaeoloxodon nomadic ). The rhinos (Rhinocerotidae) emerged in the Middle Eocene; five species survive to the present day.
The Tapiroidea reached their greatest diversity in the Eocene, when more than one class lived in Eurasia and North America. They retained a primitive physique and are noted for the development of a trunk.
The Hippomorpha comprises today's horses and their extinct members (Equine); the Ceratomorpha consist of tapirs and rhinos plus their extinct members (Tapiroidea and Rhinocerotoidea). The names Hippomorpha and Ceratomorpha were introduced in 1937 by Horace Elmer Wood, in response to criticism of the name “Solidungula” that he proposed three years previously.
In the 1980s, Jeremy J. Hooker saw a general similarity of Ancylopoda and Ceratomorpha based on dentition, especially in the earliest members, leading to the unification in 1984 of the two submissions in the interim order, Tapiromorpha. The name “Tapiromorpha” goes back to Ernst Hacker, who coined it in 1873, but it was long considered synonymous to Ceratomorpha because Wood had not considered it in 1937 when Ceratomorpha were named, since the term had been used quite differently in the past.
Also in 1984, Robert M. Sch och used the conceptually similar term Moropomorpha, which today applies synonymously to Tapiromorpha. The evolutionary development of Perissodactyla is well documented in the fossil record.
Numerous finds are evidence of the adaptive radiation of this group, which was once much more varied and widely dispersed. Kandinsky from the late Paleocene of East Asia is often considered to be one of the oldest close relatives of the ungulates.
Its 8 cm skull must have belonged to a very small and primitive animal with a shaped crown pattern on the enamel of its rear molars similar to that of perissodactyls and their relatives, especially the rhinos. Finds of Cambaytherium and Kalitherium in the Cam bay shale of western India indicate an origin in Asia dating to the Lower Eocene roughly 54.5 million years ago.
The saddle-shaped configuration of the particular joints and the metabolic construction of the front and hind feet also indicates a close relationship to Metatheria . However, this construction deviates from that of Cambaytherium, indicating that it is actually a member of a sister group.
Ancestors of Perissodactyla may have arrived via an island bridge from the Afro-Arab landmass onto the Indian subcontinent as it drifted north towards Asia. A study on Cambaytherium suggests an origin in India prior or near its collision with Asia.
The alignment of hyopsodontids and phenacodontids to Perissodactyla in general suggests an older Laurasia origin and distribution for the clade, dispersed across the northern continents already in the early Paleocene. The close relationship between meridiungulate mammals and perissoodactyls in particular is of interest since the latter appear in South America soon after the K–T event, implying rapid ecological radiation and dispersal after the mass extinction.
Phipps, an early relative of the horse, is one of the oldest-known perissodactylsThe Perissodactyla appear relatively abruptly at the beginning of the Lower Paleocene before about 63 million years ago, both in North America and Asia, in the form of phenacodontids and hyopsodontids. The oldest finds from an extant group originate among other sources from Sifrhippus, an ancestor of the horses from the Wills wood lineup in northwestern Wyoming.
The distant ancestors of tapirs appeared not too long after that in the Ghazi lineup in Baluchistan, such as Ganderalophus, as well as Rhinolophus from the Chalicotheriidae line, or Eotitanops from the group of brontotheriidae. Initially, the members of the different lineages looked quite similar with an arched back and generally four toes on the front and three on the hind feet.
Phipps, which is considered a member of the horse family, outwardly resembled Hyrachyus, the first representative of the rhino and tapir line. All were small compared to later forms and lived as fruit and foliage eaters in forests.
The first of the megafauna to emerge were the brontosaurs, in the Middle and Upper Eocene. The decline of brontosaurs at the end of the Eocene is associated with competition arising from the advent of more successful herbivores.
However, some lines flourished, such as the horses and rhinos; anatomical adaptations made it possible for them to consume tougher grass food. This led to open land forms that dominated the newly created landscapes.
With the emergence of the Isthmus of Panama in the Pliocene, perissodactyls and other megafauna were given access to one of their last habitable continents: South America. However, many perissodactyls became extinct at the end of the ice ages, including American horses and the Elasmotherium.
Whether over-hunting by humans (overkill hypothesis), climatic change, or a combination of both factors was responsible for the extinction of ice age mega-fauna, remains controversial. In 1758, in his seminal work System Natural, Linnaeus (1707–1778) classified horses (Equus) together with hippos (Hippopotamus).
Linnaeus classified this tapir as Hippopotamus terrestrial and put both genera in the group of the Bella (“beasts”). He combined the rhinos with the Glides, a group now consisting of the mesomorphs and rodents.
The horses were still generally regarded as a group separate from other mammals and were often classified under the name Solidungula or Slides, meaning “one-hoof animal”. Richard Owen (1804–1892) quoted Blainville in his study on fossil mammals of the Isle of Wight and introduced the name Perissodactyla.
The quanta had become extinct by the end of the 19th century. The domestic horse and the donkey play an important role in human history particularly as transport, work and pack animals. Due to the motorization of agriculture and the spread of automobile traffic, such use has declined sharply in Western industrial countries; riding is usually undertaken more than a hobby or sport.
In less developed regions of the world, the traditional uses for these animals are, however, still widespread. To a lesser extent, horses and donkeys are also kept for their meat and their milk.
“Pegasoferae, an unexpected mammalian clade revealed by tracking ancient retroposon insertions”. ^ Fido Walker; Matthew J. Collins; Jessica A. Thomas; Marc Wesley; Selina Brace; Enrico Rappelling; Samuel T. Survey; Marcelo Roguery; Javier N. Self; Alejandro Kramer; Joachim Burger; Thomas Jane Oates; David A. Ashford; Peter D. Ashton; Keri Roswell; Duncan M. Porter; Benedict Kessler; Roman Fischer; Carsten Weissmann; Stephanie Caspar; Jesper V. Olsen; Patrick Kiley; James A. Elliott; Christian D. Kestrel; Victoria Mullen; Michael Forfeited; ESE Wellesley; Jean-Jacques Dublin; Ludovic Orlando; Ian Barnes; Ross DE Machete (2015).
“Ancient protein resolve the evolutionary history of Darwin's South American ungulates”. ^ Ross Machete; Fido Walker; Jessica Thomas; Selina Brace; Enrico Rappelling; Samuel Survey; Ian Barnes; Marcelo Roguery; Javier Self; Alejandro Kramer (2014).
“Ancient protein sequencing Resolves litter and notoungulate super ordinal affinities”. ^ Christened Toward; Thomas Telephone; Catherine Hanna; Claudine Montgelard (2001).
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^ Sunil Banzai; Gives Kanpur; Debases P. Was; In Tiwari; N. Caravan; Rite Sharma (2005). “Early Eocene Land Mammals from Vast an Lignite Mine, District Surat (Gujarat), western India”.
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The evolutionary history of horses is relatively well understood, but there are still some gaps in our knowledge, and new discoveries continue to be made. This group includes horses, tapirs, rhinos and a wealth of extinct animals such as the clawed, long-forelimbed chalicotheres and the rhino-like brontosaurs.
Both groups share a common ancestry that reaches to just after the extinction of the non-avian dinosaurs around 66 million years ago, but the exact relationships between the mammals that took advantage of the post-saurian world remain unclear to paleontologists. In the 10 million years after the mass extinction, the first perissodactyls emerged from the confused wastebasket of animals called condylarths.
The first horses appeared around 56 million years ago, but you’d have been hard-pressed to spot one in the wild, let alone identify them in a line-up. These early horses and their relatives lived in dense forests where they browsed on foliage.
This gives paleontologists and evolutionary biologists a new perspective on the mechanisms that allow animals to reduce their digits and limbs. “With horses, we travelled way faster, and could transport goods, people, germs and culture at unprecedented speed.
Their research is the latest in a line of genetic studies trying to unravel the way in which humans have changed horse genes through selective breeding, and to trace the origins of the first domestication of wild equine ancestors. The generally accepted story of horse domestication begins with humans hunting them for food, as depicted in Paleolithic cave art.
It was thought that they were first domesticated in the Asian steppe for food and milk, perhaps similarly to the reindeer herded in Scandinavia today. Another example is the Amazonian rain forest, which was once thought of as pristine, but we now know there are many ‘dark earths’ caused by past human horticulture, the forest later recovered.” However, this doesn’t make these animals and habitats any less valuable: “It’s important to stress that this slightly more complex history doesn’t undermine the need for modern day conservation to maintain biodiversity and protect important lineages.
* There are exceptions to the toe-number rule in both groups, especially in their early evolutionary history as toes were being reduced and lost in different lineages at different times. Gaunt C, Ages A, Half K, Albrecht A, Khan N, Schubert M, Seguin-Orlando A, Owens IJ, Fell S, Bignon-Lau O, DE Barros Damaged P, Hitting A, Mohave AF, Avoid H, Quraish S, Afghan AH, Al-Rasheid Was, Crudely E, Bedecked N, Olsen S, Brown D, Anthony D, Mass K, Titular V, Kasparov A, Bred G, Forfeited M, Mukhtarova G, Baimukhanov N, Loughs L, Omar V, Stock hammer PW, Krause J, Bold B, Undrakhbold S, Erdenebaatar D, Lopez S, Masseur M, Ludwig A, Waller B, Mere V, Mere I, Albert V, Wellesley E, Libra do P, Outran AK, Orlando L. 2018 Ancient genomes revisit the ancestry of domestic and Przewalski’s horses.
Categories: Definitions and Information, Mammals Tags: artiodactyls, equips, hoof, hooves, perissodactyls, ungulate Transfers can be arranged on your behalf from Hoedspruit Airport to the Reserve, at an additional cost.
READ FAQ Bush veld casual, neutral colors are recommended. Most guests wear long trousers for dinner and always ensure you have a light sweater or windbreaker handy.
During summer a bathing costume is recommended to enjoy downtime around the swimming pool. READ FAQ The rates at our lodges are all -inclusive which means accommodation, meals, snacks, early morning and evening game drives and optional guided bush walks.
As the lodges are situated within a big 5 reserve, your safety is our primary concern. Kindly note, no children under the age of 16 are not permitted on bush walks.
READ FAQ The lodges are situated in low risk malaria area. READ FAQ Your specific dietary requirements should be communicated with the reservation’s consultant at the time of confirmation, this enables the lodge to ensure your preferred meals are available and supplies are ordered in time for your arrival.
READ FAQ Please consult your general practitioner or medical travel clinic for detailed information regarding possible vaccines require READ FAQ Thorny bush and the SBI Sand are big 5 reserves, so yes, the chances of seeing them are very high.
Reconstruction, left forefoot skeleton (third digit emphasized yellow) and longitudinal section of molars of selected prehistoric horses The evolution of the horse, a mammal of the family Equine, occurred over a geologic timescale of 50 million years, transforming the small, dog-sized, forest-dwelling Phipps into the modern horse. Paleo zoologists have been able to piece together a more complete outline of the evolutionary lineage of the modern horse than of any other animal.
This means that horses share a common ancestry with tapirs and rhinoceroses. The perissodactyls arose in the late Paleocene, less than 10 million years after the Cretaceous–Paleogene extinction event.
This group of animals appears to have been originally specialized for life in tropical forests, but whereas tapirs and, to some extent, rhinoceroses, retained their jungle specializations, modern horses are adapted to life on drier land, in the much harsher climatic conditions of the steppes. Other species of Equus are adapted to a variety of intermediate conditions.
The early ancestors of the modern horse walked on several spread-out toes, accommodation to life spent walking on the soft, moist grounds of primeval forests. Wild horses were known since prehistory from Central Asia to Europe, with domestic horses and other equips being distributed more widely in the Old World, but no horses or equips of any type were found in the New World when European explorers reached the Americas.
When the Spanish colonists brought domestic horses from Europe, beginning in 1493, escaped horses quickly established large feral herds. In the 1760s, the early naturalist Buffoon suggested this was an indication of inferiority of the New World fauna, but later reconsidered this idea.
William Clark's 1807 expedition to Big Bone Lick found “leg and foot bones of the Horses “, which were included with other fossils sent to Thomas Jefferson and evaluated by the anatomist Caspar Wis tar, but neither commented on the significance of this find. The first Old World equip fossil was found in the gypsum quarries in Montmartre, Paris, in the 1820s.
His sketch of the entire animal matched later skeletons found at the site. During the Beagle survey expedition, the young naturalist Charles Darwin had remarkable success with fossil hunting in Patagonia.
In 1848, a study On the fossil horses of America by Joseph Lady systematically examined Pleistocene horse fossils from various collections, including that of the Academy of Natural Sciences, and concluded at least two ancient horse species had existed in North America: Equus curves and another, which he named Equus Americans. A decade later, however, he found the latter name had already been taken and renamed it Equus complicates.
In the same year, he visited Europe and was introduced by Owen to Darwin. The original sequence of species believed to have evolved into the horse was based on fossils discovered in North America in 1879 by paleontologist Thiel Charles Marsh.
The sequence, from Phipps to the modern horse (Equus), was popularized by Thomas Huxley and became one of the most widely known examples of a clear evolutionary progression. The horse's evolutionary lineage became a common feature of biology textbooks, and the sequence of transitional fossils was assembled by the American Museum of Natural History into an exhibit that emphasized the gradual, “straight-line” evolution of the horse.
Since then, as the number of equip fossils has increased, the actual evolutionary progression from Phipps to Equus has been discovered to be much more complex and multibranched than was initially supposed. George Gaylord Simpson in 1951 first recognized that the modern horse was not the “goal” of the entire lineage of equips, but is simply the only genus of the many horse lineages to survive.
Although some transitions, such as that of Dinohippus to Equus, were indeed gradual progressions, a number of others, such as that of Phipps to Mesohippus, were relatively abrupt in geologic time, taking place over only a few million years. Both an agenesis (gradual change in an entire population's gene frequency) and cladogenesis (a population “splitting” into two distinct evolutionary branches) occurred, and many species coexisted with “ancestor” species at various times.
The change in equips' traits was also not always a “straight line” from Phipps to Equus : some traits reversed themselves at various points in the evolution of new equip species, such as size and the presence of facial fossa, and only in retrospect can certain evolutionary trends be recognized. Phipps appeared in the Persian (early Eocene), about 52 MYA (million years ago).
It was an animal approximately the size of a fox (250–450 mm in height), with a relatively short head and neck and a springy, arched back. It had 44 low-crowned teeth, in the typical arrangement of an omnivorous, browsing mammal: three incisors, one canine, four premolars, and three molars on each side of the jaw.
Its molars were uneven, dull, and bumpy, and used primarily for grinding foliage. The cusps of the molars were slightly connected in low crests.
Phipps browsed on soft foliage and fruit, probably scampering between thickets in the mode of a modern mental. Its limbs were long relative to its body, already showing the beginnings of adaptations for running.
Its wrist and hock joints were low to the ground. The forelimbs had developed five toes, of which four were equipped with small proto-hooves; the large fifth “toe-thumb” was off the ground.
Its feet were padded, much like a dog's, but with the small hooves in place of claws. For a span of about 20 million years, Phipps thrived with few significant evolutionary changes.
Thousands of complete, fossilized skeletons of these animals have been found in the Eocene layers of North American strata, mainly in the Wind River basin in Wyoming. Similar fossils have also been discovered in Europe, such as Propalaeotherium (which is not considered ancestral to the modern horse).
Approximately 50 million years ago, in the early-to-middle Eocene, Phipps smoothly transitioned into Orohippus through a gradual series of changes. It resembled Phipps in size, but had a slimmer body, an elongated head, slimmer forelimbs, and longer hind legs, all of which are characteristics of a good jumper.
In the mid-Eocene, about 47 million years ago, Phipps, a genus which continued the evolutionary trend of increasingly efficient grinding teeth, evolved from Orohippus. Whether Duchesnehippus was a subgenus of Phipps or a distinct genus is disputed.
In the late Eocene and the early stages of the Oligocene epoch (32–24 MYA), the climate of North America became drier, and the earliest grasses began to evolve. In a few areas, these plains were covered in sand, creating the type of environment resembling the present-day prairies.
In the late Eocene, they began developing tougher teeth and becoming slightly larger and leggier, allowing for faster running speeds in open areas, and thus for evading predators in nonwooded areas . In the early Oligocene, Mesohippus was one of the more widespread mammals in North America.
Judging by its longer and slimmer limbs, Mesohippus was an agile animal. Mesohippus was slightly larger than Phipps, about 610 mm (24 in) at the shoulder.
Its back was less arched, and its face, snout, and neck were somewhat longer. It had significantly larger cerebral hemispheres, and had a small, shallow depression on its skull called a fossa, which in modern horses is quite detailed.
Mesohippus also had the sharp tooth crests of Phipps, improving its ability to grind down tough vegetation. As with Mesohippus, the appearance of Miohippus was relatively abrupt, though a few transitional fossils linking the two genera have been found.
Miohippus was significantly larger than its predecessors, and its ankle joints had subtly changed. Its facial fossa was larger and deeper, and it also began to show a variable extra crest in its upper cheek teeth, a trait that became a characteristic feature of equine teeth.
Miohippus ushered in a major new period of diversification in Equine. The forest-suited form was Kalobatippus (or Miohippus intermedia, depending on whether it was a new genus or species), whose second and fourth front toes were long, well-suited to travel on the soft forest floors.
The Miohippus population that remained on the steppes is believed to be ancestral to Parahippus, a North American animal about the size of a small pony, with a prolonged skull and a facial structure resembling the horses of today. Its third toe was stronger and larger, and carried the main weight of the body.
Its four premolars resembled the molar teeth; the first were small and almost nonexistent. In the middle of the Miocene epoch, the grazer Merychippus flourished.
It had wider molars than its predecessors, which are believed to have been used for crunching the hard grasses of the steppes. The hind legs, which were relatively short, had side toes equipped with small hooves, but they probably only touched the ground when running.
Three lineages within Equine are believed to be descended from the numerous varieties of Merychippus : Riparian, Protohippus and Pliohippus. The most different from Merychippus was Riparian, mainly in the structure of tooth enamel : in comparison with other Equine, the inside, or tongue side, had a completely isolated parapet.
A complete and well-preserved skeleton of the North American Riparian shows an animal the size of a small pony. They were very slim, rather like antelopes, and were adapted to life on dry prairies.
In North America, Riparian and its relatives (Cormohipparion, Nannies, Neohipparion, and Pseudhipparion), proliferated into many kinds of equips, at least one of which managed to migrate to Asia and Europe during the Miocene epoch. Pliohippus arose from Calliopes in the middle Miocene, around 12 MYA.
It was very similar in appearance to Equus, though it had two long extra toes on both sides of the hoof, externally barely visible as callused stubs. The long and slim limbs of Pliohippus reveal a quick-footed steppe animal.
Until recently, Pliohippus was believed to be the ancestor of present-day horses because of its many anatomical similarities. Dinohippus was the most common species of Equine in North America during the late Pliocene.
It was originally thought to be monodactyl, but a 1981 fossil find in Nebraska shows some were pterodactyl. Plesippus is often considered an intermediate stage between Dinohippus and the extant genus, Equus.
The famous fossils found near German, Idaho were originally thought to be a part of the genus Plesippus. German Fossil Beds (Idaho) is a Pliocene site, dating to about 3.5 MYA.
The fossilized remains were originally called Plesippus Shoshones, but further study by paleontologists determined the fossils represented the oldest remains of the genus Equus. Their estimated average weight was 425 kg, roughly the size of an Arabian horse.
One population of Plesippus moved across the Bering land bridge into Eurasia around 2.5 MYA. Skull of a giant extinct horse, Equus eisenmannae The genus Equus, which includes all extant equines, is believed to have evolved from Dinohippus, via the intermediate form Plesippus.
The oldest fossil to date is ~3.5 million years old from Idaho, USA. The genus appears to have spread quickly into the Old World, with the similarly aged Equus livenzovensis documented from Western Europe and Russia.
Molecular phylogeny indicate the most recent common ancestor of all modern equips (members of the genus Equus) lived ~5.6 (3.9–7.8) MYA. Direct paleogenomic sequencing of a 700,000-year-old middle Pleistocene horse metaphorical bone from Canada implies a more recent 4.07 MYR before present date for the most recent common ancestor (MRCA) within the range of 4.0 to 4.5 MYR BP.
The oldest divergences are the Asian heroines (subgenus E. (Sinus) , including the Klan, Onsager, and King), followed by the African zebras (subgenera E. (Dolichohippus) , and E. (Hippotigris) ). All other modern forms including the domesticated horse (and many fossil Pliocene and Pleistocene forms) belong to the subgenus E. (Equus) which diverged ~4.8 (3.2–6.5) million years ago.
Pleistocene horse fossils have been assigned to a multitude of species, with over 50 species of equines described from the Pleistocene of North America alone, although the taxonomic validity of most of these has been called into question. These results suggest all North American fossils of caballine-type horses (which also include the domesticated horse and Przewalski's horse of Europe and Asia), as well as South American fossils traditionally placed in the subgenus E. (Amerhippus) belong to the same species: E. ferns.
Remains attributed to a variety of species and lumped as New World stilt-legged horses (including H. Francisco, E. tau, E. Quinn and potentially North American Pleistocene fossils previously attributed to E. cf. The temporal and regional variation in body size and morphological features within each lineage indicates extraordinary interspecific plasticity.
Such environment-driven adaptation changes would explain why the taxonomic diversity of Pleistocene equips has been overestimated on morphoanatomical grounds. According to these results, it appears the genus Equus evolved from a Dinohippus -like ancestor ~4–7 MYA.
It rapidly spread into the Old World and there diversified into the various species of asses and zebras. A North American lineage of the subgenus E. (Equus) evolved into the New World stilt-legged horse (Nash).
Subsequently, populations of this species entered South America as part of the Great American Interchange shortly after the formation of the Isthmus of Panama, and evolved into the form currently referred to as Hippidion ~2.5 million years ago. Hippidion is thus only distantly related to the morphologically similar Pliohippus, which presumably became extinct during the Miocene.
Both the Nash and Iridium show adaptations to dry, barren ground, whereas the shortened legs of Hippidion may have been a response to sloped terrain. In contrast, the geographic origin of the closely related modern E. ferns is not resolved.
However, genetic results on extant and fossil material of Pleistocene age indicate two clades, potentially subspecies, one of which had a Arctic distribution spanning from Europe through Asia and across North America and would become the founding stock of the modern domesticated horse. However, one or more North American populations of E. ferns entered South America ~1.0–1.5 million years ago, leading to the forms currently known as E. (Amerhippus), which represent an extinct geographic variant or race of E. ferns.
The evolutionary divergence of the two populations was estimated to have occurred about 45,000 GBP, while the archaeological record places the first horse domestication about 5,500 GBP by the ancient central-Asian Bowie culture. The two lineages thus split well before domestication, probably due to climate, topography, or other environmental changes.
Several subsequent DNA studies produced partially contradictory results. A 2009 molecular analysis using ancient DNA recovered from archaeological sites placed Przewalski's horse in the middle of the domesticated horses, but a 2011 mitochondrial DNA analysis suggested that Przewalski's and modern domestic horses diverged some 160,000 years ago.
An analysis based on whole genome sequencing and calibration with DNA from old horse bones gave a divergence date of 38–72 thousand years ago. In June 2013, a group of researchers announced that they had sequenced the DNA of a 560–780 thousand-year-old horse, using material extracted from a leg bone found buried in permafrost in Canada's Yukon territory.
Before this publication, the oldest nuclear genome that had been successfully sequenced was dated at 110–130 thousand years ago. Analysis of differences between these genomes indicated that the last common ancestor of modern horses, donkeys, and zebras existed 4 to 4.5 million years ago.
A new analysis in 2018 involved genomic sequencing of ancient DNA from mid-fourth-millennium B.C.E. The study revealed that Przewalski's horses not only belong to the same genetic lineage as those from the Bowie culture, but were the feral descendants of these ancient domestic animals, rather than representing a surviving population of never-domesticated horses.
In comparison, the chromosomal differences between domestic horses and zebras include numerous translocation, fusions, inversions and centromere repositioning. This gives Przewalski's horse the highest diploid chromosome number among all equine species.
They can interbreed with the domestic horse and produce fertile offspring (65 chromosomes). Digs in western Canada have unearthed clear evidence horses existed in North America until about 12,000 years ago.
Given the suddenness of the event and because these mammals had been flourishing for millions of years previously, something quite unusual must have happened. The first main hypothesis attributes extinction to climate change.
For example, in Alaska, beginning approximately 12,500 years ago, the grasses characteristic of a steppe ecosystem gave way to shrub tundra, which was covered with unpalatable plants. The other hypothesis suggests extinction was linked to overexploitation by newly arrived humans of naive prey that were not habituated to their hunting methods.
The extinctions were roughly simultaneous with the end of the most recent glacial advance and the appearance of the big game-hunting Clovis culture. Several studies have indicated humans probably arrived in Alaska at the same time or shortly before the local extinction of horses.
Additionally, it has been proposed that the steppe-tundra vegetation transition in Bering may have been a consequence, rather than a cause, of the extinction of megafaunal grazers. In Eurasia, horse fossils began occurring frequently again in archaeological sites in Kazakhstan and the southern Ukraine about 6,000 years ago.
From then on, domesticated horses, as well as the knowledge of capturing, taming, and rearing horses, probably spread relatively quickly, with wild mares from several wild populations being incorporated en route. Horses only returned to the Americas with Christopher Columbus in 1493.
The first horses to return to the main continent were 16 specifically identified horses brought by Hernán Cortés. Subsequent explorers, such as Coronado and De Soto, brought ever-larger numbers, some from Spain and others from breeding establishments set up by the Spanish in the Caribbean.
The indigenous peoples of the Americas did not have a specific word for horses, and came to refer to them in various languages as a type of dog or deer (in one case, “elk-dog”, in other cases “big dog” or “seven dogs”, referring to the weight each animal could pull). Modern horses retain the splint bones; they are often believed to be useless attachments, but they in fact play an important role in supporting the carpal joints (front knees) and even the tarsal joints (hocks).
Throughout the phylogenetic development, the teeth of the horse underwent significant changes. The type of the original omnivorous teeth with short, “bumpy” molars, with which the prime members of the evolutionary line distinguished themselves, gradually changed into the teeth common to herbivorous mammals.
They became long (as much as 100 mm), roughly cubical molars equipped with flat grinding surfaces. In conjunction with the teeth, during the horse's evolution, the elongation of the facial part of the skull is apparent, and can also be observed in the backward-set eye holes.
In addition, the relatively short neck of the equine ancestors became longer, with equal elongation of the legs. Reconstruction of possible ancestral coat colors. The ancestral coat color of E. ferns was possibly a uniform dun, consistent with modern populations of Przewalski's horses.
Pre-domestication variants including black and spotted have been inferred from cave wall paintings and confirmed by genomic analysis. Domestication may have also led to more varieties of coat colors.
Les comminutes DE mammies Du Paleogene (Eocene superior ET Oligocene) d'Europe Occidental : structures, milieux ET evolution. ^ Knell, Simon J.; Suzanne MacLeod; Sheila E. R. Watson (2007).
^ 'Filled with astonishment': an introduction to the St. Fe Notebook, Barlow, Nora (ed. ISBN 0-19-500104-4 (1971 reprint) ^ The notion of a goal would contradict modern evolutionary synthesis, ^ a b c Hunt, Kathleen (1995).
“Sadistic analysis of primitive equips with notes on other perissodactyls”. Florida Museum of Natural History and the National Science Foundation.
“Three- toed browsing horse Anchitherium Clarence from the early Miocene (Hemingfordian) Thomas Farm, Florida”. “Presence of the Asian horse Sinohippus in the Miocene of Europe” (PDF).
^ Cantalapiedra, Juan L.; Prado, Jose Luis L.; Hernández Fernández, Manuel; Albert, Me Teresa (10 February 2017). “Systematic and phylogeny of Riparian, Neohipparion, Nannies, and Cormohipparion (Mammalian, Equine) from the Miocene and Pliocene of the New World”.
“Ascent and decline of monodactyl equips: a case for prehistoric overkill” (PDF). ^ a b Orlando, L.; Minolta, A.; Zhang, G.; Free, D.; Albrecht, A.; Stiller, M.; Schubert, M.; Rappelling, E.; Petersen, B.; et al. (4 July 2013).
“Recalibrating Equus evolution using the genome sequence of an early Middle Pleistocene horse”. “Evolution, systematic, and paleogeography of Pleistocene horses in the New World: a molecular perspective”.
^ a b c Orlando, L.; Male, D.; Albert, M. T.; Prado, J. L.; Print, A.; Cooper, A.; Hanna, C.; et al. (May 2008). “Ancient DNA Clarifies the Evolutionary History of American Late Pleistocene Equips”.
“Widespread Origins of Domestic Horse Lineages” (PDF). ^ Got, Pirogi; Ryder, Oliver A.; Fisher, Allison R.; Schultz, Bryant; Pond, Sergei L. Kosakovsky; Nekrutenko, Anton; Dakota, Kateryna D. (1 January 2011).
“A massively parallel sequencing approach uncovers ancient origins and high genetic variability of endangered Przewalski's horses ". ^ a b c Mach ugh, David E.; Larson, Greer; Orlando, Ludovic (2016).
“Taming the past: Ancient DNA and the study of animal domestication”. “Evolutionary genomics and conservation of the endangered Przewalski's horse”.
CS1 main: multiple names: authors list (link) ^ Outran, A.K. CAI, Data; Huawei Tang; Lu Han; Camilla F. Speller; Dong ya Y. Yang; Violin Ma; Jean'en Can; Hong AHU; Hui Zhou (2009).
“Ancient DNA provides new insights into the origin of the Chinese domestic horse”. ^ O A Ryder, A R Fisher, B Schultz, S Kosakovsky Pond, A Nekrutenko, K D Dakota.
“A massively parallel sequencing approach uncovers ancient origins and high genetic variability of endangered Przewalski's horses “. “Recalibrating Equus evolution using the genome sequence of an early Middle Pleistocene horse”.
“Phylogeny of Horse Chromosome 5q in the Genus Equus and Centromere Repositioning”. LAU, Allison; Lei Peng; Pirogi Got; Leona Chem nick; Oliver A. Ryder; Kateryna D. Dakota (2009).
“Rapid body size decline in Alaskan Pleistocene horses before extinction”. ^ “Ice Age Horses May Have Been Killed Off by Humans” National Geographic News, May 1, 2006.
“A calendar chronology for Pleistocene mammoth and horse extinction in North America based on Bayesian radiocarbon calibration”. ^ Slow, Andrew; Roberts, David; Robert, Karen (May 9, 2006).
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (19 ed.). “New carbon dates link climatic change with human colonization and Pleistocene extinctions”.
^ Warmth, V.; Eriksson, A.; Bower, M. A.; Barker, G.; Barrett, E.; Hanks, B. K.; Li, S.; Lomitashvili, D.; Ochir-Goryaeva, M.; Simon, G. V.; Stoyanov, V.; Manila, A. “Reconstructing the origin and spread of horse domestication in the Eurasian steppe”.
“The Rise and Fall of Plains Indian Horse Cultures”. ^ Provost, M.; Bell one, R.; Bedecked, N.; Sandoval-Castellanos, E.; Paisley, M.; Kuznets ova, T.; Morales-Muniz, A.; O'Connor, T.; Weissmann, M.; Forfeited, M.; Ludwig, A.
“Genotypes of domestic horses match phenotypes painted in Paleolithic works of cave art”. ^ Forfeited, Michael; Ludwig, Are; Provost, Melanie; Batsman, Monika; Bedecked, Norbert; Brockman, Guru A; Castaño, Pedro; Paisley, Michael; Leopold, Sebastian; Florence, Laura; Malaysians, Anna-Sapfo; Slat kin, Montgomery (2009).
“Coat Color Variation at the Beginning of Horse Domestication”. When the front legs deviate from correct alignment, this causes an unnatural flight path of the limbs.
The toed -in horse paddles as he moves, winging outward and not having a chance of interference with the opposite leg. As far as managing this fault, I would not recommend corrective farrier work past 2 years of age.
I always encourage using open front boots to protect your horse’s legs while working, but otherwise I wouldn’t be overly concerned with this deviation. Ask The Experts is the ultimate way to get help from the top professionals in the equestrian industry without leaving the comfort of your home.
She has officiated at prestigious events such as Devon, Harrisburg, Washington International, Capital Challenge, The Hampton Classic and Naperville Horse Shows. This list misses data on Tapirs terrestrial, which has not yet been estimated.
Common name Binomial namePopulationStatus Trend Notes Image Javan rhinoceros soldiers 72 CR It is only founded in Jung Upon national park in the islands of Java, Indonesia. Sumatran rhinoceros Dicerorhinus Sumatrans 100 CR Maximum estimate.
Przewalski's horse Equus ferns przewalskii 300 EN Wild numbers only. African wild ass Equus Africans 600 CR Maximum estimate.
A small population may still exist in Somalia. Malayan Tapir Tapirs Indices 1,500–2,500 EN Gravy's zebra Equus gravy 2,350 EN Mountain tapir Tapirs pinchaque 2,500 EN Maximum estimate.
It is upgraded from endangered to vulnerable. Black rhinoceros Divers iconic 5,042–5,455 CR Four subspecies: Southern-central (2,220), South-western (1,920), Eastern (740), and Western (0; considered recently extinct).
Baird's tapir Tapirs beard 5,500 EN Maximum estimate. White rhinoceros Ceratotherium SIMM 20,170 NT Mountain zebra Equus zebra 26,500 VU Unknown subspecies: Hartmann’s (25,000) & Cape (1,500).
^ van Strain, N.J., Steinmetz, R., Magellan, B., Section, Han, K.H., Isn an, W., Bookmaker, K., Sumatra, E., Khan, M.K.M. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.
CS1 main: multiple names: authors list (link) ^ van Strain, N.J., Magellan, B., Section, Isn an, W., Khan, M.K.M, Sumatra, E., Ellis, S., Han, K.H., Bread, Payne, J. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.
CS1 main: multiple names: authors list (link) ^ Diaz, A.G., Castellanos, A., Pined, C., Downer, C., Vizcaíno, D.J., Constantino, E., Suárez Mejía, J.A., Camacho, J., Darrin, J., Amino, J., Sánchez, J., Sinister Santana, J., Cordoned Delgado, L., Spin Castellanos, L.A. & Montenegro, O.L. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.
CS1 main: multiple names: authors list (link) ^ Calendar, B.K., Ems lie, R., Best, S.S., Chaudhary, A., Ellis, S., Tonal, B.S., Malabar, M.C., Calendar, B.N. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.
^ Castellanos, A., Forester, C., Vizcaíno, D.J., Navajo, E., Cruz-Aldan, E., Lira-Torres, I., Studio, R., Mazola, S., Shipper, J. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.
IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. CS1 main: multiple names: authors list (link) ^ Shah, N., St. Louis, A., Hui bin, Z., Beach, W., van Groomsmen, J.