The Missouri Horse Council maintains that horses are livestock and “supports the legal definition of all domesticated equines to remain as livestock and opposes the current social trend of referring to them as pets or companion animals.” This is a stance taken by many similar associations in the United States and Canada. Those who make their living as trainers, breeders, dealers and running boarding stables and schools may lose the benefit of being an agricultural endeavor if a horse were regarded solely as a companion animal.
A good deal of research into equine diseases, vaccines and husbandry is government funded. Husbandry and humane treatment laws might not apply if horses were designated companion animals.
Many states are passing limited liability laws, which protect livestock owners and livestock event organizers (like cattle and horse shows) from lawsuits from anyone who is injured by a potentially large and dangerous animal such as a cattle-beast or horse. Considering that most of us do regard our horses not just as companions, but family members, our ultimate goal should be the best possible care, in addition to protecting ourselves.
Animals of all kinds fall into one of six categories, including birds, amphibians, reptiles, fish, mammals and invertebrates. Mammals are characterized by their ability to nurse offspring, and by their hair, vertebrae, and middle ear bone structure.
Like many farm animals, horses possess all the major attributes that place them into the mammal category. Mammals are a class of animals that share a variety of common characteristics, including the fact that they have mammary glands.
Mammals create milk using their mammary glands and use it to feed their young. Thanks to this ability, mammals form unique bonds with their offspring that animals in other categories do not.
Mammals are all ‘warm-blooded’ animals that also have three bones in their middle ears which allow them to hear sound effectively. Apart from these specific characteristics, mammals also tend to be very intelligent, are often capable of domestication and can communicate in unique and intricate ways.
Female horses also nurse their foals with milk they produce using their own mammary glands. Horses also have coats comprised of hair that comes in a variety of beautiful colors and unique patterns.
Their hair helps to keep them safe from outdoor elements including harsh rain, wind, and extreme temperatures. Horses have 3 middle ear bones called the hammer, anvil and stirrup.
In prehistoric times, most mammal animals served only as a food source for humans. Hunting animals, mainly mammals, was the one of the ways humans survived at the time.
The ability of many mammals to be domesticated helped to turn a hunting and often nomadic way of life into a more settled, agricultural lifestyle. Being a mammal creates a unique bonding experience for animals, especially horses.
The fact that mammals have mammary glands and personally feed their own young creates a maternal bond that begins at birth. While there are rare exceptions, most mares that give birth to a foal will quickly begin to bond with them.
Horses, unlike some mammals, like to keep their babies very close and this begins immediately after they are born. Shortly after birthing a foal, mares will instinctively begin to lick off the amniotic fluid that covers their baby.
The mare will continue to lick, nuzzle and help push their baby to stand up and nurse. This bonding helps to ensure that the foal will continue to have a source of food and protection throughout their young lives.
The horse’s large eyes sit on each side of their head, creating only a couple blind spots but also allowing them to see more of what is around them. Draft horses are most often called cold-bloods due to their calm demeanor and easy-going personalities.
Some racing and competition horse breeds including Arabians and Thoroughbreds can be referred to as hot-bloods. Animals in other categories like fish, reptiles, birds and even amphibians do not get rabies.
Rabies is a frequently fatal disease that rapidly spreads to the animal’s brain and causes damage that cannot be repaired. Thankfully, there are annual vaccines available to keep our domesticated animals, including horses, safe.
Horses are unique, but they are still grouped into the larger category of mammals thanks to their backbones, mammary glands, temperature regulation, bonding capabilities, middle ear design and their coats of hair. Both horses and ponies are of the same species (Equus Catullus) and come from the exact same family tree.
However, ponies stay small their whole life, maturing more quickly than horses. Pony foals are tiny and will rapidly mature to the approximate size of their parents.
Horses are slower growing, some not attaining full mature size until they are six or seven years of age. In fairness to the riders and these mounts, these size standards help prevent ponies and small horses from showing against larger animals, whose size might give them an advantage.
It also isn’t safe to have very small children on tiny ponies riding around the same ring with larger horses. Some differences between horses and ponies may not be as easy to spot as the size.
They can be quite wily, which is why it’s sometimes easier to find a quiet horse for a child than a reliable pony. They can pull or carry heavy loads with more strength than a horse, relative to their size.
Their coats tend to grow thicker in the winter, which often doesn’t shed out until the hottest days of summer. They begin to grow back their thick coats as soon as the days start to shorten.
They are heavier boned and shorter legged in proportion to their bodies compared to horses. In fact, it’s very easy to overfeed a pony, which makes them more prone to founder and laminates than horses.
While some horses can be ‘hard keepers’ most ponies are the extreme opposite, apparently putting on weight just looking at the grass on the other side of the fence. Written by Katherine Blockader There's no doubt about the mystique of horses.
They seem to capture our imagination and are a symbol of strength and freedom. There are a lot of traditions and lore around horses, and some information we hold onto may no longer be true.
A horse may have qualities that make them more suitable for a certain sport but that doesn't mean it likes it more. You both like a warm bed, the same kinds of food (to an extent), humans and dogs can survive by hunting, and both humans and dogs live in 'packs'.
Horses are prey that hunters might like to eat, but they are herbivores and their social structure is quite different from dogs (and humans). Although many people believe their horses are companion animals, they are not the same as dogs.
Horses quickly sense which riders are clear communicators and make their cues irresistible. But they don't carry on a conversation the way you sometimes see in the movies, with the constant stream of screams, squeals, and nickers.
But it is really a complex structure of different materials including keratin, blood-rich tissue, and bone. Wonderful riders make riding look easy.
Watch racers or dressage riders and it seems the horse is going through the patterns on its own accord. It may look like sitting but riders use their legs, arms, weight, hands, balance, and brains to ride.
Here's the natural history of the ball python in the wild, which is a popular pet snake. If your leopard gecko's eyes are closed, have discharge, or have other issues, here are some things that could be wrong and that should be addressed immediately.
Here's a simple guide laying out a proper diet for an adult bearded dragon to ensure optimal health. This is a complete guide to potential solutions and methods to help green iguanas and other lizards that can’t defecate due to constipation, illness, or spinal injury.
Choosing the best substrate that is easy to maintain, good for your tortoise, and reasonably priced can be tough. I give many tips and advice that stem from my personal experience of being a tortoise owner myself.
It can get boring in the daily life of a bearded dragon if things get too routine or if they are spending too much time in their tanks. If you’re looking into getting a ball python, this guide will explain how to properly care for your snake and what behaviors and diseases to watch out for.
Choose from 250+ funny, silly, ironic, or obscure pet snake names. Choose from this list of unique, funny, and cute names for your special companion.
Added a lovable lizard to your family of pets but still struggling to come up with a fitting name? This article should provide enough information to decide if silkworms will make a suitable pet for you or your child.
This article will go over the basics of providing your hermit crab with a happy home that meets their needs. Learn how the beekeeper sets the foundation for a fruitful harvest and prepares the bees for the rest of the year.
A basic guide to caring for the Jerusalem cricket or “Child of the Earth” bug. Troops are considered living fossils as they existed over 300 million years ago.
Corn snakes are fairly easy to care for and have been selectively domesticated through breeding programs. The tiny wonder needs a happy trip, a cozy palace and ongoing care.
Here you can find everything you need to know about this turtle's diet, tank setup, and general maintenance requirements. A comprehensive list of reptiles you can keep as pets that only eat plants or will accept non-living, meaty foods as a substitute for live prey.
These setups include live plants and invertebrates that purify and clean enclosures. While land hermit crabs are not the most difficult pet to own, they do require more care than you may know in order to thrive.
Read on for specific care requirements including housing, feeding, moisture, and more. Many owners become concerned when they notice bubbles or liquid seeping from their pet's nose.
Also referred to as African spurred tortoises, these reptiles make great pets and companions, but require a significant amount of preparation and care. Here are some options for people who wish to keep snakes as pets but find feeding frozen and thawed rodents and other mammals unappealing.
Myths and improper husbandry advice abound, but have no fear: this guide will help you sift through all the false information. The class Reptilia includes four orders: Crocodile (crocodiles, alligators, facials), Restudies (turtles and tortoises), Sumatra (lizards and snakes), and Rhynchocephalia (Tatar).
They possess both renal and hepatic portal circulations, and predominantly excrete ammonia (especially aquatic species), urea (especially theologians), or uric acid (especially snakes and lizards) depending on their evolutionary adaptations. Their RBC's are nucleated, and their metabolic rates are approximately 7–10 times lower than those of mammals.
Diurnal species require broad-spectrum light containing UVB (290-300 nm) for vitamin D 3 synthesis and calcium homeostasis. Fertilization is internal, and females may produce eggs (oviparous) or live young (viviparous).
Reptiles are not considered highly social creatures, and multiple-male groups can lead to interspecies aggression. The life span of many reptiles can exceed 10–20 yr, requiring a long term commitment from owners.
Reptiles possess a common cloaca, which receives the lower GI, reproductive, and urinary tracts. In addition, lungs are simpler and composed of variable complexity (alveolar, vehicular, and trabecular structure), more like a agitated sponge than alveoli.
Reptiles lack a true diaphragm, although crocodiles do possess an analogous membranous structure that aids respiration. Some lizards (e.g., Tagus and monitors) have thin post pulmonary and/or post-hepatic membranes that divide the color into compartments.
Soulmates have incomplete tracheal rings, and males have paired ovulatory organs (hemispheres). Within this species-specific Pot, a reptile is able to achieve the preferred body temperature for specific metabolic activities, which may vary diurnally and seasonally and by age and gender.
Consequently, the K constant to determine energy expenditure, nutritional requirements, and cliometric drug doses is given by the equation BMR = K(body wt 0.75), in which BMR = basal metabolic rate in Kcal/day and K (energy constant) can vary between 5 (e.g., many snakes) to 10 (e.g., many lizards). In noncrocodilian reptiles, functional separation of venous and arterial blood is largely maintained via a muscular ridge within the ventricle.
Renal and hepatic portal circulations exist, and intro- and extra cardiac vascular shunts may be present, especially in aquatic species. The colonial shell is composed of both dermal bone plates and keratinized epithelial acutes.
Many male lizards have a series of prenatal or femoral pores located cranial to the vent or along the craniofacial aspect of the hind limbs. The frequency of crisis depends on species, age, nutritional status, environmental temperature and humidity, reproductive status, parasite load, hormonal balance, bacterial/fungal skin disease, and skin damage.
Most species require some form of conditioning before breeding (e.g., hibernation, seasonal nocturnal cooling, changes in social grouping). Male lizards are generally larger, have prenatal or pre-femoral pores, have semifinal bulges at the tail base, and often are more brightly colored.
Sexual dimorphism in theologians is usually obvious in adults; males often have a concave patron and a longer tail. Many reptiles, especially lizards and theologians, are territorial and will fight nonspecific males, causing severe injuries.
In addition, overzealous and unrelenting males may ardently pursue females, causing repeated harassment and trauma. Fertilization is internal, and reproduction is either oviparous (egg production) or viviparous (live bearing).
Dogs, cats, horses and cattle are able to crossbreed but birds, fish and reptiles seemingly cannot. | Notes and Queries | guardian.co.UK Categories Nooks and crannies Yesteryear Semantic enigmas The body beautiful Red tape, white lies Speculative science This scented isle Root of all evil Ethical conundrums This sporting life Stage and screen Birds and the reedbirds AND THE BEES Dogs, cats, horses and cattle are able to crossbreed but birds, fish and reptiles seemingly cannot.
For some birds and fish, the answer is that many species do hybridize, waterfowl or carp, for example. All dogs are the same species, whatever their breed, as are all cats, horses and cattle.
A breed of falcon is bred which is a cross between a Peregrine and a Manner. The resulting hybrid has an even faster air velocity than the Peregrine, making it the fastest creature in the world.
But just as any other animal in the wild....they have little to no reason to do so, therefore it happens either as a fluke, or because of human intervention. Mammals are vertebrates (backbone animals) that feed their young on mother's milk.
Mammals also include such fascinating animals as porcupines, gorillas, giraffes, rhinoceroses and kangaroos. Arctic foxes, polar bears and many other mammals make their home near the North Pole.
Some mammals even live in the sea such as dolphins, seals and whales. All mammals have hair at some time in their life, though in certain whales it is present only before birth.
Some mammals, such as chimpanzees, dolphins, and especially human beings, are highly intelligent. Mammals are able to move around using limbs. The important thing about mammals and birds is that they maintain a constant internal temperature.
This is called being geothermic and it involves not just generating your own heat when the surrounding temperature is low, but also finding ways to cool down when the ambient temperature is too high. Mammals maintain their inner temperature by burning food (oxidation) through digestion, and they stay cool by sweating, panting and changing postures and place in the world.
Sweating and panting work by generating heat loss through evaporating water; changing posture allows mammals to control to some extent the heat absorbed from the world around them; while changing position simply means seeking shade or shelter when it is too hot. The reason behind this is that muscle activity is basically dependent on chemical reactions, as are all biological functions.
Chemical reactions run slowly when it is cold, but quickly when it is hot. For instance while primates have sweat glands all over their bodies, cats and dogs only have then in their feet and golden moles and whales don't have any.
It also produces special skin structures such as hair, horns, claws, nails and hoofs. The underwear consists of soft, fine hairs that provide a thick, warm coat.
The hair color of many mammals blends with the animals' surroundings and so helps them hide from their enemies or prey. Some mammals have specialized guard hairs, such as the quills on a porcupine or spiny anteater, that provide protection from enemies.
Many mammals have thick fur such as grizzly bears, cats, dogs, lions and tigers. Dolphins and whales, which lack body hair, have a thick layer of fat that provides warmth.
Other mammals with little hair, such as elephants and rhinoceroses, live in warm climates. Mammals have to eat a lot to maintain their high body temperature.
Other mammals walk using legs such as cats, dogs, horses, apes and of course, people. These animals include sea otters, dolphins, seals, walruses and whales.