Herschel far-infrared observations have shown that ITS 44 is surrounded by a disk of at least 10 Earth masses and thus could eventually form a mini planetary system. Spectroscopic observations of ITS 44 with the SINFONIA spectrograph at the Very Large Telescope have revealed that the disk is actively accreting matter, similarly to the disks of young stars.
In December 2013, a candidate exomoon of a rogue planet was announced. Artist's conception of a Jupiter -size rogue planet. Astrophysicist Akihito Semi of Osaka University in Japan and colleagues, who form the Microlensing Observations in Astrophysics and the Optical Gravitational Lending Experiment collaborations, published their study of microlensing in 2011.
They observed 50 million stars in the Milky Way by using the 1.8-metre (5 ft 11 in) MOA-II telescope at New Zealand's Mount John Observatory and the 1.3-metre (4 ft 3 in) University of Warsaw telescope at Chile's Las Campinas Observatory. They found 474 incidents of microlensing, ten of which were brief enough to be planets of around Jupiter's size with no associated star in the immediate vicinity.
The researchers estimated from their observations that there are nearly two Jupiter-mass rogue planets for every star in the Milky Way. One study suggested a much larger number, up to 100,000 times more rogue planets than stars in the Milky Way, though this study encompassed hypothetical objects much smaller than Jupiter.
A 2017 study by Przemek MRO of Warsaw University Observatory and colleagues, with six times larger statistics than the 2011 study, indicates an upper limit on Jupiter-mass free-floating or wide-orbit planets of 0.25 planets per main-sequence star in the Milky Way. Nearby rogue planet candidates include WISE 08550714 at a distance of 7.27±0.13 light-years.
Artist's impression of a rogue planet by A. StelterInterstellar planets generate little heat and are not heated by a star. However, in 1998, David J. Stevenson theorized that some planet-sized objects adrift in interstellar space might sustain a thick atmosphere that would not freeze out.
He proposed that these atmospheres would be preserved by the pressure-induced far- infrared radiation opacity of a thick hydrogen -containing atmosphere. During planetary-system formation, several small protoplanetary bodies may be ejected from the system.
An ejected body would receive less of the stellar-generated ultraviolet light that can strip away the lighter elements of its atmosphere. Even an Earth-sized body would have enough gravity to prevent the escape of the hydrogen and helium in its atmosphere.
In an Earth-sized object that has a kilo bar atmospheric pressure of hydrogen and a convective gas adiabatic , the geothermal energy from residual core radioisotope decay could maintain a surface temperature above the melting point of water, allowing liquid-water oceans to exist. These planets are likely to remain geologically active for long periods.
If they have geodynamo-created protective magnetosphere and sea floor volcanism, hydrothermal vents could provide energy for life. These bodies would be difficult to detect because of their weak thermal microwave radiation emissions, although reflected solar radiation and far-infrared thermal emissions may be detectable from an object that is less than 1000 astronomical units from Earth.
Around five percent of Earth-sized ejected planets with Moon-sized natural satellites would retain their satellites after ejection. A large satellite would be a source of significant geological tidal heating.
The table below lists rogue planets, confirmed or suspected, that have been discovered. It is yet unknown whether these planets were ejected from orbiting a star or else formed on their own as sub-brown dwarfs.
Whether exceptionally low-mass rogue planets (such as OGLE-2012-BLG-1323 and KMT-2019-BLG-2073) are even capable of being formed on their own is currently unknown. ^ Shasta, Seth (24 February 2005).
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“A Rogue Earth-Mass Planet Has Been Discovered Freely Floating in the Milky Way Without a Star”. MRO, Przemek; et al. (29 September 2021).
“Unbound or Distant Planetary Mass Population Detected by Gravitational Microlensing”. ^ “Researchers say galaxy may swarm with 'nomad planets “.
“No large population of unbound or wide-orbit Jupiter-mass planets “. ^ Lehman, Kevin L.; Split, Tarzan L. (September 2016).
“The Spectral Energy Distribution of the Coldest Known Brown Dwarf”. “A Rogue Earth-Mass Planet Has Been Discovered Freely Floating in the Milky Way Without a Star”.
“A Terrestrial-mass Rogue Planet Candidate Detected in the Shortest-timescale Microlensing Event”. The Astrophysical Journal Letters.
“Life-sustaining planets in interstellar space?”. “Timescales for Planetary Accretion and the Structure of the Protoplanetary disk”.
^ Abbot, Dorian S.; Switzer, Eric R. (2 June 2011). “The Steppenwolf: A proposal for a habitable planet in interstellar space”.
^ Debts, John H.; Stand Sigurðsson (20 October 2007). “The Survival Rate of Ejected Terrestrial Planets with Moons”.
“Spitzer Identification of the Least Massive Known Brown Dwarf with a Circumstellar Disk”. Astrophysical Journal Letters.
^ Záparo Osorio, M. R. (6 October 2000). “Discovery of Young, Isolated Planetary Mass Objects in the Orion is Star Cluster”.
Astrophysical Journal Letters. ^ Antigua, Étienne; Doyen, René; Cafetiere, David; Nadeau, Daniel; Robert, Jasmin; Albert, Loïc (n.d.).
“Discovery of the Brightest T Dwarf in the Northern Hemisphere”. ^ Gagné, Jonathan; Flaherty, Jacqueline K.; Burgesses, Adam J.; Antigua, Étienne; Bouchard, Sadie; Albert, Loïc; Cafetiere, David; Doyen, René; Bardalez-Gagliuffi, Daniella C. (15 May 2017).
“SIMS J013656.5+093347 is Likely a Planetary-Mass Object in the Carina-Near Moving Group”. “A Young Planetary-Mass Object in the Of Cloud Core”.
^ Deformed, Philippe (25 September 2012). “CFBDSIR2149-0403: a 4-7 Jupiter-mass free-floating planet in the young moving group AB Dorados?”.
^ Liu, Michael C. (10 November 2013). “The Extremely Red, Young L Dwarf PSO J318.5338-22.8603: A Free-floating Planetary-mass Analog to Directly Imaged Young Gas-giant Planets “.
^ Gagné, Jonathan (10 March 2014). Very Low Mass and Sub stellar Candidate Members to Nearby, Young Kinematic Groups with Previously Known Signs of Youth”.
^ Záparo Osorio, M. R.; Bodies, N.; Bear, V. J. S.; Martín, E. L.; Ivanov, V. D.; Bay, A.; Boffin, H. M. J.; Music, K.; Minnie, D.; Beaming, J. C. (1 August 2016). “Discovery of a ~250 K Brown Dwarf at 2 PC from the Sun”.
“SIMS J2154-1055: A New Low-gravity L4 Brown Dwarf Candidate Member of the Argus Association”. ^ Gagné, Jonathan (20 July 2015).
“DSS J111010.01+011613.1: A New Planetary-mass T Dwarf Member of the AB Dorados Moving Group”. ^ Kellogg, Kendra (11 April 2016).
“The Nearest Isolated Member of the TW Hydra Association is a Giant Planet Analog”. ^ Schneider, Adam C. (21 April 2016).
“WISE J114724.10-204021.3: A Free-floating Planetary Mass Member of the TW Hay Association”. ^ Becky Ferreira (9 November 2018).
“Two free-range planets found roaming the Milky Way in solitude”. Exoplanet Exploration: Planets Beyond our Solar System.
^ Kim, Hyoun-Woo; Hwang, Kyushu; Gould, Andrew; Yes, Jennifer C.; BYU, Yoon-Hyun; Al brow, Michael D.; Chung, Sunday; Han, Congo; Jung, You Oil; Lee, Chung; Shin, Inge; Shvartzvald, Rossi; Gang, Watching; CIA, Bangkok; Kim, Dong-Jin; Kim, Seung-Lee; Lee, Dong-Joo; Lee, Songbook; Park, Byeong-Gon; Page, Richard W. (14 July 2021). ^ MRO, Przemek; Pole ski, Bradshaw; Gould, Andrew; Pulaski, Andrew; Semi, Akihito; Szymaski, Micha K.; Korzybski, Igor; Pietrukowicz, Pawed; Wazowski, Szymon; Shown, Jan; Black, Krzysztof; Al brow, Michael D.; Chung, Sunday; Han, Congo; Hwang, Kyushu; Jung, You Oil; Kim, Hyoun-Woo; BYU, Yoon-Hyun; Shin, Inge; Shvartzvald, Rossi; Yes, Jennifer C.; Gang, Watching; CIA, Bangkok; Kim, Dong-Jin; Kim, Seung-Lee; Lee, Chung; Lee, Dong-Joo; Lee, Songbook; Park, Byeong-Gon; et al. (2020), “A terrestrial-mass rogue planet candidate detected in the shortest-timescale microlensing event”, The Astrophysical Journal, 903 (1): L11, arrive : 2009.12377, Bib code : 2020ApJ...903L.11M, DOI : 10.3847/2041-8213/abbfad, S2CID 221971000 ^ Bardsley Gagliuffi, Daniella C.; Flaherty, Jacqueline K.; Schneider, Adam C.; Manner, Aaron; Castle, Dan; Colin, Guillaume; Goodman, Sam; Kirkpatrick, J. Davy; Büchner, Marc; Gagné, Jonathan; Logs don, Sarah E. (1 June 2021).
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