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Are Horses Precocial

author
David Lawrence
• Tuesday, 29 September, 2020
• 35 min read

In biology, precocity species are those in which the young are relatively mature and mobile from the moment of birth or hatching. The opposite developmental strategy is called altricial, where the young are born or hatched helpless.

offspring horses animal facts mare foal horse kidzone ws evans brian walking
(Source: www.kidzone.ws)

Contents

Precocity species are normally ridiculous, meaning that they leave the nest shortly after birth or hatching. Like other anseriformes, ducks are precocity animals; within two hours of hatching, the ducklings are normally led to the nearest area of water. The span between precocity and altricial species is particularly broad in birds.

Birds of this kind can also swim and run much sooner after hatching than altricial young, such as songbirds. Very precocity birds can be ready to leave the nest in a short period of time following hatching (e.g. 24 hours).

Many precocity chicks are not independent in thermoregulation (the ability to regulate their own body temperatures), and they depend on the attending parent(s) to brood them with body heat for a short period of time. Precocity birds find their own food, sometimes with help or instruction from the parents.

Examples of precocity birds include the domestic chicken, many species of ducks and geese, waders, rails, and the hatpin. Horses are known for being precocity, and foals can walk as fast as their parents within hours. Precociality is found in many other animal groups.

Familiar examples of precocity mammals are most ungulates, the guinea pig, and most species of hare. This last example is significant as it illustrates that practicality is not a particularly conservative characteristic, in the evolutionary sense, since the closely related rabbit is highly altricial.

offspring horses horse foal kidzone ws facts feliz
(Source: www.kidzone.ws)

Additionally, all reptiles are precocity, even the ones that still need parental care, such as crocodiles, as well as animals that undergo a larval stage such as fish, amphibians, and most invertebrates, despite none of them being fully formed when born, although examples of altricial larvae exist such as those of social insects like ants, bees, and wasps, as well as scorpions. Precocity species typically have a longer gestation or incubation period than related altricial species, and smaller litters or clutches, since each offspring has to be brought to a relatively advanced (and large) state before birth or hatching.

Examples are the megaphone birds, which have full flight feathers and which, in some species, can fly on the same day they hatch from their eggs. Such behavior gives them an advantage over other herbivore species; they are 100 times more abundant in the Serengeti ecosystem than hartebeests, their closest taxonomic relative.

Hartebeest calves are not as precocity as wildebeest calves and take up to thirty minutes or more before they stand, and as long as forty-five minutes before they can follow their mothers for short distances. Thus, altricial birds tend to be found in the most derived groups.

Although ecological and behavioral differences clearly exist between enantiornithines and megaphones (e.g., enantiornithines were arboreal and not mound-nesters), megaphones represent the precocity extreme in extant neornithines and thus the closest analogue for enantiornithine development, for which all evidence indicates a form of extreme practicality (Elzanowski, 1981; Zhou and Zhang, 2004; Xing et al., 2017). “ Los Angeles: University of California Press ^ Sinclair, A.R.E., Simon A.R.

“What determines phenology and synchrony of ungulate breeding in Serengeti?” The spotted hyena: A study of predation and social behavior.

przewalski horse bio diet facts animalia nutrition animals habitat precocial
(Source: animalia.bio)

^ Radicchio, David J.; Corner, John R.; Jackson, Frankie D. (September 19, 2002). “Embryos and eggs for the Cretaceous Theropoda dinosaur Trodden Formosa “.

This movie brilliantly shows you the impressive life wild horses have. Horses, like humans, are largely diurnal creatures.

The fact that they are diurnal has probably strengthened the relationship between horses and humans through the centuries. It was critical for us humans that horses be active during the day.

These big cats are almost exclusively active during the hours around sunrise and sunset. They spend the whole day standing, feeding, moving, and running around.

This circadian rhythm is true for both wild an domesticated horse. In a zoo, for example, they will have lots of visitors and fun activities to do.

horse przewalski animalia bio habitat facts diet
(Source: animalia.bio)

In very rural parts of the world, they are still used as a supplement to human labor. Interestingly enough, all members of the Equine family sleep at night, as they are very active in the day.

As Diurnal creatures, it’s not uncommon to see horses active in the morning. As Diurnal creatures, it’s not uncommon to see horses active around sunset.

This means that it requires them quite a bit of effort lay down and stand back up. When horses lay down, some important physiological processes occur.

For example, laying down tends to actually cut off blood flow to certain parts of the horse’s body. This lack of blood flow can cause a whole host of problems for the horse.

In addition, horses think like prey animals; they know that a predator could come along at any time. Young horses have a longer circadian cycle.

horse babies many gestation
(Source: www.equestrianspace.com)

While horses can’t get REM sleeps while standing up, they can still get some useful rest. They have a mechanism where their kneecaps lock up, and the ligaments and tendons will keep the horses alignment while sleeping.

You can distinguish the difference between deep and light sleep in horses if you can watch them closer. If their heads are down and lower lips are dropped, this indicates they are asleep.

They have a unique elastic connection between their bones and joints. Like horses, they sleep during the night and stay standing while feeding and moving around during the whole day.

It seems like the circadian rhythm is similar for the entire family of Equine. While older horses have a shorter circadian clock.

3 horses running in a muddy field during the rain. They were used for both hauling war supplies, and as a sort of biological tank in cavalry charges.

horse przewalski bio horses animalia facts diet animals genus habitat przewalskis dzungarian phylum
(Source: animalia.bio)

They were used in earlier ages to extract insulin, as their bodies have some substantial quantities of it. Learning about their habits and preferences allows us to be better owners that create environments where our horses can thrive.

The horse, a prey animal, depends on flight as its primary means of survival. A stimulus unnoticed by humans is often cause for alarm for horses ; as riders and trainers we commonly mistake this reaction for “spookiness” or bad behavior.

A prey animal must react instantly to a perceived predator to be able to survive. If done correctly, human dominance can easily be established during training without causing the horse to become excessively fearful.

As a highly social animal, the horse communicates its emotions and intents to its herd mates through both vocalization and body language. The horse is a precocity species, meaning that the newborn foals are neurologically mature at birth.

Even though they have poor color vision, they can differentiate blue and red from gray hues. They can’t tell a trailer from an endless tunnel, or a mud puddle from a bottomless lagoon.

horse horses running herd buying pet insurance pasture equino equine petplan squad shutterstock
(Source: www.petplan.com.au)

Their perception is improved by about 5 times when using both eyes (binocular vision). This is why horses cock their head in different ways to see close vs. distant objects.

This is why a horse is much flightier on windy days; things that are normally stationary are now moving and perceived as a potential threat. Never approach a horse without talking to them in these areas; if frightened they will use one of their defense mechanisms, e.g., kick or run.

The expression in a horse’s eye is often thought to be a good indicator of their behavior, e.g., wide open with white showing (and not an Appaloosa), scared; half closed, sleepy, etc. They use their hearing for three primary functions: to detect sounds, to determine the location of the sound, and to provide sensory information that allows the horse to recognize the identity of these sources.

They can feel a fly on one single hair and any movement of the rider. Body SignalsHorses are good at letting us know exactly how they are feeling; the only problem is most people don’t know how to speak “horse”.

High: they are alert or excited Low: it is a sign of exhaustion, fear, pain or submission Held high over its back: (as seen in most foals) they are playful or are very alarmed Swishing: they are irritated. Jaws open with teeth exposed: this shows aggression or possible attack.

horse training imprint foal newborn precocial equisearch species care riding expert horses advice
(Source: www.equisearch.com)

The Freshmen response: This is caused by an intense or unusual smell, usually in stallions when they sense a mare in heat. Neutral: is when the ears are held loosely upward, openings facing forward or outward.

Pricked: ears held stiff with openings pointed directly forward means the horse is alert. Drooped ears: hang down loosely to the side, usually meaning tiredness or pain.

Ears pinned flat against the neck: (see picture below) the means watch out! Vocal noises include a squeal or scream which usually denotes a threat by a stallion or mare.

Neighs or whinnies are the most familiar: high-pitched, drawn out sounds that can carry over distances. Blowing is a strong, rapid expulsion of air resulting in a high-pitched “whooshing” sound, which usually is a sign of alarm used to warn others.

Snorting is a more passive, shorter lower pitched version of blowing and is usually just a result of objects entering the nasal passage. In contrast to signals of aggression within a herd, there are also signs of friendship.

young horses parelli lessons natural pat horse kalley horsemanship vital courtesy training
(Source: www.horsejournals.com)

Mares and foals nudge and nuzzle each other during nursing or for comfort, and mutual grooming, when two horses nibble at each other, is often seen. A herd of wild horses consists of one or two stallions, a group of mares, and their foals.

The older mare has had more experiences, more close encounters, and survived more threats than any other horse in the herd. Dominance is established not only through aggression but also through attitudes that let the other horses know she expects to be obeyed.

The stallion’s job is to be the herd’s guardian and protector, while maintaining reproductive viability. The stallion’s harem usually consists of 2 to 21 horses, with up to 8 of those being mares and the rest their offspring.

So, when a horse is being submissive, it will simulate eating by lowering its head, chewing, and licking its lips (similar to snapping mentioned above). Vices are negative activities that occur due to various causes, including stress, boredom, fear, excess energy, and nervousness.

When kept in stalls we prevent them from engaging in many natural activities such as grazing, walking, or playing with other horses. Cribbing occurs when the horse bites onto a fixed surface (e.g., stall door edge, grain bin, fence rail), arches his neck and sucks in air, making a grunting noise.

offspring nose horses facts horse gerry machen
(Source: www.kidzone.ws)

This causes a release of endorphins which relieves the unpleasant situation. Cribbing can lead to weight loss, poor performance, gastric colic, and excessive tooth wear.

Weaving occurs when the horse stands by the stall door and rhythmically shifts its weight back and forth on its front legs while swinging its head. This is also caused by boredom or excess energy, and can lead to weight loss, poor performance and weakened tendons.

To decrease the frequency of this behavior, you might try adding another mealtime, placing toys in the stall, or providing more roughage or turn out time. Wood chewing, eating bedding, or dirt, and self-mutilation are caused by lack of exercise or boredom.

To eliminate this as a cause, provide more roughage to the diet, and free choice salt or minerals. McDonnell, S. Equine Behavior Lab, University of Pennsylvania, School of Veterinary Medicine.

Once a male and a female have mated, it takes about 11-12 months of pregnancy before the baby horse (or, the foal) is born. A baby horse less than a year old is called a foal.

horse confinement
(Source: www.horsedigests.com)

The human fascination with horses dates back to our caveman ancestors and, perhaps, even beyond that. The earliest recorded history of mankind is in the form of drawings etched into the stone walls of caves.

When archeologists uncover remains of ancient civilizations, more times than not, they also discover evidence that horses were part of the social and economic structure. Horses extended the range over which men could explore, hunt, trade and wage war.

Competitions, races and games involving men and horses are as old as man’s domestication of the animal itself. On any given day, more people pause along roadsides to enjoy the beauty of a horse galloping across the field than there are visitors to all the art museums in the world.

The Bedouin tribesmen of the Arabian Desert are quick to point out that “a man’s treasure is carried in the bellies of his mares.” There are few in Kentucky who would disagree! Embodied in the horse is the same range of abstract and intangible personality characteristics that we find in ourselves.

Judged from the human perspective, some horses, like some people, are fearful and others bold; some have a strong work ethic and others are lazy; some appear to have the desire to win and while others are non-competitive; some react rationally to situations, others irrationally; some always seem to be good-natured while others are hostile; and, some are said to be honest and others dishonest. We can breed horses that will run faster races, pull heavier loads, cut calves out of the herd more nimbly, or endure long treks through uninviting terrain.

precocial altricial horses species
(Source: musingsofabiologistanddoglover.blogspot.com)

We can genetically influence whether a horse will prefer one gait over another, whether its neck will be long or short, its nose dished or level. Despite all of this selective breeding, the foal born in your stable last night inherited the same ten traits, as did the horses depict on the wall of the caveman.

These ten, inherited traits influence how the horse perceives the world around it and how it reacts to its environment. These traits include anatomical, physiological and behavioral characteristics that are intimately linked.

These ten traits are embedded deep within its DNA and are shared, without exception, by every horse that was ever born. The following chapters discuss each trait in detail and explain how you can use each to your advantage when dealing with horses.

Its primary enemies in nature are the large predators, particularly those of the cat and dog family, such as lions and wolves. Considering its enemies and its habitat, sprinting straight away from any frightening stimulus is the best way for horses to survive.

To understand horses, above all else, the natural instinct of this species to flee from real or imagined danger must be appreciated. Horses are a prey species that live with the danger of being eaten by their predator enemies.

horse thoroughbred english quarter horses appendix brown breed breeds bay animals seal andalusian american allow thoroughbreds rare stallion tack tb
(Source: draftswithdots.blogspot.com)

Horses have an uncanny ability to detect sensory stimuli that are far too vague for us to sense. We commonly interpret the flight reaction caused by the stimuli as “stupidity.” Horses are incredibly aware of their surroundings, so much so that people often misinterpret the horse’s reaction as “psychic” or the result of a “sixth sense.” However, the responses, which elicit such opinions, are caused by reactions to the same five senses we possess: sight, hearing, smell, taste and touch.

The horse is such a large animal that the speed of its response time is hard for us to comprehend. So horses, in nature, must quickly learn to ignore basically frightening but harmless things such as tumbleweeds, thunder, quail and other herbivorous prey species, such as bison, antelope, or deer.

It is, therefore, the owners’ responsibility to desensitize (train) horses to accept such routine procedures as farrier, veterinary examination including invasion of the body openings and basic therapeutic procedures such as dentistry, intubation, and oral or eye medication. It is understandable that in a species in which the ability to run away means life or death, positional control is the way in which leadership is established.

Dominant horses make threatening movements towards subordinate herd members. The submissive individual, yielding its space, reaffirms the role of the dominant leader.

Horses accept our dominance when we cause them to move when they’d prefer not to, or when we inhibit their movement. These techniques include round pens, training rings, long lines, driving lines, hobbles, lateral flexion of the head and neck, vertical flexion of the head, lateral control of the hind quarters, snubbing green colts to experienced horses and working them in harness next to an experienced horse.

horse things crush shiloh rider equine mind should know loses mare happens face horses
(Source: thehorseaholic.com)

It is imperative that people handling horses learn to read the body language of their charges. The Secret of Precocity: The horse is a precocity species, which means it is neurologically mature at birth.

For example newly hatched chicks, ducklings, goslings, quail, grouse, newborn fawns, calves, lambs and foals are fully active soon after birth. Unlike kittens, bear cubs, puppies or newly hatched owls or hawks, all of which are predatory species and quite helpless at birth, the precocity species must be quickly able to recognize danger and flee from it.

The imprinting period of the precocity species is immediately postpartum, when they visualize and memorize what they see move and want to follow and respect it (which in nature is usually the mother). In species with delayed imprinting periods this occurs much later (six or seven weeks in puppies, for example).

The book will cover each of the above subjects in depth, and then describe how to solve behavior problems using this knowledge. In this book Dr. Miller explains equine behavior a wonderfully concise and easy to read manner.

Chapter One of his book, Understanding the Ancient Secrets of the Horse's Mind is provided below. If you can predict when a horse is about to be aggressive or spook at something, you are better able to respond and either avoid a dangerous situation, or prevent that behavior.

confidence lacking
(Source: www.justequus.com.au)

Carey A. Williams, Ph.D., Extension Specialist in Equine Management, Rutgers University The horse, a prey animal, depends on flight as its primary means of survival.

A stimulus unnoticed by humans is often cause for alarm for horses ; as riders and trainers we commonly mistake this reaction for “spookiness” or bad behavior. A prey animal must react instantly to a perceived predator to be able to survive.

This is why it is critical to make the horse’s first training experience a positive one. The horse is a herd animal where a dominance hierarchy is always established.

If done correctly, human dominance can easily be established during training without causing the horse to become excessively fearful. Horses exert dominance by controlling the movement of their peers.

The body language of a horse is unique to the equine species. As a highly social animal, the horse communicates its emotions and intentions to its herd mates through both vocalization and body language.

dun gun gotta
(Source: www.pinterest.com)

The horse is a precocity species, meaning that the newborn foals are neurologically mature at birth. Even though they have poor color vision, they can differentiate blue and red from gray hues.

They can’t tell a trailer from an endless tunnel, or a mud puddle from a bottomless lagoon. This is why horses cock their head in different ways to see close vs. distant objects.

This is why a horse is much flightier on windy days; things that are normally stationary are now moving and perceived as a potential threat. Never approach a horse without talking to them in these areas; if frightened they will use one of their defense mechanisms, e.g., kick or run.

The expression in a horse’s eye is often thought to be a good indicator of their behavior, e.g., wide open with white showing (and not an Appaloosa), scared; half closed, sleepy, etc. They use their hearing for three primary functions: to detect sounds, to determine the location of the sound, and to provide sensory information that allows the horse to recognize the identity of these sources.

Horses tactile sensation or touch is extremely sensitive. High: they are alert or excited Low: it is a sign of exhaustion, fear, pain or submission Held high over its back: (as seen in most foals) they are playful or are very alarmed Swishing: they are irritated.

horse mclean asks andrew smart foals slow developers precocial
(Source: www.horsemagazine.com)

Jaws open with teeth exposed: this shows aggression or possible attack. The Freshmen response: This is caused by an intense or unusual smell, usually in stallions when they sense a mare in heat.

Neutral: is when the ears are held loosely upward, openings facing forward or outward. Pricked: ears held stiff with openings pointed directly forward means the horse is alert.

Vocal noises include a squeal or scream which usually denotes a threat by a stallion or mare. Neighs or whinnies are the most familiar: high-pitched, drawn out sounds that can carry over distances.

Blowing is a strong, rapid expulsion of air resulting in a high-pitched whooshing” sound, which usually is a sign of alarm used to warn others. Snorting is a more passive, shorter lower pitched version of blowing and is usually just a result of objects entering the nasal passage.

Mares and foals nudge and nuzzle each other during nursing or for comfort, and mutual grooming, when two horses nibble at each other, is often seen. A herd of wild horses consists of one or two stallions, a group of mares, and their foals.

precocial animals describe offspring vivipary separates happens parent terms future birds species horses ppt powerpoint presentation
(Source: www.slideserve.com)

The older mare has had more experiences, more close encounters, and survived more threats than any other horse in the herd. Dominance is established not only through aggression but also through attitudes that let the other horses know she expects to be obeyed.

The stallion’s job is to be the herd’s guardian and protector, while maintaining reproductive viability. The stallion’s harem usually consists of 2 to 21 horses, with up to 8 of those being mares and the rest their offspring.

So, when a horse is being submissive, it will simulate eating by lowering its head, chewing, and licking its lips (similar to snapping mentioned above). Vices are negative activities that occur due to various causes, including stress, boredom, fear, excess energy, and nervousness.

When kept in stalls we prevent them from engaging in many natural activities such as grazing, walking, or playing with other horses. Cribbing occurs when the horse bites onto a fixed surface (e.g., stall door edge, grain bin, fence rail), arches his neck and sucks in air, making a grunting noise.

Cribbing can lead to weight loss, poor performance, gastric colic, and excessive tooth wear. Weaving occurs when the horse stands by the stall door and rhythmically shifts its weight back and forth on its front legs while swinging its head.

horse mclean asks andrew smart partnership rumba bruce wonder georgia
(Source: www.horsemagazine.com)

This is also caused by boredom or excess energy, and can lead to weight loss, poor performance and weakened tendons. To decrease the frequency of this behavior, you might try adding another mealtime, placing toys in the stall, or providing more roughage or turn out time.

Wood chewing, eating bedding, or dirt, and self-mutilation are caused by lack of exercise or boredom. To eliminate this as a cause, provide more roughage in the diet, and free choice salt or minerals.

Its natural predators are large animals such as wolves and bears, so the capability to flee and run away is essential. Part of a horse's training is instilling trust and teaching them what is harmless (tractors, flags, weeds/flowers blowing in the wind, birds, bright colors) and harmful (predators) so that they are desensitized appropriately.

As a highly social animal, horses communicate their emotions and intentions to their herd members through both vocalization and body language. My horse makes this sound to greet me when I arrive at the barn.

Neighs or whinnies are the most familiar sound and are high-pitched, drawn out calls that can carry over distances. Blowing is a strong, rapid expulsion of air resulting in a high-pitched “whooshing” sound, This is usually a sign of alarm used to warn others.

precocial altricial elephants species animal horses wild guinea pigs
(Source: musingsofabiologistanddoglover.blogspot.com)

Snorting is a more passive, shorter lower pitched version of blowing. My horse will make a snorting sound when something unknown enters her space, like a wayward turtle crawling into her pasture.

Because people rely so much on verbal communication, it’s natural for us to focus on the sounds a horse makes when trying to figure out what they are saying. Being highly social animals, horses are good at letting us know exactly how they are feeling.

Nose (Nostrils) and Mouth (Muzzle) Eyes Ears Neck and Head Carriage Feet and Legs Tail Overall Posture Beyond the vocal communication, a horse’s nose and mouth can tell you several things about what he’s feeling.

For example, mares and foals will often use their muzzle to nudge and nuzzle each other during nursing or for comfort. A horse standing quietly with his lower lip drooping may be relaxing or even asleep.

A foal will sometimes raise his neck, push his head forward, curl his lips and click his teeth together. A horse exhibiting the Freshmen Response will stick their nose in the air and curl their upper lip over their nose, breathe in and blow air back out.

The Freshmen Response is usually caused by an intense or unusual smell and allows the horse to push the scent particles through a structure in his nose called the vomeronasal organ (No). You will also see this in stallions when they sense a mare in heat but all horses will do this when they smell something unusual, and they’re trying to get more information.

A horse will also flare his nostrils wide to draw in more air as he exercises. At other times, a horse’s nostrils may flare and even quiver when he is startled or nervous.

Tension around the mouth tells you your horse is worried, stressed or scared. Remove your horse from the situation or help him work through the stress or fear, so he won’t more obvious behaviors like trying to flee.

Jaws open with teeth exposed is a sign of aggression or possible attack. You may want to schedule a dental examination to make sure his teeth aren’t hurting him.

Lastly, if your horse stops eating and stands with his neck stretched out and his mouth gaping, he may be choking. A horse that reaches out to touch you with his muzzle may be just curious and checking you out, or he could be trying to nip or bite you.

You will see horses cock their head in different ways to see close vs. distant objects. Things that are normally stationary are now moving and can be perceived as a potential threat.

Although their eyesight is keen, horses actually have poor color vision. They can’t tell a trailer from an endless tunnel, or a mud puddle from a bottomless lake.

The expression in a horse’s eye is often thought to be a good indicator of their behavior. The movements of your horse’s eyes tell you not just what he’s thinking but also where his attention is focused.

As with tension around the muzzle, tightening of the muscles around the eyes can be a subtle sign of stress, fear or discomfort. This sign may precede a spook or bolt, but if your horse feels trapped he may react by biting or kicking in an attempt to get away.

The horse’s ears are a unique feature and one of the most expressive parts of their body: Pricked ears held stiff with openings pointed directly forward means the horse is alert and paying attention or interested in what’s in front of him.

Airplane or drooped ears flop out laterally with openings facing down. Ears angled backward (with openings directed back towards a rider).

Ears that are flicking back and forth are a sign that the horse is in a heightened state of anxiety or alertness. He may be trying to locate the source of a frightening sound or smell, or he may be overwhelmed by too many stimuli.

The position and movement of a horse’s head can tell you a lot about his mood and what he’s thinking: If he’s standing in his stall or pasture with a lowered head, he’s probably either resting or asleep.

A horse who raises his head while being ridden may be in pain, especially if he also hollows his back, pins his ears or wrings his tail. Carefully examine your tack for protruding screws or other sources of discomfort and check for proper fit.

As a prey animal, the horse depends upon flight as its primary means of survival. As riders and handlers, we commonly mistake this reaction for “spookiness” or bad behavior.

In the wild, they are most vulnerable immediately after birth, so they must be able to identify danger and flee if necessary. As a human, it’s important for us to understand this natural “flightiness” that is innate in horses.

We’ve all learned to watch out for a horse’s hind legs because that’s where the kicks come from. Injuries or health issues can also cause a horse to stand with his forelegs splayed.

Call in a veterinarian if a horse standing splay legged and is unwilling or unable to move. Pawing is an arcing action with the foreleg that may dig a trench in soft ground.

If the horse is loose, pawing like this often precedes a charge or some kind of attack. In a horse who is tied or in hand, forceful, angry pawing may precede a bite or strike.

Stomping or stamping usually indicates irritation or protest (or they may be getting rid of insects or flies biting their legs). Unlike pawing, stomping is raising and lowering a foot forcefully in place.

A strike is a forceful, forward kick with a front leg that can be either aggressive or defensive. It’s usually preceded by stomping or pawing, wide eyes, and an elevated head or pinned ears.

It’s important to listen to those signals so that you can change your horse’s focus or prepare for worsening behavior. You may see him occasionally shift his weight, unlocking that back leg and cocking the other one.

If he shifts his weight rapidly from one foot to the other, he may be telling you that he is in pain and cannot get comfortable or that he’s agitated. A horse may also cock a hind hoof when he is irritated or defensive and considering kicking.

The best thing you can do then is steer clear of his back end and move him forward and away from whatever is bothering him. Your horse may lift a hind leg off the ground to signal irritation.

The cause may be something as minor as a horsefly, or it could be that he’s annoyed with a horse or person behind him and is threatening to kick. In that case, his ears will probably be back, he may be wringing his tail, and his body will be tense.

A horse who is so excited that he’s flagging his tail when you are working with him, isn’t paying much attention to you, and he’s may be prone to spooking, bucking or bolting. A low or clamped tail can be a sign of exhaustion, fear, pain or submission.

A nervous or stressed horse will press his tail down, and may tuck in his hindquarters. If your horse swishes his tail often while you are riding, check your saddle fit to make sure no sharp or protruding edges are hurting him.

When your horse’s muscles are rigid and his movements are stiff, he’s either hurting, nervous or stressed. A horse who is so scared or nervous that he trembles is on the verge of either running away or fighting to protect himself.

Working with a horse who is this scared or nervous takes a lot of time and patience. Vices are negative activities that develop in horses due to various reasons, including stress, boredom, fear, excess energy, and nervousness.

When kept in stalls, they are prevented from engaging in many natural activities such as grazing, walking, or playing with other horses. A horse that is cribbing will place his upper incisors on a hard object (e.g., stall door edge, grain bin, fence rail), arch his neck, suck in air, and make a grunting noise.

It is not usually related to nutritional disorders or underlying illnesses, but has been linked to boredom or anxiety. This behavior is more of an annoyance than a health issue, but if left unchecked, it can lead to some superficial health issues, such as the abnormal wearing of the upper incisors and enlargement of the throat muscles.

In rare cases, some horses have been known to prefer cribbing to eating which can lead to weight loss, poor performance, or gastric colic. It may also include swaying of the rest of the body and picking up the front legs.

Horses that are consistent weavers over long periods of time may show abnormal hoof wear, and stress on their joints (which can cause lameness). Weaving has been linked to weight loss, uneven muscle development, and performance problems.

Adding another mealtime or providing more roughage, and placing toys in the stall may help decrease the frequency of this behavior. Free choice salt or minerals may decrease the frequency of these behaviors.

Spend time with your horse just observing his posture and how his expressions change as he interacts with you as well as other people and animals. As you become more familiar with his subtle cues, you will begin to understand his language and one day you will be a “mind reader” too.

Understanding Herd Behavior in People I found this in a document that I had filed under add to website. If you’ve ever watched a nature show about herding animals, you may have seen what a stampede looks like, that sudden chaotic movement when a herd of animals panics, normally from fear and begins to break in every direction.

Stampedes are not planned events, but they tend to affect the entire herd, and they can lead to disastrous results such as animals injured or trapped. These unplanned incidents and sometimes violent acts are called “herd behavior, and the term has been applied to many aspects of human culture.

Though we may think we are individuals, groups of people may act in concert, especially in situations that leave little time for decision-making (fear or panic). Similarly, you might look at the behavior in the retail environment on day after Thanksgiving sales (known as Black Friday).

People have been injured in attempting to get to a special item offered at a very good price, when the doors of a store opens and the crowd stampedes in. Remember Tickle me Elmo or Beanie Babies, people were stealing, waiting in line and fighting over these items.

Teenagers and school kids will smoke to be cool or accepted, they will join band or sports or some group that enable them to belong or to be with the same type of people, where they connect or feel safe. In riots, people get caught up in the violence and excitement and chaotic behavior and then that attitude continues to grow and progress and soon you have a stampede.

Just as people have only self-interest in mind when they knock over others to get to a cheaply sold item, or the front seats of a rock concert; or even more so when they start selling or purchasing stocks to either make a profit or make an investment that will prove profitable in the very near future. So when horses run people down, run into a fence or injury themselves when scared or fearful, people tend to blame the horse for being stupid or unreasonable, when in fact if they look at it objectively they would see it is pretty normal behavior and can be predicted and expected.

Such things as housing price can be determined by herd behavior and may be augmented by reports. In 2007, the Santa Rosa, California Press Democrat featured an angry letter to the editor asking them not to write anything else on the declines in the housing market.

These questions do not represent a value judgment on such choices, but they may slightly change what things might be considered instinctual, or make people realize they are not acting in an “inborn” and traditional way, possibly creating discomfort. This imprinting creates pressure, confusion and prevents the mother (mare horse) from teaching and bonding without human interference.

Yet again, people will try and justify imprinting with myths about how it makes a horse safer or friendly or calmer, all wrong and does the Exact opposite of what it tries to do. People will do things like habitually eat, find a warm place to sleep and possibly fight if they’re threatened, but behavior of kids seems to be posed a constant and drawn-out exploration of the world that threatens survival continuously.

Precocity Species are born more developed and know and are able to run, fly or flee for survival. From the moment the baby puts the penny in his mouth and tries to choke on it to the instant when a teen drives off too quickly in a car, survival is continually being risked.

Moreover, how does the firefighter run into the burning building to rescue others instead of keeping away from it, and why do instincts like hunger/survival lead to overeating that may shorten life? There is also a good argument to be made that collective behavior of the human species tends not toward survival but toward destruction of species, through support of various activities that may ultimately sharply reduce ability to produce food.

They can think many steps ahead, they can predict, they can analyze, they can reason and remember a million times more than a horse. The maternal instinct often arises when a baby is first put into the arms of the mother, and the reaction can be observed chemically by looking at increases in hormones.

This does not always occur and conditions like postpartum depression may interfere with normal hormonal increases, changing mother/child interaction, unless a woman gets assistance. When the reaction is “as normal”, strong protective feelings for the child can flood the mother and many describe this as feeling a love that is very strong and intense, knowing that there is little they would not do to protect the child.

Even when children’s needs are physically met, without a single caregiver and an infant/caretaker bond, analytic depression can develop, resulting in huge losses developmentally and sometimes in mental conditions like attachment disorder. This scenario has been observed repeatedly in orphanages and in hospital settings, suggesting strong social instinct in the newborn.

To me it is so clear, yet mainly women are the ones that promote this bonding and imprinting crap that is dominating the horse world. I would expect another mom to understand this, yet this very primal instinct is ignored and horse are made and forced to give up this right or get beat, blamed or labeled horrible names.

Blaming, labeling and calling horse’s names predict their future both positive and negative. This can malfunction in humans too, and people with panic disorder may have an overly activated system that signals fight/flight response when no danger is present.

Much like horses can think a plastic bag is going to eat or harm him, when in fact a human can know that it is no danger. People seem less tied to instinctual behavior than are other animals, and centuries of philosophy and theology have been aimed at addressing the issue of whether the spirit can be stronger the flesh, with many religions certainly answering that it can.

Cannon used the term to describe animals that underwent situations, where they either had to flee or prepare to fight, in order to defend themselves from danger. According to Cannon’s descriptions, when an animal is frightened or imperiled, the sympathetic nervous system responds.

When this happens, reaction time slows, thought process is slowed, reasoning ability is diminished and this lack of action is seen by a horse as weakness, lack of leadership and tells a horse not to trust this person in a crisis or you will die. Yet every, yes mainly women, wants a young horse to raise and take care of, so they can grow and learn together.

Fight or flight reaction has also been found to occur in humans during times of stress or danger. In some cases, the sympathetic nervous system causes such extreme boosts of adrenaline that people are able to do things they couldn’t under ordinary circumstances, like lift a car off an injured loved one.

People may encounter the fight or flight reaction not just in situations of perceived physical danger. The sympathetic nervous system essentially misfires, and suddenly being unable to find your keys, or something else mundane, causes a rapidly beating heart, heavy breathing, or an outright panic attack.

For people with PTSD, small reminders of past traumatic events, like a smell, the temperature or being in a place familiar to where traumatic events occurred can provoke this response. For some, this can provoke aggressive behavior toward others, and yet others find themselves panicking or needing to change environments quickly.

Withdrawing from social interaction, even by watching television or surfing the net, could be viewed as a slight flight reaction when times get stressful. In studies on gender and fight or flight reaction it has been observed that men tend to become more aggressive or more withdrawn than do women under stressful situations, probably because in our culture, women tend to be more likely to lean on social resources (friends and family) to discuss their problems.

In all, most people will encounter fight or flight reaction (a herd behavior) in times of stress. Being in a full hyper arousal state can lead to bowel problems, panic, argumentative mood, withdrawal, and difficulty sleeping and breathing.

If this response seems to occur frequently without stimuli, like a real danger or stressful situation unfolding, it may be wise to evaluate ways to address this response with a mental health professional or with your personal physician. Much like seeing a small child in run into the street and almost being killed by speeding cars.

Other Articles You Might Be Interested In

01: Neoprene Girths Horses
02: Newborn Cries When Put Down
03: New Fastest Horse
04: New Forest Pony
05: New Zealand Turnout Rug
06: New Zealand Weanling Sales
07: New Zealand Yearling Sales
08: New Zealand Yearling Sales 2019
09: New Zealand Yearling Sales 2020
10: New Zealand Yearling Sales 2021
Sources
1 www.nzb.co.nz - https://www.nzb.co.nz/sales/21kaa
2 www.nzb.co.nz - https://www.nzb.co.nz/news/karaka-2021-yearling-catalogues-out-now
3 www.nzbstandardbred.co.nz - https://www.nzbstandardbred.co.nz/sales/2021-national-standardbred-yearling-sale-christchurch
4 www.nzbstandardbred.co.nz - https://www.nzbstandardbred.co.nz/sales/2021-national-standardbred-yearling-sale-auckland/23
5 www.nzbstandardbred.co.nz - https://www.nzbstandardbred.co.nz/sales/2021-national-standardbred-yearling-sale-auckland/30
6 www.racingnews.co.nz - https://www.racingnews.co.nz/karaka-2021-yearling-catalogues-out-now/
7 windsorparkstud.co.nz - https://windsorparkstud.co.nz/category/95-older-stock
8 www.summerlea.co.nz - https://www.summerlea.co.nz/miniature-ponies-sale
9 www.scoop.co.nz - http://www.scoop.co.nz/stories/BU1311/S01051/nzb-national-yearling-sales-series-catalogues-online-today.htm
10 www.noelleeming.co.nz - https://www.noelleeming.co.nz/newyearsale
11 brighthillfarm.co.nz - https://brighthillfarm.co.nz/
12 www.anzbloodstocknews.com - https://www.anzbloodstocknews.com/the-new-zealand-bloodstock-premier-yearling-sale/