A blue roan horse has a body with a mixture of black and white hairs. The head and legs frequently have more black hairs than white, making them appear darker.
However, there are exceptions to having darker legs, particularly within the draft horse breeds. Buckskin horses have a body color of various shades of yellow or gold, sometimes with a tarnish tint.
A counter shading marking can some is several forms, including what appears to be a dorsal stripe. In some cases gene testing, or knowledge of the horse's parents' coloring, may be necessary to distinguish a buckskin from a dun.
For more information on the term “dorsal stripe” please see the bottom of this page. The chestnut coat color covers a wide range of red shades, from light shades of coppery- red to deeper reddish browns.
Dun horses have a body color of various shades of yellow or gold, sometimes with a tarnish tint. In addition, duns may have a stripe that runs transverse over their withers.
NOTE: For more information on the terms “dorsal stripes” and “transverse over withers” please see the bottom of this page. Tiger stripes on the back of the front legs of a dun horse.
Gray horses are born a dark color and gain more white hairs as they age. Some people call older, lighter colored gray horses white, and while the confusion is understandable the horse is still properly classified as a gray.
Steel grays are a smooth blend of dark hairs and light hairs, giving the horse a solid gray appearance when viewed at a distance. Flea bitten grays have dark specks scattered over a lighter base color of white.
Please note that white markings are different from spots on a horse's body. Spots WILL usually make a difference in how a horse's color is classified.
With some young horses, particularly, it may not be readily apparent if they are gray or roan and it may take some time to see how their color develops. Roan horses commonly keep approximately the same ratio of white-hairs-to-colored- hairs as they age.
However, it's worth mentioning some roans gain more white hairs as they age than others. In roan horses, the head and legs are often darker than the rest of the body.
Some images and/or other content on this website are copyright © their respective owners. This page is a list of horse and pony breeds, and also includes terms for types of horse that are not necessarily standardized breeds but are often labeled as breeds.
Registries also are considered the authority whether a given breed is listed as a “horse” or a “pony”. There are also a number of color breed “, sport horse, and gained horse registries for horses with various phenotypes or other traits, which admit any animal fitting a given set of physical characteristics, even if there is little or no evidence of the trait being a true-breeding characteristic.
Other recording entities or specialty organizations may recognize horses from multiple breeds, thus, for the purposes of this article, such animals are classified as a “type” rather than a “breed”. In some cultures and for some competition-sanctioning organizations, a horse that normally matures less than about 145 cm (14.1 hands) when fully grown may be classified as a pony “.
There are some registries that accept horses (and sometimes ponies and mules) of almost any breed or type for registration. These are called color breeds,” because unlike “true” horse breeds, there are few other physical requirements, nor is the stud book limited in any fashion.
However, in some nations, particularly in Europe, there is a recording method or means of studbook selection for certain types to allow them to be licensed for breeding. Baroque horse, includes heavily muscled, powerful, yet agile Classical dressage breeds such as the Lipizzaner, Frisian, Andalusian, and Luciano.
Gained horse, includes a number of breeds with a hereditary intermediate speed four-beat ambling gait, including the Tennessee Walker, Pass Fine, and many others. German Warm blood or FDP, collective term for any of the various warm blood horses of Germany, of which some may be registered with the nationwide German Horse Breeding Society (FDP).
Indian Half-bred, a half-blood type from India Mountain and moorland pony breeds, abbreviated “M&M,” a specific group of pony breeds native to the British Isles. Oriental horse, the “hot-blooded” breeds originating in the Middle East, such as the Arabian, Akhal-Teke, Barb, and Turbofan horse Part-Arabian, a variety of breeds and crossbreeds with a significant amount of documentable Arabian blood, but not pure Arab.
Sport horse or Sport horse, includes any breeds suitable for use in assorted international competitive disciplines governed by the FEI. Windsor Grey, the gray carriage horses of British Royalty.
Prior to approximately the 13th century, few pedigrees were written down, and horses were classified by physical type or use. Thus, many terms for Horses in the Middle Ages did not refer to breeds as we know them today, but rather described appearance or purpose.
These members of Equus ferns either were a recognized, distinct breed of horse that no longer exists as such, or subspecies that have become extinct at some point since domestication of the horse. This section does not include any species within evolution of the horse prior to modern Equus ferns Catullus.
Before the availability of DNA techniques to resolve the questions related to the domestication of the horse, various hypotheses were proposed. One classification was based on body types and conformation, suggesting the presence of four basic prototypes, labeled the Tarzan “, Forest horse “, Draft and “Oriental”, each of which was hypothesized to have adapted to their environment prior to domestication.
However, more recent studies suggest that all domesticated horses originated from a single wild species and that the different body types of horses were entirely a result of selective breeding after domestication, or possibly land race adaptation. Wikimedia Commons has media related to Horse breeds.
Red horse or chestnut is a very majestic and sonorous color and so should be its name. You can name your chestnut next to a plant which is red like Azalea, this is a flower which is small but it has a very soft fragrance, it is light red.
Or you can name it Celia, it is a red velvety flower. Celia is a word that is derived from the Greek language and it actually means burning or flame-like flower, so, this name has a lot of meaning in it and fits the perfect match for your red horse.
Considering old languages and their words with meaning, they sound very buccaneer and manor which can be a perfect name for your stellar horse. Electra is also an old Greek word which means fiery sun or sparkling.
And if you are lucky to have a red Arabian horse then name it Iran, this word means fire or flames which can be the most sublime name for a male or female horse. It is hard to find name for your red horse, and it makes us confuse with other color horse names.
I love to solve equine health care issues and note down in the form of research papers. I have written hundreds of equine health care, accessories, names, and history-related blogs.
My equine related work is watering a lot of horse-related magazines and blogs. Horses are ungulate mammals with elongated heads, muscular torsos, thick necks, long tails and short hair.
According to the Oklahoma State University, the first horses were domesticated between 3000 and 4000 B. C mostly for meat, hair, hide, bone, milk and medicine. Apart from the North America, you’ll find horses in virtually every country of the world.
Horses are smart, exhibit unique social qualities and live in herds of between three and twenty animals led by a mature male known as a stallion. Read on to learn about the most popular horse breeds found in the world today.
All Arabs regardless of their coat color have a dark skin to offer them protection from the harsh desert. Naturally, the Arabians cooperate with humans, but they can become wild when treated to extreme abuse.
They dominate the discipline of endurance horse racing due to their healthy bones and high speed. They are found in places like Brazil, Continental Europe, UK, Canada, US, Australia, and the Middle East.
Source: Wikimedia The Rennes/ Dennis are among the oldest breeds of the draft horse that originated from France and the Rennes area of Belgium. For a long time, the Rennes has been featured in wars, but today they are used for farming, draft work, driving events and meat.
They are also muscular with a compact body, short back, sturdy legs and robust joints. The flocks are feathered and come in coats of palomino, gray, chestnut, roan and bay.
This breed has a high occurrence of an inherited genetic disorder called the functional epidermolysis bulls. The breed has been domesticated as a working animal, but lately, it has become a popular show and pleasure horse.
They come in bay coatings and show some white markings due to the presence of Sabine genes. The horses feature a slightly convex or straight facial shape with a wide muzzle and broad forehead.
They are muscular and strong with an arched neck, clopped shoulder and high withers. Source: Flickr by LylithLusitana A Dutch Warm blood is a type of warm-blooded horse developed through a breeding program that started in the 1960s in the Netherlands.
Most Dutch Warm bloods have white marking and come in gray, chestnut, bay, brown and black coatings. This Dutch breed features long legs but with a smooth towline and expressive head.
They are suitable for dressage and show jumping, but in North America, the breed is a popular choice for hunter ring. They are strong and live long due to their stringent breeding requirements and elite mares.
Two features unique to this breed are the hooded upper brows to protect them from rain and wind, as well as the snow-chute- a group of short hairs on the upper part of the tail designed to channel rain down the horse’s body. Ex moors are usually brown with broad foreheads, large pronounced eyes and small ears.
Source: Wikimedia The Frisian/ Frisian are a type of horse breed originating from Friesland, Netherlands. Their conformation resembles that of a light draft horse, although this breed is more graceful and nimble.
All through the Middle Ages, they were in high demand because they were used to carry the knight in armor during times of war. They feature long arched necks and well-chiseled Spanish heads with short ears.
They have strong, sloping shoulders with compact, muscular bodies and low-set thick tails. They stand among the world’s oldest breed and have worked as farm horses for many years due to their incredible strength.
The horses have some significant amount of light hairs on the outside edges of the mane and the tail. Today, they are popular at the Norwegian riding and therapeutic institutions suitable for disabled people and children sporting activities.
Their distinguishing feature is the abundance of feathers from behind their knees, as well as a long free-flowing mane and tail. Overall, they are wonderful family horses and are popular therapy breeds due to their gracious nature.
Source: Apixaban The Harbinger or the Avelignese is a type of horse breed found in northern Italy and Austria. In the late 19th century, the breed was small with distinctive gaits and a chestnut color.
Their current conformation and appearance stems from an infusion of various European and the Arabian breeds. Similarly to Fjord Horse, the Harbinger was mainly used in mountainous terrains due to their hardcore nature.
The breed is mainly chestnut, but it comes in other shades including light gold. The tail and mane are flaxen or white, and their height has increased to an average of 55 inches.
The canter and trot are elastic and show a clear definition of ligaments and tendons. In the 1940s, their role was coming to an end, but they have now been rediscovered and are used widely as sport and family horses.
The breed comes in many coat colors and patterns, including dun, black, gray, pinto, roan, palomino and chestnut. The legs are short and strong, and the mane and tail are filled with coarse hair.
These horses have a medium-sized compact body with short sturdy legs and strong quarters. They have gentle, expressive eyes, thick strong necks and long ears.
Source: Globetrotting The Knabstrupper/ Knabstrup is a Danish horse breed that measures between 62 and 64 inches. They have an unusual collection of coat colors that range from solid to full leopard spotted hues and various variants in between.
The spots result from a genetic mechanism known as Leopard complex, which is also found in Appaloosa horses. It was first developed in 1312 in Denmark where a solid-colored stallion and a chestnut mare with leopard complex markings were used by horse breeders to produce a colt with dramatic spots.
The horse does well in show jumping, dressage, circus, carriage and general riding. They are a brand in many European countries, Australia, Czech Republic and the United States.
Their most distinguishing traits are a long head with a convex profile, narrowing to a curved nose, large conspicuous eyes inclined to an almond shape, a powerful neck with a tiny hairline giving off the impression of being upright, a short body with strong shoulders, a deep rib cage, clean legs with strong bone support- the hind legs sited perfectly under the axis, as well as agile movement with a smooth, comfortable ride. The common colors are skewbald, piebald, white, palomino, chestnut, gray and bay.
Other features include broad angular shoulders, deep chest, pronounced neck, sloping croup, long back, slender legs and small but well-built hooves. The breed is suited for sport, shows, horse safaris and ceremonial and religious purposes.
It was used a general riding animal and was also used for harness sporting during the American Civil War. The Morgan horse has strong legs, a straight or slightly convex profile, an expressive head and a broad forehead.
They excel in endurance riding, dressage, western pleasure, show jumping among other things. The breed is indigenous to New Forest in southern England, where horses have lived since the last ice age.
New Forest Ponies stand at an average 12.2 to 14.4 hands and come in many solid colors including brown, bay and gray. They are well-built with a slightly sloping shoulder which gives them a straight profile, making them perfect for riding and driving.
They have a shortish neck and prominent head and most have great feet with strong hindquarters. They also have a calm temperament making them ideal for most pony lovers and also one of the best horse breeds for a first time owner.
Source: Wikimedia The Oldenburg is a type of warm-blooded horse breed from the western part of Lower Saxony. The appearance of an individual Oldenburg varies, and you are safer describing any warm blood by its actual parentage.
Its evolution can be traced back to the expedition of the Spanish Hernando, who travelled with one of the horses described as a pinto with white markings on his feet. The Paint Horses have a distinct body with a broad chest and strong, muscular hindquarters.
It was early Quarter Horses that helped to establish the popular tradition of rodeo in the US. A stallion named Old Tone was used to produce the modern day Rocky Mountain Horses in the mid-20th century.
It is a tall breed and has held the world record for being the largest and tallest horse for many years. The breed has a great capacity for pulling weight and has been used to deliver ale to clients.
The shire horses have an easy-going temperament but have a high risk of suffering from chronic progressive lymph edema. The back is short with a strong coupling while the hips and shoulders are long and sloppy.
The hindquarters are moderately thick and come in all solid colors and pinto patterns. The horse excels in trail riding activities both in Western and English regions.
The Vladimir Draft Horse has a large, long head, with a straight nose. Its ears are pricked forward and its neck is long and strong with powerful shoulders.
Source: Wikimedia The Westphalia is a warm blood horse bred in the region of Westphalia in Western Germany. Since the second world war, this horse has been bred to the same standards as other German warm bloods, and they are particularly suitable for pleasure riding and competitive dressage.
The Westphalia does not discriminate on color, however, some shades such as chestnut, black, gray and bay are rare. She is a mom of three who spends all her free time with her family and friends, her mare Joy, or just sipping her favorite cup of tea.
Don’t do it boys this horse girl is looking for pointers to hide her crazy. That was due to the fact that she didn’t have a steady job while we dated.
She portrayed herself as a socialite but in reality she didn’t have an apartment and slept on her friends couch. I didn’t learn that until after we broke up and her friend told me.
Horse riding guy myself, so I may give a bit of an extra insight. As mentioned, yes, “father’s money” can be seen as a red flag, but there are as many, if not more genuine hardworking horse-women out there.
Yes, I don’t notice the smell of horse shit either, but most people do, so you’ve got to respect that. If you’re aware of the hot/crazy scale, you’ll understand this one.
She’ll often smell like a barn. Perils of becoming a “horse husband.” I.E. spending some of your precious free time helping around at the barn, driving her around, driving horses around, etc.
Horseback riding can induce confidence in a person. Unfortunately, many horse people have overdosed on confidence, but still.
From my experience, women that like horses or that have horses can be immature, pretentious, obsessive and maybe this last one doesn’t go for all but two of them did have father issues. There’s a horse girl and her mom who come into my work.
She and her mom both regularly smell like horse shit :( I do fence and stall repairs and such and feed the morning shift given she’s caring for a 94-year-old Dad.
This lead to upper class people who are very rich and snobby being horse girls or lower class people who don’t know how to spend their money correctly and don’t come from great families. This combined with the over affection/over commitment for the horse is a recipe for disaster.
Horses take lots of resources and are seldom used for genuine productivity. It’s sort of like a jeep that costs 10 grand a year to maintain and can’t be stored in the suburbs.
I wish everyone could own a horse if they wanted, but economic realities mean that the horse has to be a really flipping high priority in a person’s life to be there at all, often beyond what is reasonable. So as a rule, if you’re looking for people whose priorities in life are way out of order, which is often symptomatic of other issues, horse girls are a great place to start.
I’ve just had bad experiences with horse girls. I love this question because it is so superficial but has some truths in it that are really hard to explain.
Many here talk about horse girls being pretentious or privileged and it might be one of the reasons. The observation I made is that horse girls have a weird attitude towards men (at least I can only talk about my male point of view) and tend to be controlling.
My theory is that there are similarities in their relationship with horses and men. All of this is of course just unproven almost superficial bullshit but there is something about horse girls that’s just different.
RHC CL advocates, teaches and mentors humans and horses ; together or separate, through a considerate leadership model for the betterment of the world. Is our herd manager, and an author and independent consultant on company culture, the ideals of the craft marketplace and the connected lifestyle.
Fred is a musician, as well as an instructor in School craft College’s Brewing and Distilling program. Jenny has worked in Central America since 1984 in the areas of human rights, trauma and recovery and international policy with Witness for Peace, the Guatemalan Church in Exile, Nicaraguan Ministry of Social Welfare, AFC and the Quixote Center.
She has worked with the herd at Sun dance Center and Red Horse Ranch as equine specialist and has been Ea gala Certified since 2017. Horses are an essential part of Red Dead Redemption 2 (RDR2) as not only will they act as the main mode of transport in the game, they have also revamped the player-horse dynamic.
In the original Red Dead Redemption, horses were seen solely as a mode of transport, and more importantly, expendable. This lack of connection would often result in the death of a lot of horses that could be easily replaced by another, or miraculously revived by infinitely activating the 'Horse Deed' in the player's inventory after purchasing it.
That being said, if the player finds themselves in a firefight with their horse and want to avoid losing it, they can command their trusty stead to flee the scene, to return to the Stable. Properly maintaining a horse will improve its speed, stamina, health, and its calmness under tense situations.
Horses with strong bonds can also hear the player's whistle from further away, and will learn new tricks and ways to maneuver. On the other hand, if players fail to build a bond and properly tend to their horses, the opposite happens, and they may even kick the player down if you try to mount them from behind; this is also true for horses that are stolen from other people that may have built strong bonds with them.
While the player won't necessarily be able to dye their horse pink or turquoise (remember realism is another key component), players will be able to customize the majority of the Horse Tack, and even style the hair on the mane and tail. Once the target is located, players can use their lasso to subdue the desired horse, and subsequently mount it.
Horses occasionally appear throughout Red Dead Revolver, often in background. Horseback riding features prominently in the mission”End of the Line”, during which the player, as Red Harlow, must chase down a train commanded by antagonist Javier Diego on horseback; the player must jump back and forth between their mount and the moving train.
Horses are fast, adaptable, carry equipment, and allow the rider to utilize weapons while riding. In-game horses come in a vast variety of breeds, appearances and colors; several of which have different pattern variations.
Horses in Red Dead Redemption are very realistic in their movement and behavior, reacting to their environment and exhibiting self-preservation instincts. For example, a horse will generally refuse to jump off a cliff despite attempts by the player to guide it over.
In addition, they will become panicked when riding too close to the edge of steep drops. Horses, just like the characters, will each have unique personalities, temperaments and performance characteristics.
If the player is stranded in the wilderness without a horse, they are presented with a situation to attain one. All horses in the game have a certain level of stamina, represented by the blue bar to the left of the mini-map.
Spurring a horse beyond its physical capabilities will likely result in it bucking the player off. The player's steed, established as Mars ton's own horse either by hitching it or by using a horse deed, has a brown saddle with small saddlebags and a blanket roll across the back.
Horses also provide the physical power for stagecoaches, wagons and carts. The player can drive these horses by occupying the driver's seat of the trailers.
Some missions require the taming or breaking of a wild horse in order to domesticate them. The hunting statistics maintained in the game make a distinction between domesticated and wild horses, with the latter being required for the Unnatural Selection achievement/trophy while killing the former is counted as a crime.
As with stolen horses, they must subsequently be hitched before becoming the player's trusty steed. Some settlements also offer the player the opportunity to tame horses as an activity.
When either kind of horse is killed, they can be skinned, and their meat and hide can be sold for cash. Although horses are strong in Red Dead Redemption, there are certain animals that players need to be aware of.
Grizzly bears and cougars can kill the player's horse if they get too close. The majority of horses (with a few exceptions) will die in a single hit from cougars and bears, so if players are in Great Plains or Tall Trees, they are advised to watch out for them.
Coyotes and other smaller animals will not attack the player while on horseback, so they pose no danger. Each major region has a 3-star horse breed: the American Standard bred in West Elizabeth, the Kentucky Saddler in New Austin, and the Hungarian Half-bred in Nero Paris.
* After reaching Legend, the three noted breeds are unlocked at lower ranks. Once unlocked, the horse can be set as the player's chosen mount in the Outfitter.
The undead horse cannot be killed without explosions, headshots, fire bottles or holy water. Undead horses can be found and obtained the same way their living counterparts were in Red Dead Redemption.
Horses continue to be ramified in Red Dead Redemption 2, and their impact on the game and players has been expanded. This is critical for the horse becoming more comfortable in precarious situations, such shootouts and encountering predators.
If the bond is weak, the horse may throw players off its back and flee from the threat, taking supplies and weapons with it. There are 19 breeds of horse, from Appaloosas and Arabians, to Shires to Mustangs, each of which handles differently with its own defined characteristics.
Horses can be captured and broken out in the wild, purchased from stables, or acquired by more underhanded means. With 59 different styles of coat, and a huge range of customizable tack, including saddles, horns, stirrups, and spurs, players can create a horse that is truly their own.
While standing idle, horses will snap at flies, moves their ears around if they're hearing something, and defecate. These stats are represented by white bars, with seven being the natural maximum without any stat-boosting items, like stirrups.
It is possible to carefully drop from a ledge of a certain height (e.g. the roof of a building) and land mounted on the saddle of the horse, a stunt performed in many westerns. The player can either jump or fall off a ledge naturally and land on their horse.
This can easily be done by jumping over the balcony of the Armadillo saloon directly above a hitched horse (only works in single player). Players can use the side track near railroads to travel faster the same way as using roads, though if the player comes too close to tracks, it’s considered as “off-road”, and the speed of the horse will drop rapidly.
It is possible to make the horse's stamina last indefinitely while riding top speed by pressing the sprint button once every 3 gallops. Additionally, the pressing of the sprint button 2 times every 4 gallops decreases stamina very slowly.
Statistically, the best horses in the Single-player game are Arabians (Rose Grey Bay, Black, White in that order), but have a fragile temperament. Just like in Dr, it is possible to fall or jump from a certain distance and land mounted on a horse.
Thoroughbreds offer maximum speed early on and on a budget, but suffer from low health and stamina. When near a railroad track, it is possible for the player to whistle for their horse and have it run over by an oncoming train.
In Red Dead Redemption, if a player whistles for their horse near a water source, the horse may run into the water and promptly disappear unrealistically (if gone past “drowning” point). Sometimes, while at Macfarlane's Ranch, a glitch may occur in which a horse will fly and then disappear.
This most commonly occurs when presented with a horse on a mission (such as in Must a Savior Die? ) In Red Dead Redemption 2, if the horse is on uneven terrain, it may sometimes stand in unrealistic manners.
The horses in Red Dead Redemption utilize the Euphoria engine to create realistic procedural animation, an engine also utilized by GTA IV and Star Wars: The Force Unleashed. This will of course kill it, but can result in some amusing rag doll physics of the character as they fall off.
If you bring your horse up to sprinting speed and enter dead eye, it can survive infinite shots to the head. Mars ton will sometimes stroke the horse or adjust his saddle whilst standing still.
John takes a great liking to horse, preferring them over the automobile as a means of transport. Many of the noises that the horses make are common film stock sound effects.
NPCs may sometimes call their horses a name, such as “Abraham,” “Annabelle,” “Justice,” or Bess.” The player killing their own horse will result in an honor decrease, unless they are wearing the bandana.
Although every horse saddle in the game comes with a holster for repeaters, they do not function as anything other than aesthetic decoration, and there is not a single occasion where anyone actually uses them. The only horses that can survive more than one attack from a cougar or bear (in the original game) are the Warhorse and Hungarian Half-Bred.
The three-star horses may occasionally appear outside their confirmed area, such as a Hungarian Half-Bred in West Elizabeth. Strangely, there is a clear audible difference between the hoof impacts against paths/dirt (when trotting or walking) of the PS3 and X360 versions of the game.
Whilst the PS3 is quite quiet and not very distinct in its representation of this, the X360 has deeper, louder and punchier sound effects which are clearly heard. This, and the differing shades of fire used on War in the Undead Nightmare expansion (as well as more grass present in the wilderness of the X360 version) are the only differences between the two console versions of the game.
Unlike its predecessor, the different breeds have different body types: many wagon horses are of light draft type, commonly with feathering; Arabians have finer features and the classic dished head; and the Dennis towers over the others. Horses have different “bond levels” that can be raised by petting, bathing, brushing, or simply riding them.
Low-level bond horses will only come when called at a close distance, will flee from gunfire, and may kick out at you when approached from behind; high-level bond horses will stoically stand through a gunfight, never kick, and can be called from a longer range. Gold nuggets worth $25 can often be found in horses saddlebags.
The taming and riding or killing of horses are included in the completion of the following five available achievements/trophies : Complete 20-story missions without switching to a new horse at a hitching post.
However, some maple species have a sinister side--- horses and ponies as well as donkeys, mules and zebras eating the fallen, wilted or dried leaves can be fatally poisoned. In the autumn, fallen maple leaves are generally less palatable to horses, but they also pose a serious threat when they are consumed.
“ Red maple toxicity is not common, simply because most people feed their horses well and pay attention to what their horses are eating,” says Anthony Knight, BSC, MS, Davis, a large animal veterinarian, plant toxicologist and professor emeritus at Colorado State University. The danger posed by wilted or dried red maple leaves has long been recognized: Horses who consume them may sicken or die within hours or days.
Toxins in the plant damage the hemoglobin in the horse’s red blood cells, so they can no longer carry oxygen. Outward signs of red maple poisoning include lethargy, poor appetite, colic, pale yellowish gums that progress to dark muddy brown, increased heart rate, faster respiration and distinctive dark red to black-colored urine.
The speed and severity of red maple silicosis depends on how many wilted leaves have been eaten relative to the horse’s body weight. Do not wait for signs to appear---your horse’s best chance of survival depends on the earliest possible intervention.
There is no specific antidote to red maple silicosis, but supportive treatment including intravenous fluids and possibly blood transfusions may help a horse survive long enough for the toxins to clear his system. One 2006 study from North Carolina State University reviewed the cases of 32 horses with red maple poisoning admitted to referral hospitals in the Southeast.
Of those cases, 29 horses were anemic, 24 had serious systemic inflammation, 12 had kidney dysfunction, nine had laminates and 13 had colic---19 (59 percent) died. Compounds extracted from red, sugar, silver and Norway maple leaves incubated with equine blood samples caused oxidation, hemolytic (the breakdown of red blood cells) or other types of damage to the cells.
Several chemicals were identified as toxic to the equine red blood cells, most notably Gallic acid. In fact, Boyer speculated that horses would most likely not be able to ingest enough Norway maple leaves to cause themselves any serious harm.
In a separate study, Cornell researchers Karyn Bishop and Karen Agrawal investigated the effects of Gallic acid and tannins from red maple leaves that were incubated with samples of digestive fluids drawn from the equine ileum, the lowest portion of the small intestine. Their findings revealed another piece of the puzzle: The equine digestive tract contains microbes that can turn Gallic acid into an even more damaging substance called pyrogallol.
The idea that even green maple leaves contain a toxin deadly to horses may be unsettling but, says Knight, they are likely to pose a significant threat only if they wilt or dry out: “This is because green maple leaves contain about 80 percent water. Branches and bark of the red maple tree also contain toxins, but most horses are not likely to eat enough of them to cause trouble.
The amount of Gallic acid may vary with growing conditions, time of year and stage of leaf maturity. The majority of reported cases occur between June and October---which suggests that growing leaves become more toxic later in the season.
Eradicating all red and sugar maple trees that grow in or around horse properties is not practical or even advisable. Horses are most likely to encounter wilted red maple after a storm has dropped a tree branch or blown large numbers of green leaves into a pasture.
If maple leaf fall is especially heavy in some pastures, it may be wisest to turn horses out in different areas for the season. Gallic acid is present in bark and branches as well as the leaves, but few horses are likely to eat enough woody material to be affected.
Those restricted to dry lots with limited forage may be more inclined to reach over the fence for nearby branches or eat what falls into their area. If your hay is grown in an area where maple trees are common, you may occasionally find fallen leaves incorporated in the bales.
Double-check the identity of the trees before removing them by showing the leaves to an extension agent or horticulturalist at a local nursery. Make sure all debris, including stray twigs and leaves, are removed from the field before returning horses to the area.
Better yet, have the trees cut while they are leafless, to simplify cleanup and reduce the risk of leaves being left in the field. One of the unique aspects of Red Dead Redemption 2's gameplay concerns horses.
These horses are also pretty common and can be found all over the Red Dead Redemption 2 map, making them quick and easy to capture and tame. They have seven different coat varieties, with the Red Roan, Black Fabiano, Chestnut and Dapple Bay found in the wild.
They have excellent health and stamina, and are the fastest of the draft horse breeds. This means that these horses are also well suited to heavy pulling and hauling, making them perfect for hooking up to wagons and coaches.
They are probably one of the strongest horse breeds in the game, but their large size and heavyweight make them more difficult to handle. Their speed and stamina are just average, though, meaning that they're hardly close to being the best horse for Arthur.
Shires come in three coats: Raven Black, Dark Bay and Light Grey, all available in the wild. The Suffolk Punch is another draft horse in Red Dead Redemption 2.
With its stocky and compact frame, it is the perfect breed for heavy labor in farms. They can work extremely long hours without getting tired and are very sturdy and healthy.
The Suffolk Punch has two different coats: Red Chestnut and Sorrel. If Arthur needs a horse with a lot of strength and endurance, the Suffolk Punch is the right one for that job.
Take the Appaloosa, for example: a horse breed that is perfect for just about any kind of work needed at a ranch. They are also very healthy, and have good speed, agility, and stamina-- something needed in a reliable work horse.
If Arthur wants a horse for a more difficult task, the Appaloosa is a good choice. This includes the Dakota, which has good speed and acceleration, meaning that Arthur can make a fast getaway from trouble if needed.
The majority of Dakota are located in the Western part of the Red Dead Redemption 2 map. Another kind of race horse, this breed is made for athletics, with great stamina, agility, and acceleration.
If Arthur needs to sprint short distances, the Thoroughbred horse is what he wants to do so with. They are easy to handle but can get a little clumsy if Arthur pushes them too far, past their endurance.
The Brindle, which has the highest speed of this breed, is available for purchase in stables, but the others are only available in the wild. If Arthur looks hard enough, he may also find a rare Thoroughbred: the Seal Brown coat.
Another horse that is great for racing or quickly traversing distances is the American Standard bred. However, they have their faults: they are timid creatures, and loud noises can frighten them and make them act erratically.
American Paint horses are extremely intelligent and easy to care for, making them perfect for ranch work. These horses also have a great personality, making them a good fit for Arthur.
The Over and Tobago coats roam the wild ready to get caught by Arthur. There is also a very rare Splashed White coat wandering around the game map for those who can find it.
When it comes to battle, a good war horse is always an excellent choice for Arthur. In that case, consider the Hungarian Half bred, a strong breed that has good health and stamina.
Although these horses are slow, with low speed and acceleration stats, they have a fearless personality that makes them perfect for any kind of combat. These horses have a large sturdy body, too, making them perfect for going to battle.
The Mustang is a horse that is good for a variety of tasks, whether it be racing, war, or work. This versatile breed has great health and stamina, although their speed doesn't put them in a category as fast as a typical racing horse.
Arthur can find Mustangs in the western portion of the Red Dead Redemption 2 map. The Seal Brown, Sooty Buckskin and Chocolate Roan coats are available for purchase in stables.
If Arthur needs a dependable work horse, the Dutch Warm blood is the breed he will want to get. Its compact frame makes it extra sturdy, as well as extremely powerful.
These war horses have excellent health and stamina, but they're not made for racing: their speed and acceleration stats are low. The Andalusian is one tough horse with an aggressive personality, meaning that they're not just good for war, but also for hunting.
They have excellent health and stamina, but like other war horses, they tend to have low speed and acceleration. They are among the heaviest of horse breeds in the game, but they handle well, especially under pressure, something that is important when going into battle.
The Missouri Fox Trotter actually falls under two different categories of horse: race and work. That's right, this breed is fast as well as sturdy, which makes it one of the best horses in Red Dead Redemption 2.
It's a well-rounded breed with a great personality and could provide Arthur with the only horse he'll ever need in the game. They are powerful horses, with great stamina, but they also have good speed and a lively trot that will help Arthur travel further, faster.
The two coats are Amber Champagne and Silver Dapple Pinto, both of which are available for purchase at stables throughout the game map. These horses have excellent health, stamina, and speed, meaning that they can handle long distances efficiently, as well as some work, such as pulling carriages.
The Black and Rose Gray Bay coats are available at stables, but the absolute best, the rare White Arabian, is only available in the wild. Robin is also the author of a series of speculative fiction novels: Zeus, Inc.; The Curse of Hecate; and Return of The Titans.
In 2014, Indie Reader named the protagonist of that series, Alex Grosbeak, as one of its Top Five Smart, Strong and Relatable Female Characters. The series was also inducted into the 2018 Darrell Awards Cover Hall of Fame in Memphis, TN.
Robin, who currently lives in Missouri with her five cats, loves all things French and has a serious obsession with Doctor Who. Visit Robin's website for more information on her fiction work or to contact her.