Are Voting Turnout Low

James Lee
• Saturday, 12 December, 2020
• 35 min read

Low voter turnout in the United States has confounded politicians, activists and academics seeking to reverse a trend that puts the country behind many of the world’s developed nations in participation at the polls. In August, the Pew Research Center ranked the U.S. 31st out of 35 countries for voter turnout based on the voting age populace, among the mostly democratic nations that are a part of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development.

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In recent history, participation in the U.S. has peaked during presidential elections, when the last several decades show about 55 to 60 percent of the eligible electorate will vote. The study found that compulsory voting often had an impact on voter turnout, which was the case with three of the top five ranked countries, including Belgium and Turkey.

While mandatory voting is unlikely to happen in the U.S., some states are looking to improve those statistics, even though many concede the reasons for low voter turnout are both varied and elusive. Additionally, they said gerrymandered districts cut across party lines reducing the number of competitive races and interest, and disgruntled citizens, fed up with the often contentious nature of politics, can choose not to participate.

But David Becker, who led Pew’s election work before launching the Center for Election Innovation & Research (HEIR), an organization whose goal is to increase voter turnout, said none of those potential causes are wholly responsible for the dismal turnout statistics. Many of the states with the lowest turnout are dominated by the Republican Party in the South, where restrictive laws can hamper participation.

Since 2012, New York State Assemblyman Brian Kavanaugh has pushed for legislation that could address some of those issues, such as early voting, extended registration deadlines and updated technology at polling places, but so far few of them have received broad support, he said. While solutions to the voting dilemma remain fluid, the turnout rate in the U.S. may also come down to the age of the country’s democracy, Becker said.

One Harvard University study found that citizens from advanced democratic nations tend to abstain from voting. Voting at essentially all polling places in Georgia has been taking at most a matter of minutes Tuesday, according to Secretary of State Brad Raffensperger ®, as turnout appears to have declined for the critical U.S. Senate races compared to the presidential contest in November, a result that might not bode well for Republicans given that traditionally Democratic groups turned out in high numbers during early voting.

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A woman puts on her sticker after voting at a Cobb County polling location on Jan. 5, 2021 in ... Atlanta. Getty Images Wait times were averaging just one minute across the state, Raffensperger said Tuesday.

Georgia voting system manager Gabriel Sterling said that in-person voting on Tuesday appeared to be lower than the presidential election, telling the Atlanta Journal-Constitution that there were “no big long lines, no big issues” in the state. Latino turnout appears to be the highest ever for a runoff in Georgia, according to NBC News.

Raffensperger said there was just one reported voting issue, which took place in Columbia County near Augusta and was resolved before 10 a.m. According to Raffensperger, there were a few issues involving keys used to start paper ballot scanners and some poll worker cards that “were programmed incorrectly, meaning some poll workers were unable to start the touch screen voting machines used for paper-ballot voting.” President Donald Trump quickly latched onto the minor issues as a sign of potential fraud, while also tweeting further unsubstantiated claims around the vote counting without providing any evidence to back them up.

Democrats will need both of their candidates, Jon Scoff and Raphael Warlock, to win for the party to control the Senate, which will only be possible since Vice President-elect Kamala Harris would serve as a tie breaking vote since the chamber would be evenly split between 50 Republicans and 50 Democrats. In other developed countries around the world, such as Belgium, voter turnout is well over 80%, but sometimes the process is easier, or mandatory.

The top reason eligible voters did not cast a ballot in the 2016 US election was that they did not like the candidates nor the campaign issues. The person currently holding office is causing an uproar in the media and vast crowds have been chanting their name in disapproval, protesting in the streets.

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The polls are open and as the night wages on, long lineups form outside on darkening city streets. Government officials chat over cups of coffee and only stop as the odd voter trickles in, wanting to cast their ballot.

According to Statista.com, in 2012, the US was thirteenth when it comes to the percent of the voting age population (VAP) that cast a ballot in the federal election, compared with other selected developed nations. Ahead of it sat Belgium, Turkey, Sweden, South Korea, Israel, France, Germany, Canada, Greece, and the UK, to name just the top ten countries in descending order.

According to NPR.org, fewer than four in ten adults who were eligible to vote cast a ballot in the 2010 and 2014 American midterm elections. Voters at polls during presidential election in 2008 in Fairfax County, Virginia. In a survey conducted by Pew Research Center, it was found that the top reason registered voters did not vote in the 2016 federal election in the US was because they did not like the candidates nor the campaign issues being talked about.

People in McDowell County, West Virginia, for example, displayed the lowest voter turnout in the state. The county is rundown and lacking jobs, with youth needing to leave to carve out a future elsewhere.

Voting polling place sign and people lined up on presidential election day in Arlington, Virginia. Image credit: Rob Crandall/Shutterstock.Comte third most common reason people said they did not vote in the 2016 election was that they were too busy and could not make it to the polls.

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When it comes to young voters, especially in low -income areas, many are working multiple jobs to make ends meet. Voting takes place in the US on a Tuesday, and as Michael McDonald, a political scientist at the University of Florida who tracks turnout with U.S.

Elections Project, told NPR.org, “They (young voters) decide they've got a lot of other things going on in their lives.” It is true that in some places, voters can cast a ballot by mail, but again, this takes some research to do, pre-planning, and time.

There are numerous reasons why millions of eligible Americans do not ever cast a ballot on election day. As NPR.org points out, when people who can vote do not, it presents the country with a greater problem than one candidate not winning an election.

The United States has one of the lowest voter turnout rates among developed countries. In the 2012 presidential election, only about 55% of the voting age population cast a ballot.

Voter turnout is even lower in midterm election years when the president is not up for reelection. In order to vote, people must take time out of their busy weekday schedules to go to the polls.

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They must also invest their time and energy to learning about the candidates and issues and making a decision. These laws include Election Day occurring on Tuesday in the middle of the workweek, as well as registration laws in most states that require voters to be registered at least 30 days prior to the election.

Some states require voters to show identification when they arrive at the polls. Political science research has shown that most Americans are knowledgeable about how the government works and the candidates and issues of the day.

The potential problem with low voter turnout is that the government may be more responsive to citizens who regularly vote. Elected officials are very motivated by a desire to be reelected, so they have an incentive to follow the preferences of voters.

Voters lining up outside a Baghdad polling station during the 2005 Iraqi election. After increasing for many decades, there has been a trend of decreasing voter turnout in most established democracies since the 1980s.

As a result, there have been many efforts to increase voter turnout and encourage participation in the political process. In spite of significant study into the issue, scholars are divided on the reasons for the decline.

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Its cause has been attributed to a wide array of economic, demographic, cultural, technological, and institutional factors. Some studies show that a single vote in a voting scheme such as the Electoral College in the United States has an even lower chance of determining the outcome.

Other studies claim that the Electoral College actually increases voting power. Studies using game theory, which takes into account the ability of voters to interact, have also found that the expected turnout for any large election should be zero.

The basic formula for determining whether someone will vote, on the questionable assumption that people act completely rationally, is PB’D>C, {\display style PB’D>C, } P is the probability that an individual's vote will affect the outcome of an election, B is the perceived benefit that would be received if that person's favored political party or candidate were elected, D originally stood for democracy or civic duty, but today represents any social or personal gratification an individual gets from voting, and C is the time, effort, and financial cost involved in voting.

Since P is virtually zero in most elections, PB may be also near zero, and D is thus the most important element in motivating people to vote. Experimental political science has found that even when P is likely greater than zero, this term has no effect on voter turnout.

Enos and Fowler (2014) conducted a field experiment that exploits the rare opportunity of a tied election for major political office. Informing citizens that the special election to break the tie will be close (meaning a high P term) has little mobilizing effect on voter turnout.

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They listed five major forms of gratification that people receive for voting : complying with the social obligation to vote; affirming one's allegiance to the political system; affirming a partisan preference (also known as expressive voting, or voting for a candidate to express support, not to achieve any outcome); affirming one's importance to the political system; and, for those who find politics interesting and entertaining, researching and making a decision. Other political scientists have since added other motivators and questioned some of River and Reshoot's assumptions.

All of these concepts are inherently imprecise, making it difficult to discover exactly why people choose to vote. Recently, several scholars have considered the possibility that B includes not only a personal interest in the outcome, but also a concern for the welfare of others in the society (or at least other members of one's favorite group or party).

In particular, experiments in which subject altruism was measured using a dictator game showed that concern for the well-being of others is a major factor in predicting turnout and political participation. Note that this motivation is distinct from D, because voters must think others benefit from the outcome of the election, not their act of voting in and of itself.

There are philosophical, moral, and practical reasons that some people cite for not voting in electoral politics. Researchers have also identified several strategic motivations for abstention in which a voter is better off by not voting.

The most straightforward example of this is known as the No-Show Paradox, which can occur in both large and small electorates. High voter turnout is often considered to be desirable, though among political scientists and economists specializing in public choice, the issue is still debated.

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A high turnout is generally seen as evidence of the legitimacy of the current system. Dictators have often fabricated high turnouts in showcase elections for this purpose.

For instance, Saddam Hussein's 2002 plebiscite was claimed to have had 100% participation. For example, the Holy See instructed Italian Catholics to boycott national elections for several decades after the creation of the state of Italy.

In some countries, there are threats of violence against those who vote, such as during the 2005 Iraq elections, an example of voter suppression. However, some political scientists question the view that high turnout is an implicit endorsement of the system.

Mark N. Franklin contends that in European Union elections opponents of the federation, and of its legitimacy, are just as likely to vote as proponents. On the other hand, if low turnout is a reflection of contentment of voters about likely winners or parties, then low turnout is as legitimate as high turnout, as long as the right to vote exists.

Still, low turnouts can lead to unequal representation among various parts of the population. In developed countries, non-voters tend to be concentrated in particular demographic and socioeconomic groups, especially the young and the poor.

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However, in India, which boasts an electorate of more than 814 million people, the opposite is true. The poor, who comprise the majority of the demographic, are more likely to vote than the rich and the middle classes, and turnout is higher in rural areas than urban areas.

Socio-Economic Status and VotingTurnout in the USA and India USA (1988) India (1988) Turnout 50.1 % 62 % Income (Quin tile) Lowest 20%: 36.4% 57 % 52 65 59 73 67 60 Highest 20%: 63.1 47 Education No high school 38% Illiterate 57% Some high school 43 Up to middle 83 High school graduate 57 College 57 Some college 66 Post-graduate 41 College grad 79 Post-graduate 84 Community (1996) White 56 Hindu 60 Black 50 Hindu (OBC) 58 Latino 27 SC 75 ST 59 Muslim 70 Sikh 89 In each country, some parts of society are more likely to vote than others. As a result, many scholars think of turnout as habitual behavior that can be learned or unlearned, especially among young adults.

One study found that improving children's social skills increases their turnout as adults. Socioeconomic factors are significantly associated with whether individuals develop the habit of voting.

The most important socioeconomic factor affecting voter turnout is education. Income has some effect independently: wealthier people are more likely to vote, regardless of their educational background.

In the past, these factors unquestionably influenced turnout in many nations, but nowadays the consensus among political scientists is that these factors have little effect in Western democracies when education and income differences are taken into account. Other demographic factors have an important influence: young people are far less likely to vote than the elderly.

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Occupation has little effect on turnout, with the notable exception of higher voting rates among government employees in many countries. One issue that arises in continent-spanning nations, such as Australia, Canada, the United States and Russia, is that of time zones.

Within countries there can be important differences in turnout between individual elections. Municipal and provincial elections, and by-elections to fill casual vacancies, typically have lower turnouts, as do elections for the parliament of the supranational European Union, which is separate from the executive branch of the EU's government.

Runoff elections also tend to attract lower turnouts. With an intensely polarized electorate and all polls showing a close finish between President George W. Bush and Democratic challenger John F. Kerry, the turnout in the 2004 U.S. presidential election was close to 60%, resulting in a record number of popular votes for both candidates (around 62 million for Bush and 59 million for Kerry).

One 2017 study in the Journal of Politics found that, in the United States, incarceration had no significant impact on turnout in elections: ex-felons did not become less likely to vote after their time in prison. Also in the United States, incarceration, probation, and a felony record deny 5–6 million Americans of the right to vote, with reforms gradually leading more states to allow people with felony criminal records to vote, while almost none allow incarcerated people to vote.

A 2019 study in Social Science Quarterly found that the introduction of a votebymail system in Washington state led to an increase in turnout. A 2020 study in Political Behavior found that a single postcard by election officials to unregistered eligible voters boosted registration rates by a percentage point and turnout by 0.9 percentage points, with the strongest effects on young, first-time voters.

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The availability of ballot drop boxes increases turnout. A 2018 study in the British Journal of Political Science found that internet voting in local elections in Ontario, Canada, only had a modest impact on turnout, increasing turnout by 3.5 percentage points.

The authors of the study say that the results “suggest that internet voting is unlikely to solve the low turnout crisis, and imply that cost arguments do not fully account for recent turnout declines.” So, in this full- turnout counterfactual, Mrs. Clinton doesn't overcome Mr. Trump's narrow victories in Wisconsin, Michigan or Pennsylvania.

The preferences of the population are aligned with a Democratic majority in the Senate as well, Mr. Raga says, despite the bias toward rural states. A 2017 experimental study found that by sending registered voters between the ages of 18 and 30 a voter guide containing salient information about candidates in an upcoming election (a list of candidate endorsements and the candidates' policy positions on five issues in the campaign) increased turnout by 0.9 points.

Research results are mixed whether bad weather affects turnout. There is research that shows that precipitation can reduce turnout, though this effect is generally rather small, with most studies finding each millimeter of rainfall to reduce turnout by 0.015 to 0.1 percentage points.

Some other studies, however, found temperature to have no significant impact on turnout. These variations in turnout can also have partisan impacts; a 2017 study in the journal American Politics Research found that rainfall increased Republican vote shares, because it decreased turnout more among Democratic voters than Republican voters.

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The season and the day of the week (although many nations hold all their elections on the same weekday) can also affect turnout. Weekend and summer elections find more of the population on holiday or uninterested in politics, and have lower turnouts.

When nations set fixed election dates, these are usually midweek during the spring or autumn to maximize turnout. It is extremely rare for factors such as competitiveness, weather, and time of year to cause an increase or decrease in turnout of more than five percentage points, far smaller than the differences between groups within society, and far smaller than turnout differentials between nations.

Limited research suggests that genetic factors may also be important. Some scholars recently argued that the decision to vote in the United States has very strong heritability, using twin studies of validated turnout in Los Angeles and self-reported turnout in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health to establish that.

Two genes that influence social behavior have been directly associated with voter turnout, specifically those regulating the serotonin system in the brain via the production of monoamine oxidase and 5HTT. However, this study was reanalyzed by separate researchers who concluded these “two genes do not predict voter turnout “, pointing to several significant errors, as well as “a number of difficulties, both methodological and genetic” in studies in this field.

According to a 2018 study, get-out-the-vote groups in the United States who emphasize ballot secrecy along with reminders to vote increase turnout by about 1 percentage point among recently registered nonvoters. Based on all parliamentary elections between 1945 and 1997, Western Europe averages a 77% turnout, and South and Central America around 54%.

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Confusingly, some of the factors that cause internal differences do not seem to apply on a global level. There are two main commonly cited causes of these international differences: culture and institutions.

Indonesia, which before 1998 always had a high percentage of voter (more than 87%) but then dip down to low 70% in the 2014, saw a record-breaking voters in the 2019 Indonesian general election with more than 158 million people cast their ballots on the same day, and has been called “the world's most complex one-day elections”. Wealth and literacy have some effect on turnout, but are not reliable measures.

Countries such as Angola and Ethiopia have long had high turnouts, but so have the wealthy states of Europe. Elections require considerable involvement by the population, and it takes some time to develop the cultural habit of voting, and the associated understanding of and confidence in the electoral process.

This factor may explain the lower turnouts in the newer democracies of Eastern Europe and Latin America. Trust in government; degree of partisanship among the population; interest in politics, and belief in the efficacy of voting.

Older people tend to vote more than youths, so societies where the average age is somewhat higher, such as Europe; have higher turnouts than somewhat younger countries such as the United States. In countries that are highly multicultural and multilingual, it can be difficult for national election campaigns to engage all sectors of the population.

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In the United States, negative campaigning and character attacks are more common than elsewhere, potentially suppressing turnouts. The focus placed on get out the vote efforts and mass-marketing can have important effects on turnout.

Partisanship is an important impetus to turnout, with the highly partisan more likely to vote. Turnout tends to be higher in nations where political allegiance is closely linked to class, ethnic, linguistic, or religious loyalties.

Countries where multiparty systems have developed also tend to have higher turnouts. Nations with a party specifically geared towards the working class will tend to have higher turnouts among that class than in countries where voters have only big tent parties, which try to appeal to all the voters, to choose from.

A four-wave panel study conducted during the 2010 Swedish national election campaign, show (1) clear differences in media use between age groups and (2) that both political social media use and attention to political news in traditional media increase political engagement over time. Institutional factors have a significant impact on voter turnout.

Rules and laws are also generally easier to change than attitudes, so much of the work done on how to improve voter turnout looks at these factors. Making voting compulsory has a direct and dramatic effect on turnout.

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Conversely, adding barriers, such as a separate registration process, can suppress turnout. The salience of an election, the effect that a vote will have on policy, and its proportionality, how closely the result reflects the will of the people, are two structural factors that also likely have important effects on turnout.

For example, until “rolling registration” was introduced in the United Kingdom, there was no possibility of the electoral register being updated during its currency, or even amending genuine mistakes after a certain cutoff date. The register was compiled in October, would come into force the next February, and would remain valid until the next January.

The electoral register would become progressively more out of date during its period of validity, as electors moved or died (people studying or working away from home also often had difficulty voting). Another country with a highly efficient registration process is France.

Only new residents and citizens who have moved are responsible for bearing the costs and inconvenience of updating their registration. Similarly, in Nordic countries, all citizens and residents are included in the official population register, which is simultaneously a tax list, voter registration, and membership in the universal health system.

Residents are required by law to report any change of address to the register within a short time after moving. The elimination of registration as a separate bureaucratic step can result in higher voter turnout.

This is reflected in statistics from the United States Bureau of Census, 1982–1983. At the time of that report, the four states that allowed election day registration were Minnesota, Wisconsin, Maine, and Oregon.

In Australia, voter registration and attendance at a polling booth have been mandatory since the 1920s, with the most recent federal election in 2016 having turnout figures of 91% for the House of Representatives and 91.9% for the Senate. Several other countries have similar laws, generally with somewhat reduced levels of enforcement.

If a Bolivian voter fails to participate in an election, the citizen may be denied withdrawal of their salary from the bank for three months. In Mexico and Brazil, existing sanctions for non- voting are minimal or are rarely enforced.

In Venezuela and the Netherlands compulsory voting has been rescinded, resulting in substantial decreases in turnout. In Luxembourg only voters below the age of 75 and those who are not physically handicapped or chronically ill have the legal obligation to vote.

In Belgium attendance is required and absence is punishable by law. In Italy the Constitution describes voting as a duty (art.

From 1946 to 1992, thus, the Italian electoral law included light sanctions for non-voters (lists of non-voters were posted at polling stations). Turnout rates have not declined substantially since 1992 in Italy, though, pointing to other factors than compulsory voting to explain high electoral participation.

Salience Mark N. Franklin argues that salience, the perceived effect that an individual vote will have on how the country is run, has a significant effect on turnout. He presents Switzerland as an example of a nation with low salience.

The nation's administration is highly decentralized, so that the federal government has limited powers. The government invariably consists of a coalition of parties, and the power wielded by a party is far more closely linked to its position relative to the coalition than to the number of votes it received.

Individual votes for the federal legislature are thus unlikely to have a significant effect on the nation, which probably explains the low average turnouts in that country. By contrast Malta, with one of the world's highest voter turnouts, has a single legislature that holds a near monopoly on political power.

Malta has a two-party system in which a small swing in votes can completely alter the executive. On the other hand, countries with a two-party system can experience low turnout if large numbers of potential voters perceive little real difference between the main parties.

Voters' perceptions of fairness also have an important effect on salience. Under a pure proportional representation system the composition of the legislature is fully proportional to the votes of the populace and a voter can be sure that of being represented in parliament, even if only from the opposition benches.

(However many nations that use a form of proportional representation in elections depart from pure proportionality by stipulating that smaller parties are not supported by a certain threshold percentage of votes cast will be excluded from parliament.) By contrast, a voting system based on single seat constituencies (such as the plurality system used in North America, the UK and India) will tend to result in many non-competitive electoral districts, in which the outcome is seen by voters as a foregone conclusion.

Proportional systems tend to produce multiparty coalition governments. This may reduce salience, if voters perceive that they have little influence over which parties are included in the coalition.

For instance, after the 2005 German election, the creation of the executive not only expressed the will of the voters of the majority party but also was the result of political deal-making. Although there is no guarantee, this is lessened as the parties usually state with whom they will favor a coalition after the elections.

Political scientists are divided on whether proportional representation increases voter turnout, though in countries with proportional representation voter turnout is higher. There are other systems that attempt to preserve both salience and proportionality, for example, the Mixed member proportional representation system in New Zealand (in operation since 1996), Germany, and several other countries.

The dual system in Germany, though, seems to have had no negative impact on voter turnout. US states with no, or easier, registration requirements have larger turnouts.

Other methods of improving turnout include making voting easier through more available absentee polling and improved access to polls, such as increasing the number of possible voting locations, lowering the average time voters have to spend waiting in line, or requiring companies to give workers some time off on voting day. In some areas, generally those where some polling centers are relatively inaccessible, such as India, elections often take several days.

Some countries have considered Internet voting as a possible solution. In other countries, like France, voting is held on the weekend, when most voters are away from work.

Therefore, the need for time off from work as a factor in voter turnout is greatly reduced. Many countries have looked into Internet voting as a possible solution for low voter turnout.

For example, the US Department of Defense looked into making Internet voting secure, but cancelled the effort. The idea would be that voter turnout would increase because people could cast their vote from the comfort of their own homes, although the few experiments with Internet voting have produced mixed results.

A 2017 study found that the opening and closing hours of polling places determines the age demographics of turnout : turnout among younger voters is higher the longer polling places are open and turnout among older voters decreases the latter polling places open. A 2021 study that used an experiment in Philadelphia found that postcards by election officials encouraging registrants to vote by mail boosted turnout in the 2020 primary elections by 0.4 percentage points.

If there are many elections in close succession, voter turnout will decrease as the public tires of participating. Holding multiple elections at the same time can increase turnout ; however, presenting voters with massive multipage ballots, as occurs in some parts of the United States, can reduce turnouts.

Not all voters who arrive at the polls necessarily cast ballots. In the United States, it has been common to report turnout as the sum of votes for the top race on the ballot, because not all jurisdictions report the actual number of people who went to the polls nor the number of under votes or over votes.

For the denominator, it is often assumed that the number of eligible voters was well-defined, but again, this is not the case. In the United States, for example, there is no accurate registry of exactly who is eligible to vote, since only about 70–75% of people choose to register themselves.

Some political scientists have argued that these measures do not properly account for the large number of Legal Permanent Residents, illegal aliens, disenfranchised felons and persons who are considered 'mentally incompetent' in the United States, and that American voter turnout is higher than is normally reported. Professor Michael P. McDonald constructed an estimation of the turnout against the voting eligible population (VIP), instead of the voting age population (VAP).

For the American presidential elections of 2004, turnout could then be expressed as 60.32% of VIP, rather than 55.27% of VAP. This does not eliminate uncertainty in the eligible population because this system has been shown to be unreliable, with many eligible but unregistered citizens creating inflated turnout figures.

Change in voter turnout over time for five selected countries Voter turnout has been steadily declining in the established democracies.

This trend has been significant in the United States, Western Europe, Japan and Latin America. It has been a matter of concern and controversy among political scientists for several decades.

The decline in voting has also accompanied a general decline in civic participation, such as church attendance, membership in professional, fraternal, and student societies, youth groups, and parent-teacher associations. People have become far more likely to participate in boycotts, demonstrations, and to donate to political campaigns.

The U.S. saw a steady rise in voter turnout during the century, reaching its peak in the years after the Civil War. In Europe, voter turnouts steadily increased from the introduction of universal suffrage before peaking in the mid-to-late 1960s, with modest declines since then.

These declines have been smaller than those in the United States, and in some European countries turnouts have remained stable and even slightly increased. Globally, voter turnout has decreased by about five percentage points over the last four decades.

The examples and perspective in this section deal primarily with the United States and do not represent a worldwide view of the subject. When asked why they do not vote, many people report that they have too little free time.

However, over the last several decades, studies have consistently shown that the amount of leisure time has not decreased. According to a study by the Heritage Foundation, Americans report on average an additional 7.9 hours of leisure time per week since 1965.

Furthermore, according to a study by the National Bureau of Economic Research, increases in wages and employment actually decrease voter turnout in gubernatorial elections and do not affect national races. Potential voters' perception that they are busier is common and might be just as important as a real decrease in leisure time.

Francis Fukuyama has blamed the welfare state, arguing that the decrease in turnout has come shortly after the government became far more involved in people's lives. He argues in Trust: The Social Virtues and The Creation of Prosperity that the social capital essential to high voter turnouts is easily dissipated by government actions.

However, on an international level those states with the most extensive social programs tend to be the ones with the highest turnouts. Richard Clove argues in Democracy and Technology that technological developments in society such as “automobilization,” suburban living, and “an explosive proliferation of home entertainment devices” have contributed to a loss of community, which in turn has weakened participation in civic life.

However, the first signs of decreasing voter turnout occurred in the early 1960s, which was before the major upheavals of the late 1960s and 1970s. Robert D. Putnam argues that the collapse in civil engagement is due to the introduction of television.

In the 1950s and 1960s, television quickly became the main leisure activity in developed nations. It replaced earlier more social entertainments such as bridge clubs, church groups, and bowling leagues.

Putnam argues that as people retreated within their homes and general social participation declined, so too did vote. It has been argued that democratic consolidation (the stabilization of new democracies) contributes to the decline in voter turnout.

United States Brownstone and Hansen contend that the decline in turnout in the United States is the product of a change in campaigning strategies as a result of the so-called new media. Before the introduction of television, almost all of a party's resources would be directed towards intensive local campaigning and get out the vote initiatives.

In the modern era, these resources have been redirected to expensive media campaigns in which the potential voter is a passive participant. During the same period, negative campaigning has become ubiquitous in the United States and elsewhere and has been shown to impact voter turnout.

Attack ads and smear campaigns give voters a negative impression of the entire political process. The evidence for this is mixed: elections involving highly unpopular incumbents generally have high turnout ; some studies have found that mudslinging and character attacks reduce turnout, but that substantive attacks on a party's record can increase it.

Part of the reason for voter decline in the recent 2016 election is likely because of restrictive voting laws around the country. Brennan Center for Justice reported that in 2016 fourteen states passed restrictive voting laws.

The Constitution gives states the power to make decisions regarding restrictive voting laws. In 2008 the Supreme Court made a crucial decision regarding Indiana's voter ID law in saying that it does not violate the constitution.

Since then almost half of the states have passed restrictive voting laws. These laws contribute to Barbour and Wrights idea of the rational nonvoter.

A number of governments and electoral commissions have also launched efforts to boost turnout. For instance Elections Canada has launched mass media campaigns to encourage voting prior to elections, as have bodies in Taiwan and the United Kingdom.

Google extensively studied the causes behind low voter turnout in the United States, and argues that one of the key reasons behind lack of voter participation is the so-called “interested bystander”. These individuals often participate politically on the local level, but shy away from national elections.

Much of the above analysis is predicated on voter turnout as measured as a percentage of the voting -age population. In a 2001 article in the American Political Science Review, Michael McDonald and Samuel Poplin argued, that at least in the United States, voter turnout since 1972 has not actually declined when calculated for those eligible to vote, what they term the voting -eligible population.

In 1972, noncitizens and ineligible felons (depending on state law) constituted about 2% of the voting -age population. Furthermore, they argue that an examination of the Census Bureau's Current Population Survey shows that turnout is low but not declining among the youth, when the high youth turnout of 1972 (the first year 18- to 20-year-olds were eligible to vote in most states) is removed from the trend line.

Archived 2012-04-15 at the Payback Machine 'Statistical Science' 2002, vol 17, no 4 ^ a b Kannada p. 975 ^ The basic idea behind this formula was developed by Anthony Downs in An Economic Theory of Democracy. “Pivotally and Turnout : Evidence from a Field Experiment in the Aftermath of a Tied Election” (PDF).

“Buying a Lottery Ticket to Help the Poor: Altruism, Civic Duty, and Self-Interest in the Decision to Vote”. ^ Edwin, Aaron, Andrew German, and Noah Kaplan.

An analysis of Indian elections, Appendix D. Australia South Asia Research Center, Australian National University. ^ Linz, Juan; Alfred Stephan; Agenda ADAV (2007).

^ Federal Election Commission via National Voter Turnout in Federal Elections: 1960–2008 Archived 2008-11-09 at the Payback Machine, infoplease.com ^ Fowler, James H. “Habitual Voting and Behavioral Turnout, ” Journal of Politics 68 (2): 335–344 (May 2006) ^ Luther, E (2002). “Becoming a Habitual Voter: Inertia, Resources, and Growth in Young Adulthood”.

“A political scientist has discovered a surprising way to increase voter turnout. “Childhood Skill Development and Adult Political Participation”.

“Timing of vote decision in first and second order Dutch elections 1978–1995. p. 12 ^ Burst, Leonardo; Canton, Divide; Funk, Patricia; Yachtsman, Norm (June 2017).

“Polls, the Press, and Political Participation: The Effects of Anticipated Election Closeness on Voter Turnout ". ^ Gerber, Alan S.; Huber, Gregory A.; Meredith, Marc; Bigger, Daniel R.; Hendry, David J.

Evidence about the Political Consequences of Spending Time in Prison” (PDF). “Making Young Voters: The Impact of Preregistration on Youth Turnout “.

“Increasing Voter Participation by Altering the Costs and Stakes of Voting “. ^ Bryant, Lisa A.; Hammer, Michael J.; Safarpour, Alana C.; McDonald, Jared (2021-06-19).

Evaluating the Impact of Drop Boxes on Voter Turnout “. ^ Miller, Peter; Reynolds, Rebecca; Singer, Matthew (2017-10-01).

“Mobilizing the young vote: Direct mail voter guides in the 2015 Chicago mayoral election*”. ^ Gomez, Brad T.; Hanford, Thomas G.; Krause, George A.

“The Republicans Should Pray for Rain: Weather, Turnout, and Voting in U.S. Presidential Elections”. “Weather and Voter Turnout : Kentucky Primary and General Elections, 1990-2000”.

“The rain in Spain: Turnout and partisan voting in Spanish elections”. “Weather conditions and voter turnout in Dutch national parliament elections, 1971–2010”.

“Weather conditions and political party vote share in Dutch national parliament elections, 1971–2010”. Turnout and weather disruptions: Survey evidence from the 2012 presidential elections in the aftermath of Hurricane Sandy”.

Voting Costs and Voter Turnout in Competitive Elections”. ^ Rising, Rob; Te Grotesques, Manfred; Peter, Ben (2012-07-01).

“Weather conditions and voter turnout in Dutch national parliament elections, 1971–2010”. “The rain in Spain: Turnout and partisan voting in Spanish elections”.

^ a b G. Bingham Powell “Voter Turnout in Thirty Democracies.” ^ Rising, Rob; Te Grotesques, Manfred; Peter, Ben (2012-07-01).

“Weather conditions and voter turnout in Dutch national parliament elections, 1971–2010”. “Only conservatives are voting in the rain: Evidence from German local and state elections”.

^ Fowler, James H.; Laura A. Baker; Christopher T. Dawes (May 2008). “Trickle-Up Political Socialization: The Causal Effect on Turnout of Parenting a Newly Enfranchised Voter” (PDF).

^ Haiti, Yosef; Field house, Edward; Hansen, Jasper M. (2018-07-27). “Mixed partisan households and electoral participation in the United States”.

^ Gerber, Alan S.; Huber, Gregory A.; Fang, Albert H.; Pooch, Andrew (2018). “Nongovernmental Campaign Communication Providing Ballot Secrecy Assurances Increases Turnout : Results From Two Large-Scale Experiments*”.

p. 13 ^ Kristopher Holt; Adam Sheath; Jesper Stomach; Elisabeth Lundberg (1 February 2013). ^ U.S. Bureau of the Census, Statistical Abstract of the United States, 1982–83, Table no.804, p.492 ^ Fresh, Adriane (2018-02-23).

“The Effect of the Voting Rights Act on Enfranchisement: Evidence from North Carolina”. ^ 2016 House of Representatives and Senate elections ^ The Guardian Compulsory voting around the world Archived 2006-12-10 at the Payback Machine ^ Sarah Birch, Full Participation.

A comparative study of compulsory voting, United Nations University, p.5 ^ “GE2020: 4,794 votes cast overseas, taking total voter turnout this election to 95.81%”. “GE2015: Voter turnout at 93.56 per cent, improves slightly from 2011 record low ".

“Youthful hours: Shifting poll-opening times manipulates voter demographics”. ^ Hopkins, Daniel J.; Meredith, Marc; Chaining, Anjali; Olin, Nathaniel; TSE, Tiffany (2021-01-26).

^ Costa, Mia; Shaffer, Brian F.; Provost, Alicia (2018-05-29). Experiments on the effect of pledging to vote on youth turnout ".

^ Kimball W. Brace, Overview of Voting Equipment Usage in the United States, Direct Recording Electronic (ARE) Voting Archived 2009-01-08 at the Payback Machine, statement to the Election Assistance Commission, May 5, 2004. Douglas W. Jones, Human Factors in Voting Technology Archived 2009-09-19 at the Payback Machine, presentation to the Council on Governmental Ethics Laws September 29, 2002, Ottawa Canada.

^ Impart p. 6 ^ “Upwards Leisure Mobility: Americans Work Less and Have More LeisureTime than Ever Before”. ^ Charles, Erwin KOF; Jr, Melvin Stephens (2013).

“Does Democratic Consolidation Lead to a Decline in Voter Turnout ? Tracing the Conditional Effect of Negative Campaigning on Voter Turnout “.

KEEPING THE REPUBLIC: Power and Citizenship in American Politics. ^ Frontiers, Kate; Webb, John; Chapman, Chris (2015-01-01).

“Understanding America's Interested Bystander: A Complicated Relationship with Civic Duty”. ^ “Understanding America's “Interested Bystander:” A Complicated Relationship with Civic Duty”.

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Voter turnout. ...the desire to vote or abstain from politics might largely be hardwired into our biology Philip Lamp (2008-05-29).

A New Nation Votes is a searchable collection of election returns from the earliest years of American democracy. The Power Commission was established to discover what is happening to our democracy.

It sought to establish why people were disengaging from formal democratic politics in Britain and how these trends could be reversed. ... ElectionGuide is the most comprehensive and timely source of verified election information and results available online.

Voter Turnout is a fundamental quality of fair elections and is generally considered to be a necessary factor for a healthy democracy. The International IDEA Voter Turnout Website contains the most comprehensive global collection of political participation statistics available.

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