Further west, the river passes through multiple exotic terraces of the more ancient Namath Mountains. In the Kalmiopsis Wilderness section of the Rogue basin are some of the world's best examples of rocks that form the Earth's mantle.
Near the mouth of the river, the only dinosaur fragments ever discovered in Oregon were found in the Otter Point Formation, along the coast of Curry County. European explorers made first contact with Native Americans (Indians) toward the end of the 18th century and began beaver trapping and other activities in the region.
These struggles culminated with the RogueRiver Wars of 1855–56 and removal of most of the natives to reservations outside the basin. They were relatively isolated from the outside world until 1895, when the Post Office Department added mail boat service along the lower Rogue.
By 2009, all but one of the main-stem dams downstream of a huge flood-control structure 157 miles (253 km) from the river mouth had been removed. Aside from dams, threats to salmon include high water temperatures.
Although sometimes too warm for salmon ids, the main stem Rogue is relatively clean, ranking between 85 and 97 (on a scale of 0 to 100) on the Oregon Water Quality Index (OW QI). The upper Rogue rushes toward RogueRiver Gorge near Union Creek, Oregon. The RogueRiver begins at Boundary Springs on the border between Namath and Douglas counties near the northern edge of Crater Lake National Park.
In 1988, an additional 40 miles (64 km) of the Rogue between Crater Lake National Park and the unincorporated community of Prospect was named Wild and Scenic. Of the river's total length, 124 miles (200 km), about 58 percent is Wild and Scenic.
The Rogue is one of only three rivers that start in or east of the Cascade Range in Oregon and reach the Pacific Ocean. The United States Geological Survey (USGS) operates five stream gauges along the RogueRiver.
This was from a drainage basin of 3,939 square miles (10,202 km 2), or about 76 percent of the entire Rogue watershed. Mount McLoughlin, the highest point in the RogueRiver watershedDraining 5,156 square miles (13,350 km 2), the RogueRiver watershed covers parts of Jackson, Josephine, Curry, Douglas, and Namath counties in southwestern Oregon and Miskito and Del Norte counties in northern California.
The steep, rugged basin, stretching from the western flank of the Cascade Range to the northeastern flank of the Miskito Mountains, varies in elevation from 9,485 feet (2,891 m) at the summit of Mount McLoughlin in the Cascades to 0 feet (0 m), where the basin meets the ocean. In 2000, Jackson County had a population of about 181,300, most of them living in the RogueRiver Valley cities of Ashland (19,500), Talent (5,600), Phoenix (4,100), Medford (63,200), Central Point (12,500), and Jacksonville (2,200).
Others in Jackson County lived in the cities of Shady Cove (2,300), Eagle Point (4,800), Butte Falls (400) and RogueRiver (1,800). Josephine County had a population of 75,700, including the cities of Grants Pass (23,000) and Cave Junction (1,400).
Gold Beach (1,900) is the only city in Curry County (21,100) in the RogueRiver basin. The watershed's average population density is about 32 people per square mile (12.4/km 2).
About 60 percent of the basin is publicly owned and is managed by the United States Forest Service, the Bureau of Land Management (BLM), and the United States Bureau of Reclamation. Under provisions of the federal Clean Water Act, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), assisted by the Oregon Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ) and other agencies in both states, is charged with controlling water pollution in the basin.
The average annual precipitation for the entire basin is about 38 inches (970 mm). At high elevations in the Cascades, much of the precipitation arrives as snow and infiltrates permeable volcanic soils; Snowbelt contributes to stream flows in the upper basin during the dry months.
Along the Illinois River in the lower basin, most of the precipitation falls as rain on shallow soils; rapid runoff leads to high flows during winter storms and low flows during the dry summer. Average monthly temperatures for the whole basin range from about 68 °F (20 °C) in July and August to about 40 °F (4 °C) in December.
Crater Lake, the remains of Mount Mazama Arising near Crater Lake, the RogueRiver flows from the geologically young High Cascades through the somewhat older Western Cascades and then through the more ancient Namath Mountains. The High Cascades are composed of volcanic rock produced at intervals from about 7.6 million years ago through geologically recent events such as the catastrophic eruption of Mount Mazama in about 5700 BCE.
The volcano hurled 12 to 15 cubic miles (50 to 63 km 3) of ash into the air, covering much of the western U.S. and Canada with air fall deposits. The volcano's subsequent collapse formed the caldera of Crater Lake.
They consist of partly altered volcanic rock from vents in both volcanic provinces, including varied lava and ash tuffs ranging in age from 0 to 40 million years. As the Cascades rose, the Rogue maintained its flow to the ocean by down-cutting, which created steep narrow gorges and rapids in many places.
Bear Creek, a Rogue tributary that flows south to north, marks the boundary between the Western Cascades to the east and the Namath Mountains to the west. Not until plate tectonics separated North America from Europe and North Africa and pushed it westward did the continent acquire, bit by bit, what became the Pacific Northwest, including Oregon.
Between 165 and 170 million years ago, in the Jurassic, faulting consolidated the Namath terraces offshore during what geologists call the Miskito orogeny. This three- to five-million-year episode of intense tectonic activity pushed sedimentary rocks deep enough into the mantle to melt them and then forced them to the surface as granitic photons.
Miners have worked rich deposits of gold, silver, copper, nickel, and other metals in several districts of the Climates. Serpentine, a rock type found along the Illinois River In Curry County, the lower Rogue passes through the Alice Formation, metamorphosed shale, and other rocks formed when a small oceanic basin in the merging Namath terraces was thrust over other Namath rocks about 155 million years ago.
Metamorphosed lepidolite appears as serpentine along the west side of the Illinois River. Chemically unsuited for growing plants, widespread serpentinize in the Climates supports sparse vegetation in parts of the watershed.
The Josephine lepidolite was a source of valuable chromium ore, mined in the region between 1917 and 1960. At the mouth of the RogueRiver, along the coast of Curry County, is the Otter Point Formation, a mélange of metamorphosed sedimentary rocks such as sales, sandstones, and chert.
In the mid-1960s, a geologist also discovered the beak and teeth of an ichthyosaur in the Otter Point Formation. In 2018, a geologist from the University of Oregon found a toe bone of a plant-eating dinosaur near Mitchell in the east-central part of the state where the coast lay 100 million years ago.
Supplemental foods for native peoples along the Rogue included camps bulbs. Archaeologists believe that the first humans to inhabit the RogueRiver region were nomadic hunters and gatherers.
The home villages of various groups shared many cultural elements, such as food, clothing, and shelter types. Intermarriage was common, and many people understood dialects of more than one of the three language groups spoken in the region.
Houses in the villages varied somewhat, but were often about 12 feet (3.7 m) wide and 15 to 20 feet (4.6 to 6.1 m) long, framed with posts sunk into the ground, and covered with split sugar pine or red cedar planks. People left the villages during about half of the year to gather camps bulbs, sugar-pine bark, acorns, and berries, and hunted deer and elk to supplement their main food, salmon.
The total early-1850s native population of southern Oregon, including the Ump qua, Coos, Colville, and Costco watersheds as well as the Rogue, is estimated to have been about 3,800. The first recorded encounter between whites and coastal southwestern Oregon Indians occurred in 1792 when British explorer George Vancouver anchored off Cape Blanco, about 30 miles (48 km) north of the mouth of the RogueRiver, and Indians visited the ship in canoes.
In 1826, Alexander Roderick McLeod of the Hudson's Bay Company (HBC) led an overland expedition from HBC's regional headquarters in Fort Vancouver to as far south as the Rogue. Peter Scene Ogden encountered inland RogueRiver natives in 1827.
In 1827, an HBC expedition led by Peter Scene Ogden made the first direct contact between whites and the inland RogueRiver natives when he crossed the Miskito Mountains to look for beaver. Friction between Indians and whites was relatively minor during these early encounters; however, in 1834, an HBC expedition led by Michel Laframboise was reported to have killed 11 RogueRiver natives, and shortly thereafter a party led by an American trapper, Ewing Young, shot and killed at least two more.
The name RogueRiver apparently began with French fur trappers who called the river La Riviera aux Co quins because they regarded the natives as rogues (coquins). In 1835, RogueRiver people killed four whites at a party of eight who were traveling from Oregon to California.
Two years later, two of the survivors and others on a cattle drive organized by Young killed the first two Indians they met north of the Namath River. The number of whites entering the RogueRiver watershed greatly increased after 1846, when a party of 15 men led by Jesse Applegate developed a southern alternative to the Oregon Trail ; the new trail was used by emigrants headed for the Willamette Valley.
Later called the Applegate Trail, it passed through the Rogue and Bear Creek valleys and crossed the Cascade Range between Ashland and south of Upper Namath Lake. From 90 to 100 wagons and 450 to 500 emigrants used the new trail later in 1846, passing through Rogue Indian homelands between the headwaters of Bear Creek and the future site of Grants Pass and crossing the Rogue about 4.5 miles (7.2 km) downstream of it.
In 1847, the Whitman massacre and the Cayuse War in what became southeastern Washington raised fears among white settlers throughout the region and led to the formation of large volunteer militias organized to fight Indians, though no whites were yet living in the RogueRiver drainage. Along the Rogue, tensions intensified in 1848 at the start of the California Gold Rush, when hundreds of men from the Oregon Territory passed through the Rogue Valley on their way to the Sacramento River basin.
After Indians attacked a group of returning miners along the Rogue in 1850, former territorial governor Joseph Lane negotiated a peace treaty with Apserkahar, a leader of the Thelma Indians. It promised protection of Indian rights and safe passage through the Rogue Valley for white miners and settlers.
Joel Palmer, Oregon Superintendent of Indian Affairs peace did not last. Miners began prospecting for gold in the watershed, including a Bear Creek tributary called Jackson Creek, where they established a mining camp in 1852 at the site of what later became Jacksonville.
Indian attacks on miners that year led to U.S. Army intervention and fighting near Table Rock between Indians and the combined forces of professional soldiers and volunteer miner militias. John P. Gaines, the new territorial governor, negotiated a new treaty with some but not all the Indian bands, removing them from Bear Creek and other tributaries on the south side of the main stem.
At about the same time, more white emigrants, including women and children, were settling in the region. Further, clashes in 1853 led to the Treaty with the RogueRiver (1853) that established the Table Rock Indian Reservation across the river from the federal Fort Lane.
As the white population increased and Indian losses of land, food sources, and personal safety mounted, bouts of violence upstream and down continued through 1854–55, culminating in the RogueRiver War of 1855–56. Suffering from cold, hunger, and disease on the Table Rock Reservation, a group of Thelma returned to their old village at the mouth of Little Butte Creek in October 1855.
Confronted by volunteers and regular army troops, the Indians at first repulsed them; however, after nearly 200 volunteers launched an all-day assault on the remaining natives, the war ended at Big Bend (at RM 35 or OK 56) on the lower river. By then, fighting had also ended near the coast, where, before retreating upstream, a separate group of natives had killed about 30 whites and burned their cabins near what later became Gold Beach.
These pioneers, some of whom were white gold miners married to native Karol women from the Namath River basin, established gardens and orchards, kept horses, cows, and other livestock, and received occasional shipments of goods sent by pack mule over the mountains. In 1883, one of the settlers, Elijah H. Price, proposed a permanent mail route by boat up the RogueRiver from Ellensburg (later renamed Gold Beach) to Big Bend, about 40 miles (64 km) upstream.
The route, Price told the government, would serve perhaps 11 families and no towns. Although the Post Office Department resisted the idea for many years, in early 1895 it agreed to a one-year trial of the water route, established a post office at Price's log cabin at Big Bend, and named Price postmaster.
Price's job, for which he received no pay during the trial year, included running the post office and making sure that the mail boat made one round trip a week. The name derives from the Chinook Jargon word lakh, meaning “land” or “earth”.
Propelled by rowing, poling, pushing, pulling, and sometimes by sail, the mail boat delivered letters and small packages, including groceries from Wedder burn, where a post office was established later in 1895. In 1897, the department established a post office near the confluence of the Rogue and the Illinois rivers, 8 miles (13 km) downriver from Village.
By 1930, the mail-boat fleet consisted of three 26-foot (7.9 m) boats, equipped with 60-horsepower Model A Ford engines and designed to carry 10 passengers. By the 1960s, rudderlessjetboats powered by twin or triple 280-horsepower engines, began to replace propeller-driven boats.
The jet boats could safely negotiate shallow riffles, and the largest could carry nearly 50 passengers. Rogue mail-boat excursions, which had been growing more popular for several decades, began in the 1970s to include trips to as far upriver as Blossom Bar, 20 miles (32 km) above Agnes's.
As of 2010, jet boats, functioning mainly as excursion craft, still deliver mail between Gold Beach and Agnes's. For thousands of years, salmon was a reliable food source for Native Americans living along the Rogue.
Salmon migrations were so huge that early settlers claimed they could hear the fish moving upstream. These large runs continued into the 20th century despite damage to spawning beds caused by gold mining in the 1850s and large-scale commercial fishing that began shortly thereafter.
Male freshwater phase Chinook salmon By the 1880s, Robert Denis ton Hume of Astoria had bought land on both sides of the lower RogueRiver and established such a big fishing business that he became known as the Salmon King of Oregon. His fleet of gill netting boats, controlling most of the anadromous fish population of the river, plied its lower 12 miles (19 km).
During his 32-year tenure, Hume's company caught, processed, and shipped hundreds of tons of salmon from the Rogue. Upriver commercial fishermen also captured large quantities of fish.
On a single day in 1913, Grants Pass crews using five drift boats equipped with gill nets caught 5,000 pounds (2,300 kg) of salmon. In 1877, in connection with his commercial fishery, Hume built a hatchery at Ellensburg (Gold Beach), which released fish into the river.
In its first year of operation, Hume collected 215,000 salmon eggs and released about 100,000 fry. After the first hatchery was destroyed by fire in 1893, Hume built a new hatchery in 1895, and in 1897 he co-operated with the United States Fish Commission in building and operating an egg-collecting station at the mouth of Elk Creek on the upper Rogue.
In 1899, he built a hatchery near Wedder burn, across the river from Gold Beach, and until the time of his death in 1908 he had salmon eggs shipped to it from the Elk Creek station. Based on variations in the size of the yearly catch, Hume and others believed his methods of fish-propagation to be successful.
However, as salmon runs declined over time despite the hatcheries, recreational fishing interests began to oppose large-scale operations. In 1910, a state referendum banned commercial fishing on the Rogue, but this decision was reversed in 1913.
As of 2010, the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (DFW) operates the Cole M. Rivers Hatchery near the base of the dam at Lost Creek Lake, slightly upstream of the former Rogue –Elk Hatchery built by Hume. The United States Army Corps of Engineers (USAGE) built the hatchery in 1973 to offset the loss of fish habitat and spawning grounds in areas blocked by construction of the Lost Creek Dam on the main stem and the Applegate and Elk Creek dams on Rogue tributaries.
In 1926, author Zane Grey bought a miner's cabin at Winkle Bar, near the river. He wrote Western books at this location, including his 1929 novel RogueRiver Feud.
Another of his books, Tales of Fresh Water Fishing (1928), included a chapter based on a drift-boat trip he took down the lower Rogue in 1925. In the 1930s and 1940s, many other celebrities, attracted by the scenery, fishing, rustic lodges, and boat trips, visited the lower Rogue.
Famous visitors included actors Clark Gable, Tyrone Power and Myrna Low, singer Bing Crosby, author William Faulkner, journalist Ernie Pyle, radio comedians Freeman Golden and Charles Cornell, circus performer Emmett Kelly, and football star Norm van Brooklyn. Bobby Doer, a Hall of Fame baseball player, married a teacher from Village, and made his home along the Rogue.
From 1940 to 1990, actress and dancer Ginger Rogers owned the 1,000-acre (400 ha) RogueRiver Ranch, operated for many years as a dairy farm, near Eagle Point. The historic Criteria Ginger Rogers Theater in Medford was named after her.
Actress Kim Novak and her veterinarian husband bought a home and 43 acres (17 ha) of land in 1997 near the RogueRiver in Sam's Valley, where they raise horses and llamas. When the lake is full, it covers 3,428 acres (1,387 ha) and has an average depth of 136 feet (41 m).
After decades of controversy about water rights, costs, migratory fish, and environmental impacts, removal or modification of remaining middle-reach dams as well as a partly finished dam on Elk Creek, a major tributary of the Rogue, began in 2008. The deconstruction projects were all meant to improve salmon runs by allowing more fish to reach suitable spawning grounds.
Gold Ray Dam in April 2010, with fish ladder visible on opposite shore In 1904, brothers C.R. Replacing the log dam in 1941 with a concrete structure 35 feet (11 m) high, it added a new fish ladder and a fish-counting station.
The company closed the hydroelectric plant in 1972, although the fish ladder remained, and biologists from the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife used the station to count migrating salmon and steel head. Jackson County, which owned the dam, had it removed with the help of a $5 million federal grant approved in June 2009.
Built in 1921 to divert river flows for irrigation, the dam was 39 feet (12 m) tall and created a reservoir that seasonally extended up to 2.5 miles (4.0 km) upstream. Twelve newly installed pumps provide river water to the irrigation canals serving 7,500 acres (3,000 ha) of the Grants Pass Irrigation District (GRID).
Historically, other dams along the river's middle reaches were removed or destroyed during the first half of the 20th century. In 1890, the Grants Pass Power Supply Company had built a log dam 12 feet (3.7 m) high, across the river near the city.
By 1940, the dam had deteriorated to the point that it no longer blocked migratory fish. Before 1920, many of these dams made no provision for fish passage; public pressure as well as efforts by turn-of-the-century cannery owner R.D.
Hume led to the installation of fish ladders on the most destructive dams. The only artificial barrier on the main stem of the Rogue upstream of Lost Creek Lake is a diversion dam at Prospect at RM 172 (OK 277).
The concrete dam, 50 feet (15 m) high and 384 feet (117 m) wide, impounds water from the Rogue and nearby streams and diverts it to power plants, which return the water to the river further downstream. Built in pieces between 1911 and 1944, it includes separate diversion dams in the Middle Fork RogueRiver and Red Blanket Creek, and a 9.25-mile (14.89 km) water-transport system of canals, flumes, pipes, and pen stocks.
The lower river passes under the Isaac Lee Patterson Bridge and U.S. Route 101 at Gold Beach. Several historic bridges cross the Rogue between Gold Hill and Grants Pass. The city calls the structure Caveman because the Redwood Highway (U.S. Route 199) that crosses the bridge passes near Oregon Caves National Monument, about 50 miles (80 km) south of Grants Pass.
It carries the RogueRiver Loop Highway (Oregon Route 260) over the river west of the city. In April the river appears turbid at Grants Pass in the lower Rogue Valley.
To comply with section 303(d) of the federal Clean Water Act, the EPA or its state delegates must develop a list of the surface waters in each state that do not meet approved water-quality criteria. To meet the criteria, the DEQ and others have developed Total Maximum Daily Load (MDL) limits for pollutants entering streams and other surface waters.
The Oregon 303(d) list of pollutants for 2004–06 indicated that some reaches of the surface waters in the RogueRiver basin did not meet the standards for temperature, bacteria, dissolved oxygen, sedimentation, pH and nuisance weeds and algae. It approved temperature, sedimentation, and biological criteria Tells for the Applegate River basin in 2004, and temperature, sedimentation, fecal coliform, and Escherichia coli (E. coli) Tells for the Bear Creek watershed in 2007.
In 1992, it had approved pH, aquatic weeds and algae, and dissolved oxygen Tells for the Bear Creek watershed. In December 2008, DEQ developed two Tells for the RogueRiver basin (except the tributaries with their own Tells); a temperature MDL was meant to protect salmon and trout from elevated water temperatures, and a fecal contamination MDL was intended to safeguard people using surface waters for recreation.
The DEQ has collected water-quality data in the Rogue basin since the mid-1980s and has used it to generate scores on the Oregon Water Quality Index (OW QI). The index is meant to provide an assessment of water quality for general recreational uses; OW QI scores can vary from 10 (worst) to 100 (ideal).
Jeffrey's pine is among tree species that thrive in serpentine soils. Further downstream a diverse mix of conifers, broadleaf evergreens, and deciduous trees and shrubs grow in parts of the basin.
In more populated areas, orchards, cropland, and pastureland have largely replaced the original vegetation, although remnants of oak savanna, prairie vegetation, and seasonal ponds survive at Table Rocks north of Medford. Oak woodlands, grassland savanna, ponderosa pine, and Douglas-fir thrive in the relatively dry foothills east of Medford; areas in the foothills of the Illinois Valley support Douglas-fir, madroño, and incense cedar.
Parts of the Illinois River watershed have sparse vegetation including Jeffrey pine and oak and acanthus species that grow in serpentine soils. The Klamath-Siskiyou region is one of seven International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) areas of global botanical significance in North America and has been proposed as a World Heritage Site and UNESCO Biosphere Reserve.
The lower Rogue passes through the Southern Oregon Coast Range, where forests include Douglas-fir, western hemlock, tan oak, Port Oxford cedar, and western red cedar, and at lower elevations Site spruce. Coastal forests extending from British Columbia in the north to Oregon (and the Rogue) in the south are “some of the most productive in the world”.
The coastal region, where it has not been altered by humans, abounds with ferns, lichens, mosses, and herbs, as well as conifers. Salmon ids found in the RogueRiver downstream of Lost Creek Lake include Coho salmon, spring and fall Chinook salmon, and summer and winter steel head.
Other native species of freshwater fish found in the watershed include coastal cutthroat trout, Pacific lamprey, green sturgeon, white sturgeon, Namath small scale sucker, speckled dace, prickly sculpting, and riffle sculpting. Nonnative species include reside shiner, large mouth bass, small mouth bass, black crappie, bluegill, catfish, brown bullhead, yellow perch, carp, goldfish, American shad, Ump qua pike minnow, and species of trout.
Coho salmon in the watershed belong to an Evolutionarily Significant Unit (EU) that was listed by the National Marine Fisheries Service as a threatened species in 1997 and reaffirmed as threatened in 2005. The state of Oregon in 2005 listed Rogue spring Chinook salmon as potentially at risk.
A few of the common animal and bird species seen along the river are American black bear, North American river otter, black-tailed deer, bald eagle, osprey, great blue heron, water fuel, and Canada goose. Rafting Mule Creek Canyon on the lower Rogue Soggy Sneakers: A Paddler's Guide to Oregon's Rivers lists several whitewater runs of varying difficulty along the upper, middle, and lower RogueRiver and its tributaries.
Popular among kayaks and rafters, the 35-mile (56 km) run consists of class 3+ rapids separated by more gentle stretches and deep pools. To protect the river from overuse, a maximum of 120 commercial and noncommercial users a day are allowed to run this section.
To enter it, boaters must obtain a special-use permit allocated through a random-selection process and pick it up at the Smelling Visitor Center, about 20 miles (32 km) west of Interstate 5 on the Merlin–Alice Road, at the Rand Ranger Station downstream of Alice. A Gold Beach company offers commercial jet boat trips of up to 104 miles (167 km) round-trip on the lower RogueRiver.
Another company offers jet boat excursions on the Hell gate section of the river below Grants Pass. Rental cabins in the Union Creek Historic District along the Upper Rogue TrailExiting a lava tube below Natural Bridgette Upper RogueRiver Trail, a National Recreation Trail, closely follows the river for about 40 miles (64 km) from its headwaters at the edge of Crater Lake National Park to the boundary of the RogueRiver National Forest at the mountain community of Prospect.
Highlights along the trail include a river canyon cut through pumice deposited by the explosion of Mount Mazama about 8,000 years ago; the Rogue Gorge, lined with black lava, and Natural Bridge, where the river flows through a 250-foot (76 m) lava tube. Between Farewell Bend and Natural Bridge, the trail passes through the Union Creek Historic District, a site with early 20th-century resort buildings and a former ranger station that are listed on the National Register of Historic Places.
The Lower RogueRiver Trail, a National Recreation Trail of 40 miles (64 km), runs parallel to the river from Grave Creek to Village, in the Wild Rogue Wilderness, 27 miles (43 km) northwest of Grants Pass. The roadless area through which the trail runs is managed by the Miskito National Forest and the Medford District of the federal Bureau of Land Management and covers 224 square miles (580 km 2) including 56 square miles (150 km 2) of designated federal wilderness.
In addition to scenery and wildlife, features include views of rapids and “frantic boaters”, lodges at Village, Clay Hill Rapids, Paradise Creek, and Martial, and the RogueRiver Ranch and museum. Hikers can take jet boats from Gold Beach to some lodges between May and November.
Hikers can also take trips along the Rogue that combine backpacking and rafting. RogueRiver Trail 1168 continues west 12 miles (19 km) along the north side of the river from Agnes's to the Morey Meadow Trailhead.
Forest Road 3533 provides a hiking route between the trailhead and the Lobster Creek Bridge, 5.8 miles (9 km) further west. Sport fishing on the RogueRiver varies greatly depending on the location.
Upstream of Lost Creek Lake, the main stem, sometimes called the North Fork, supports varieties of trout. Between Lost Creek Lake and Grants Pass there are major fisheries for spring and fall Chinook salmon, and Coho salmon from hatcheries, summer and winter steel head, and large resident rainbow trout.
The river between Grants Pass and Grave Creek has productive runs of summer and winter steel head and Chinook, as well as good places to fish for trout. From Grave Creek to Foster Bar, all but the lower 15 miles (24 km) of which is closed to jet boats, anglers fish for summer and winter steel head, spring and fall Chinook, and Coho.
The lower river has spring and fall Chinook, as well as perch, ling cod, and crab near the ocean. RogueRiver near Indian Mary Park in Josephine CountyBetween Grants Pass and the Hell gate Recreation Area, Josephine County manages two parks, Tom Pearce and Schroeder, along the river.
This stretch of the Rogue, featuring class I and II rapids, 11 access points for boats, 4 parks and campgrounds managed by Josephine County, ends at Grave Creek, where the Wild Rogue Wilderness begins. Indian Mary Park, part of the Josephine County park system, has tent sites, yurts, and spaces for camping vehicles on 61 acres (25 ha) along the Merlin– Alice road at Merlin.
The other three Josephine County parks in the Hell gate Recreation Area are Whitehorse, across from the mouth of the Applegate River ; Griffin, slightly downstream of Whitehorse, and Alameda, downstream of Indian Mary. Panorama of the RogueRiver, nearby ponds, and surrounding countryside as seen from Lower Table Rock in Jackson County.
Hume and the Pacific Fisheries, in a chapter titled “The Curry County Domain”, describes Hume's involvement in shipping, retail merchandising, real-estate transactions, the Wedder burn post office, the hotel and saloon business, a racetrack, and other Curry County enterprises as well as business directly related to propagating, catching, and canning fish. Hume referred to himself as a “pygmy monopolist” in his autobiography, published in the Wedder burn Radium newspaper (which he owned) between February 1904 and June 1906.
The boxes were shipped by horse-drawn wagon to Medford, then by train to Portland or San Francisco, then by steamer to Hume's hatchery 150 miles (240 km) downstream from the egg-collecting station. For example, the Rogue basin temperature standard approved by the EPA in 2004 says in part that “The seven-day-average maximum temperature of a stream identified as having salmon and steel head spawning use on subbasin maps and tables set out in may not exceed 13.0 degrees Celsius (55.4 degrees Fahrenheit) at the times indicated on these ”.
Different criteria and temperature limits apply to parts of the river that are not used by these particular fish for spawning, and other variables affect the Tells as well. ^ a b Google Earth elevation for GNIS coordinates United States Geological Survey (USGS).
“United States Geological Survey Topographic Map: Haymaker Butte, Oregon quad”. “Water-data report 2007: 14339000 Rogue River at Dodge Bridge, near Eagle Point, OR” (PDF).
“Water-data report 2007: 14359000 Rogue River at Ray gold, near Central Point, OR” (PDF). “Where Living Waters Flow: Place & People: War & Removal”.
“United States Geological Survey Topographic Map: Martial, Oregon quad”. “Pacific Coast Fisheries, Interesting Facts about the Methods of Work” (PDF).
“News Editorial, Nets vs. Development (Curry County Reporter, August 15, 1935)”. ^ “The DFW Visitors' Guide, Southwest Region: Cole M. Rivers Hatchery”.
“United States Geological Survey Topographic Map: McLeod, Oregon, quad”. “Stimulus Spurs County on Gold Ray Dam Removal”.
“United States Geological Survey Topographic Map: Trail, Oregon, quad”. “Eco regions of Oregon (front side of color poster with map, descriptive text, summary tables, and photographs)” (PDF).
Rogue River Boater's Guide: 50th Anniversary Edition” (PDF). ^ “Indian Mary: The Centerpiece of the Josephine County Park System”.
Rogue River Basin MDL: Chapter 1 and Executive Summary” (PDF). Uncertain Encounters: Indians and Whites at Peace and War in Southern Oregon.
Soggy Sneakers: A Paddler's Guide to Oregon's Rivers (4th ed.). Whitewater Mailmen: The Story of the Rogue River Mail Boats.