It was very common in South Africa and it was often described as a horse and zebra hybrid. You cannot train and teach a zebra to be ridden like a horse.
We find a very different type of animal with the zebra when it comes to domestication. This all has to do with the herd mentality among horses which would don’t find to the same extent with zebras.
Among a group of horses, we will always have the leading alpha male which is the leader of the flock. Zebras live more like individuals than in herds, and they do not like to be managed.
They do move around in groups but that’s more because there are obvious benefits than because they follow the leader of the flock. As we looked at above, the horse’s legs are longer and it also enables it to run quite a lot faster than the zebra.
The seating area of the horse where you mount the saddle is also very different build on the zebra. Zebras don’t have the wither which is where the neck of the horse begins.
Some people believe that zebras are faster than horses, but they are wrong. As you can see below horses are faster than zebras and there’s a good physical explanation for that.
This is a clear physical difference between the horse and the zebra. Zebras are typically around 5 feet (1.5 meters) from the shoulder to the hoof.
The horse, on the other hand, is more like 5.5 feet (1,68 meters) from the shoulder to the hoof. Horses have long beautiful manes that can be braided in many ways.
As you can see from the picture above, the mane of the zebra is standing up and looks much more like that of a Donkey. We all know that a horse will neigh and you can also hear this sound among a flock of zebras.
The zebra can also produce a barking-type sound that is more similar to that of a smaller dog. The horse has the perfect back for mounting a saddle.
There is a tiny bump where the horse withers is but nothing to support the saddle or keep the rider in place. The dip is also absent and that makes it very hard to ride the zebra even if they had the temper for it.
We will look a lot more at why it’s almost impossible to domesticate and train a zebra in the next section. They will both kick a fellow stallion if they are provoked They both have hoofs that are similar They sleep standing up.
They are both herbivores and will eat primarily herbs, leaves, and grass in the wild. That the main thing there is to say about similarities between zebras and horses.
Other than that, they have an obvious list of commonalities when you look at how they are built and how they move. They are obviously closely related, as we mentioned at the beginning of the article.
Zebras are closer related to horses than donkeys. They all belong to the Equus family tree and zebras are directly related to horses whereas donkeys are one branch farther away from horses than zebras are.
Most racehorses and draft horses are a bit bigger than zebras. So it’s quite hard to tell whether they are intelligent enough to do much else than just living their life on the African Savannah.
Remember, they are very aggressive and people have not managed to domesticate them in any way or to ride them. The Equine family again belongs to the Perissodactyla order, that includes Tapirs and Rhinos as well.
Zebras and donkeys are, however, related to one another and share physical traits that can account for this confusion. Animal TypeGenusSubgenus HorseEquusEquusDonkeyEquusAsinusZebraEquusHippotigris Zebras might not technically be donkeys, but they do possess a number of similarities, more than many people may realize.
Zebras are prey animals that are most often hunted in the wild by lions and hyenas. Zebras tend to have plump bodies, round-tipped ears, and manes that stick straight up, resembling Mohawks.
Other popular names include monkey, Zedong, Lebanon, Sebring, and zebra. Their coats will often carry both the stripes of the zebra parent along with the coloration of the donkey contributor.
In the wild, this combination will rarely occur and only happens if both zebras and donkey live very closely to one another. Zebra / Donkey Hybrid In domestic situations, these animals can breed more often, but they are not always successful.
They both have plump bodies with potbellies and short heads with rounded ears. They are both prey animals that are hunted by whichever type of predators inhabits their area.
Zebras and donkeys both graze on fields, are herbivores, and their attitude can often be unpredictable and even stubborn! Color : While donkeys are often various shades of gray and brown, zebras are almost always black and white with stripes covering their bodies.
Behavior When Threatened: Like donkeys, zebras are also preyed to hungry predators, but they respond differently to them. Zebras are a species all to their own, and they have unique characteristics that separate them from the rest of the Equus family.
The first horse originated in North America and then spread to Asia and Europe. Horses are considered to be the oldest of the creatures, and history shows that they evolved 45 -55 million years ago.
They are adapted to run by nature since their evolution and hence they are swift and quick and can easily escape from the predators. Mountain zebras are from 3.8 to 4.9 feet tall at the shoulder and weigh 529 to 820 pounds.
Horses can be as big as 69 inches from hoof to shoulder and can weigh as much as 2,200 pounds. The smallest breed of horses can be as small as 30 inches from hoof to shoulder and can weigh only 120 pounds.
Horses can be found in almost every county in the world and every continent except Antarctica. According to some research, the first horse originated in North America and then spread to Asia and Europe.
Plains zebras live in the grasslands and woodlands of eastern and Southern Africa. The Gravy’s zebra inherits in the arid grasslands of Ethiopia and northern Kenya.
The mountain zebra can be seen in South Africa, Namibia, and Angola. In the wild, horses live in a pack that consists of 3 to 20 animals and led by a mature male, known as Stallion.
Plain and mountain zebras live in family groups led by Stallion (a mature male), with several mares and offspring. Instead, stallions establish territories and mare cross into them to breed and give birth.
Zebras also eat mostly grass and travel up to 1,800 miles in search of food. Horses have live offspring births after around 11 months of the incubation period.
Female zebras gave birth to their young litter after a gestation period of 12 to 14 months. Even though being slower, a zebra can escape from its predators by running in a zigzag manner.
They look similar to the other two members but have long, floppy ears and tend to stockier than horses and zebras. Wild donkeys usually measure around 49 inches from hoof to shoulder and weigh around 551 pounds.
Wild donkeys can be found in deserts and Savannah in northern Africa, in the Arabian Peninsula and the Middle East. On the other hand, domesticated donkeys are found all over the world but prefer dry, warm areas.
Both of them have good vision and a sharp mind, and also both are quick in response and can escape from predators. However, horses are quite superior in terms of physical features and can have more chances of winning over zebra.
The resulting animal is called a “Horse” if it is a cross between a horse and a zebra. The cross between a Zebra and a pony is more commonly referred to as a “Zone”.
Typically, horse’s are more difficult to train than a regular horse or pony. Their instincts are heightened from the infusion of wild zebra bloodlines.
Monkeys have long ears, like regular donkeys, but have more characteristics from the zebra mixed in as well. Much like with the horse / zebra cross, Monkeys may retain more wild instincts from their Zebra parent and caution must be applied when training them however, with the right training, they can make excellent companions.
In the wild, the natural thing for prey animals is to fight or flee. With the zebra, if they are contained in a small space like a corral, the fight option becomes much more exaggerated, and they may attack by biting, kicking or stomping.
While the wild mustang horse does have similar instincts, far fewer of them would choose fight over flee. If you look at a zebra, you will notice their flat back and Mohawk looking mane.
One of the interesting things about zebra is that they are all white with black stripes. You should expect that the taming process for a zebra would be much more difficult than that for a wild mustang.
A Zebra is much more prone to fight than flee when confined to a small corral. That being said, a zebra foal who grows up surrounded by humans is less likely to be scared and try to attack out of fear.
Dominance may still play a part but their fear level should be greatly reduced when they are born in captivity and handled regularly. In captivity, however, horses and zebra can often live off of the same type of diet.
For captive zebra and horses, a good quality diet consists of hay or pasture, vitamins, minerals and salt. In fact, a horse and zebra can share the same pasture and receive much of the same nutrition.
Diet should be customized to each individual but the basic elements are the same for both horses and zebra. Typically, the training is more difficult and has to be approached by a trainer with skill in order to work through the natural instincts, but the zebra hybrid is capable of functioning just like a regular horse, with the right training and temperament.
Running in a zigzag motion helps prey animals to confuse and evade predators. Zebra herds will often move in a zigzag pattern to reduce the chances of being taken by a predator like a lion or cheetah.
I hope you enjoyed this look at some facts about zebras, donkeys and horses. Zebra and their hybrids are very interesting to see in person but, for the most part, they should only be purchased from experienced trainers.
If you are willing to put the time and resources in learning how to handle a zebra hybrid, the result can be a fun and interesting looking companion! As an Amazon Associate I earn from qualifying purchases.
A zebra’s stripes are basically vertical around its fore quarters, but horizontal around its rump. Another theory is that the striped pattern somehow confuses the visual system of the blood-sucking tsetse fly, which finds it difficult to ‘navigate’ to the host.
Although zebras and domestic horses are similar in shape and belong to the same family, they are genetically quite different. The result is a strange, partially striped animal called a zeroed, horse, Zedong or febrile.
Because of their genetic incompatibility these hybrids are always sterile, like a mule, and are not of much practical use. However, Negroids, horses, Zedong, ferrules and quanta are incredibly useful and extant words for players of Scrabble.
The quanta was a subspecies of zebra, once plentiful in South Africa, which was hunted to extinction sometime in the 1870s. Its back and hindquarters were plain brown, and its legs were white.
Perhaps because it rather resembled a cross between a zebra and horse, some researchers were led to suspect that it was not a distinct species, and that quanta genes might still survive in some modern zebra populations. With riveting stories, first-hand encounters and magnificent photographs showcasing tourism, travel, nature, adventure and conservation, TNN is the ultimate and most comprehensive guide to exploring Namibia.
Travel News Namibia is published in five different editions per year. Zeroed A horse in an 1899 photograph, “Romulus: one-year-old”, from J. C. Wart's The Pencil Experiments Scientific classification Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Class: Mammalian Order: Perissodactyla Family: Equine Tribe: Equine Genus: Equus Species: A zeroed is the offspring of any cross between a zebra and any other equine to create a hybrid.
Offspring of a donkey sire and zebra dam called a donors or zebra Ginny and offspring of a horse sire and a zebra dam called a zebra do exist, but are rare and are usually infertile. Charles Darwin noted several zebra hybrids in his works.
Many times, when zebras are crossbred, they develop some form of dwarfism. Breeding of different branches of the equine family, which does not occur in the wild, generally results in infertile offspring.
The combination of sire and dam also affects the offspring phenotype. A horse is the offspring of a zebra stallion and a horse mare.
This cross is also called a zebra, febrile, or zebra mule. The rarer reverse pairing is sometimes called a zebra, cobra, Sebring, secret, or zebra Ginny.
A zone is the offspring of a zebra stallion and a pony mare. Medium-sized pony mares are preferred to produce riding zones, but zebras have been crossed with smaller pony breeds such as the Shetland, resulting in so-called “Wetlands”.
A cross between a zebra and a donkey is known as a zen key, monkey, (a term also used for donkeys in Tijuana, Mexico, painted as zebras for tourists to pose with them in souvenir photos) , or a Zedong. Donkeys are closely related to zebras and both animals belong to the horse family.
In South Africa, they occur where zebras and donkeys are found in proximity to each other. Like mules and hints, however, they are generally genetically unable to breed, due to an odd number of chromosomes disrupting meiosis.
Living equips show wide variation in the number of chromosomes, ranging from a diploid number of 32 chromosomes in the mountain zebra to 66 in Przewalski's horse. This is due to several chromosomal fusion and fission events during the evolution of equips.
The chromosome difference makes female hybrids poorly fertile and male hybrids generally sterile, due to a phenomenon called Haldane's rule. And just as female mules and whinnies only very rarely produce offspring the same appears to be true of Negroids.
Only ONE case of such a mare was reported : The zeroed mare of a zebra mare x draft horse stallion produced a foal when she was bred back to her sire but the foal died of lightning, and she did not survive it much longer. Zebras are more closely related to wild asses (a group which includes donkeys) than to horses.
The horse lineage diverged from other equips an estimated 4.0 – 4.7 million years ago; zebras and asses diverged an estimated 1.69–1.99 million years ago. Negroids physically resemble their nonzebra parent, but are striped like a zebra.
If the nonzebra parent was patterned (such as a roan, Appaloosa, pinto / paint, piebald, or skewbald), this pattern might be passed down to the zeroed, in which case the stripes are usually confined to non-white areas. The alternative name “golden zebra” relates to the interaction of zebra striping and a horse's bay or chestnut color to give a zebra-like black-on-bay or black-on-chestnut pattern that superficially resembles the extinct quanta.
Horses combine the zebra striping overlaid on colored areas of the hybrid's coat. The Tobago (the most common white modifier found in the horse) directly interacts with the horse coat to give the white markings.
This effect is seen in the zeroed named Close (a zebra rather than a horse) born in Stukenbrock, Germany, in 2007 to a zebra mare called Eclipse and a stallion called Ulysses. However, a zeroed is usually more inclined to be temperamental than a purebred horse and can be difficult to handle.
Zebras, while not usually very large, are extremely strong and aggressive. In 1815, Lord Morton mated a quanta stallion to a chestnut Arabian mare.
This provoked the interest of Costar Wart, Professor of Natural History at Edinburgh (1882–1927) and a keen geneticist. Wart crossed a zebra stallion with pony mares to investigate the theory of telegony, or paternal impression.
In Origin of Species (1859), Charles Darwin mentioned four colored drawings of hybrids between the ass and zebra. In Lord Morton's famous hybrid from a chestnut mare and male quanta, the hybrid, and even the pure offspring subsequently produced from the mare by a black Arabian sire, were much more plainly barred across the legs than is even the pure quanta.
In his book The Variation of Animals and Plants under Domestication, Darwin described a hybrid ass-zebra specimen in the British Museum as being dappled on its flanks. He also mentioned a “triple hybrid, from a bay mare, by a hybrid from a male ass and female zebra” displayed at London Zoo.
During the South African War, the Boers crossed Chapman's zebras with ponies, to produce animals for transport work, chiefly for hauling guns. A specimen was captured by British forces and presented to King Edward VII by Lord Kitchener, and was photographed by W. S. Bridge.
Gravy's zebra has been crossed with the Somali wild ass in the early 20th century. Horses were bred by the US government and reported in Genetics in Relation to Agriculture by E. B. Babcock and R. E. Clause (early 20th century), in an attempt to investigate inheritance and telegony.
In 1973, a cross between a zebra and a donkey was foaled at the Jerusalem Zoo. In the 1970s, the Colchester Zoo in England bred Zedong, at first by accident and later to create a disease-resistant riding and draft animal.
As of 2010 one adult still remained at the tourist attraction of Groom bridge Place near Tun bridge Wells in Kent. Today, various Negroids are bred as riding and draft animals, and as curiosities in circuses and smaller zoos.
A horse (more accurately a zone) was born at Eden Ostrich World, Cambria, England, in 2001, after a zebra was left in a field with a Shetland pony. Usually, a zebra stallion is paired with a horse mare or donkey mare, but in 2005, a Burch ell's zebra named Allison produced a monkey called Alex sired by a donkey at Highland Plantation in the parish of Saint Thomas, Barbados.
Alex, born 21 April 2005, is apparently the first monkey in Barbados. In 2007, a stallion, Ulysses, and a zebra mare, Eclipse, produced a zebra named Close, displaying an unusually patchy color coating.
In July 2010, a monkey was born at the Estate Wildlife Preserve in Daylong, Georgia. Another zebra–donkey hybrid, like the Barbados monkey sired by a donkey, was born 3 July 2011 in Hailing Safari Park, Hailing, Xi amen, China.
A monkey, IPO, was born 21 July 2013 in an animal reserve, in Florence, Italy. Thumb, the offspring of a zebra dam and a dwarf albino donkey sire, was born on 21 April 2014 in the zoo of Reynosa in the state of Tamaulipas, Mexico.
More recently, in November 2018 at a farm in Somerset, a cross between a donkey stallion and a zebra mare was born. The male foal was described as a monkey by its owner and has been named Zippy.
On the 'commentary' on the DVD seasons of Viva La Bam, Tim Glob says, “If you send me a list of all the episodes where the horse is, I'll give you a dollar”. The 2007 movie I'm Reed Fish features a horse named Sabrina.
In the movie Racing Stripes, an animated horse appears in the alternate ending. He is the son of Stripes, a zebra stallion and Sandy, a gray Arabian mare.
Martin's A Song of Ice and Fire series of fantasy novels. In Roald Dahl's book Going Solo, several other characters, and he speculates on how nice it would be to own a horse, although they admit it would be difficult to train.
The fantasy setting Glorantha has a magical fertile breed of horses crossed with zebras based on the city of Paris. The video game Red Dead Redemption has the “Zebra Donkey” available as a multiplayer mount, however this is a Mexican donkey painted to appear as a zebra, so is not an actual hybrid breed.
Retrieved 20 April 2010. It could be a horse perhaps, a phony, or maybe a Sheba or a Zealand. Whatever its name, the arrival of the strange beast has been hailed as a godsend ^ “Zen key foal a hybrid star”.
“How the monkey got its stripes: Long before Instagram, Tijuana's tourist donkeys were camera-ready”. “A mysterious zebra-donkey hybrid (Zedong or monkey) produced under natural mating: A case report from Born, southern Ethiopia”.
^ Benirschke, K; Low, RJ; Brown hill, LE; CADA, LB; Devenecia-Fernandez, J (1 April 1964). ^ a b Jonson, Halon; Schubert, Mikkel; Seguin-Orlando, Ancient; Minolta, Aurélien; Petersen, Lillian; Fumagalli, Matteo; Albrecht, Andes; Petersen, Bent; Korneliussen, Throwing S.; Airstrip, Julia T.; Lear, Teri (30 December 2014).
“Speciation with gene flow in equips despite extensive chromosomal plasticity”. ^ LAU, Allison N.; Peng, Lei; Got, Pirogi; Chem nick, Leona; Ryder, Oliver A.; Dakota, Kateryna D. (1 January 2009).
^ a b Airstrip, Julia T.; Seguin-Orlando, Ancient; Stiller, Mathias; Minolta, Aurélien; Madhavan, Manama; Nielsen, Sandra C. A.; Winston, Jacob; Free, Duane; Vasiliy, Sergei K.; Volvo, Nikolai D.; Clark, Joel (20 February 2013). A. Hammertoe (1930) ^ “Colchester Zoo mourns the loss of Shadow the Zedong” (Press release).
^ “Rare cross between donkey and zebra known as 'monkey' born on Somerset farm”. Equus is a genus of mammals in the familyEquidae, which includes horses, donkeys, and zebras.
Within Equine, Equus is the only recognized extant genus, comprising seven living species. Like Equine more broadly, Equus has numerous extinct species known only from fossils.
The genus most likely originated in North America and spread quickly to the Old World. All species are herbivorous, and mostly grazers, with simpler digestive systems than ruminants but able to subsist on lower-quality vegetation.
While the domestic horse and donkey (along with their feral descendants) exist worldwide, wild equine populations are limited to Africa and Asia. Wild equine social systems are in two forms; a harem system with tight-knit groups consisting of one adult male or stallion, several females or mares, and their young or foals ; and a territorial system where males establish territories with resources that attract females, which associate very fluidly.
In both systems, females take care of their offspring, but males may play a role as well. Human activities have threatened wild equine populations.
The word Equus is Latin for “horse” and is cognate with the Greek (hippos, “horse”) and Mycenaean Greek into /inks/, the earliest attested variant of the Greek word, written in Linear B syllabic script. Compare the alternative development of the labiovelar in Ionic (inks).
The first equips were small, dog-sized mammals (e.g. Phipps) adapted for browsing on shrubs during the Eocene, around 54 million years ago (MYA). Equips developed into larger, three-toed animals (e.g. Mesohippus) during the Oligocene and Miocene.
From there, the side toes became progressively smaller through the Pleistocene until the emergence of the single-toed Equus. The genus Equus, which includes all extant equines, is believed to have evolved from Dinohippus, via the intermediate form Plesippus.
One of the oldest species is Equus simplifies, described as zebra-like with a donkey-like head shape. The oldest material to date was found in Idaho, USA.
The genus appears to have spread quickly into the Old World, with the similarly aged E. livenzovensis documented from Western Europe and Russia. Molecular phylogeny indicate that the most recent common ancestor of all modern equines (members of the genus Equus) lived ~5.6 (3.9-7.8) MYA.
Direct paleogenomic sequencing of a 700,000-year-old middle Pleistocene horse metaphorical bone from Canada implies a more recent 4.07 MYA for the most recent common ancestor within the range of 4.0 to 4.5 MYA. Mitochondrial evidence supports the division of Equus species into noncaballoid (which includes zebras and asses) and tabloids or “true horses (which includes E. ferns and E. przewalskii).
Of the extant equine species, the lineage of the asses may have diverged first, possibly as soon as Equus reached the Old World. Zebras appear to be monophyletic and differentiated in Africa, where they are endemic.
Members of the subgenus Sussemionus were abundant during the Early and Middle Pleistocene of North America and Afro-Eurasia, but only a single species, E. voodoo survived into the Late Pleistocene in south Siberia and North-East China. Mitochondrial DNA from E. voodoo have placed the Sussemionus lineage as closer to zebras than to asses.
Molecular dating indicates the tabloid lineage diverged from the noncaballoids 4 MYA. Genetic results suggest that all North American fossils of cabal line equines, as well as South American fossils traditionally placed in the subgenus E. (Amerhippus), belong to E. ferns.
Remains attributed to a variety of species and lumped together as New World stilt-legged horses (including E. Francisco, E. tau, and E. Quinn) probably all belong to a second species that was endemic to North America. This was confirmed in a genetic study done in 2017, which subsumed all the specimens into the species E. Francisco which was placed outside all extant horse species in the new genus Haringtonhippus , although its placement as a separate genus was subsequently questioned.
A separate genus of horse, Hippidion existed in South America. The possible causes of the extinction of horses in the Americas (about 12,000 years ago) have been a matter of debate.
Hypotheses include climatic change and overexploitation by newly arrived humans. Horses only returned to the American mainland with the arrival of the conquistadors in 1519.
Subgenus Image Scientific name Common name Distribution Equus Equus ferns includes Equus ferns Catullus and Equus ferns przewalskii Wild horse includes domesticated horse and Przewalski's horse Eurasia AsinusEquus Africans African wild ass ; includes domesticated donkey Horn of Africa, in Eritrea, Ethiopia and Somalia Equus heinous Onsager, Hermione, or Asiatic wild ass Iran, Pakistan, India, and Mongolia, including in Central Asian hot and cold deserts of Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, and China Equus kiang Tibetan Plateau HippotigrisEquus gravy Gravy's zebra Kenya and Ethiopia Equus quanta Plains zebra south of Ethiopia through East Africa to as far south as Botswana and eastern South Africa Equus zebra Mountain zebra south-western Angola, Namibia and South Africa. A mule (horse and donkey hybrid) Equine species can crossbreed with each other.
The most common hybrid is the mule, a cross between a male donkey and a female horse. With rare exceptions, these hybrids are sterile and cannot reproduce.
A related hybrid, a Ginny, is a cross between a male horse and a female donkey. Gravy's zebra is the largest wild species, standing up to 13.2 hands (54 inches, 137 cm) and weighing up to 405 kg (890 lb).
Heavy or draft horses are usually at least 16 hands (64 inches, 163 cm) high and can be as tall as 18 hands (72 inches, 183 cm) and weigh from about 700 to 1,000 kg (1,500 to 2,200 lb). Some miniature horses are no taller than 30 inches (76 cm) in adulthood.
The penis of the male is vascular and lacks a bone (vacuum). Equines are adapted for running and traveling over long distances.
Their dentition is adapted for grazing ; they have large incisors that clip grass blades and highly crowned, ridged molars well suited for grinding. Males have spade-shaped canines (“tushes”), which can be used as weapons in fighting.
Equines have fairly good senses, particularly their eyesight. Their moderately long, erect ears are movable and can locate the source of a sound.
A dun -colored coat with primitive markings that include a dorsal stripe and often leg striping and transverse shoulder stripes reflect the wild type coat and are observed in most wild extant equine species. In domestic horses, dun color and primitive markings exist in some animals across many breeds.
The purpose of the bold black-and-white striping of zebras has been a subject of debate among biologists for over a century, but 2014 evidence supports the theory that they are a form of protection from biting flies. These insects appear to be less attracted to striped coats, and compared to other wild equines, zebras live in areas with the highest fly activity.
Except the domestic horses, which have long manes that lay over the neck and long tail hair growing from the top of the tail head or dock, most equines have erect manes and long tails ending in a tuft of hair. The coats of some equine species undergo shedding in certain parts of their range and are thick in the winter.
Extant wild equines have scattered ranges across Africa and Asia. The plains' zebra lives in lush grasslands and savannas of Eastern and Southern Africa, while the mountain zebra inhabits mountainous areas of southwest Africa.
The other equine species tend to occupy more arid environments with more scattered vegetation. Gravy's zebra is found in thorny scrub land of East Africa, while the African wild ass inhabits rocky deserts of North Africa.
The two Asian wild ass species live in the dry deserts of the Near East and Central Asia and Przwelski's wild horse's habitat is the deserts of Mongolia. In addition to wild populations, domesticated horses and donkeys are widespread due to humans.
In certain parts of the world, populations of feral horses and feral donkeys exist, which are descended from domesticated animals that were released or escaped into the wild. They prefer to eat grasses and edges, but may also consume bark, leaves, buds, fruits, and roots if their favored foods are scarce, particularly asses.
Compared to ruminants, equines have a simpler and less efficient digestive system. After food is passed through the stomach, it enters the sac-like cecum, where cellulose is broken down by micro-organisms.
Equines may spend 60–80% of their time feeding, depending on the availability and quality of vegetation. In the African savannas, the plains zebra is a pioneer grazer, mowing down the upper, less nutritious grass canopy and preparing the way for more specialized grazers such as blue wildebeests and Thomson's gazelles, which depend on shorter and more nutritious grasses below.
Wild equines may spend seven hours a day sleeping. During the day, they sleep standing up, while at night they lie down.
They regularly rub against trees, rocks, and other objects and roll in around in dust for protection against flies and irritation. Except the mountain zebra, wild equines can roll over completely.
Horses, plains zebras, and mountain zebras live in stable, closed family groups or harems consisting of one adult male, several females, and their offspring. These groups have their own home ranges, which overlap, and they tend to be nomadic.
The stability of the group remains even when the family stallion dies or is displaced. Plains zebra groups gather into large herds and may create temporarily stable subgroups within a herd, allowing individuals to interact with those outside their group.
Among harem-holding species, this behavior has only otherwise been observed in primates such as the Nevada and the Madras baboon. Females of harem species benefit as males give them more time for feeding, protection for their young, and protection from predators and harassment by outside males.
Among females in a harem, a linear dominance hierarchy exists based on the time at which they join the group. Harems travel in a consistent filing order with the high-ranking mares and their offspring leading the groups followed by the next-highest ranking mare and her offspring, and so on.
Social grooming (which involves individuals rubbing their heads against each other and nipping with the incisors and lips) is important for easing aggression and maintaining social bonds and status. Young of both sexes leave their natal groups as they mature; females are usually abducted by outside males to be included as permanent members of their harems.
In Gravy's zebras and the wild ass species, adults have more fluid associations and adult males establish large territories and monopolize the females that enter them. These species live in habitats with sparser resources and standing water, and grazing areas may be separated.
The most dominant males establish territories near watering holes, where more sexually receptive females gather. Subdominant have territories farther away, near foraging areas.
Mares may wander through several territories, but remain in one when they have young. Staying in a territory offers a female protection from harassment by outside males, as well as access to a renewable resource.
Some feral populations of horses exhibit features of both the harem and territorial social systems. In both equine social systems, excess males gather in bachelor groups.
These are typically young males that are not yet ready to establish a harem or territory. With the plains' zebra, the males in a bachelor group have strong bonds and have a linear dominance hierarchy.
Fights between males usually occur over estrous females and involve biting and kicking. Przewalski's horses interactingWhen meeting for the first time or after they have separated, individuals may greet each other by rubbing and sniffing their noses followed by rubbing their cheeks, moving their noses along their bodies and sniffing each other's genitals.
They then may rub and press their shoulders against each other and rest their heads on one another. Equines produce a number of vocalizations and noises.
The contact calls of equines vary from the whinnying and nickering of the horse and the barking of plains zebras to the braying of asses, Gravy's zebras, and donkeys. Equines also communicate with visual displays, and the flexibility of their lips allows them to make complex facial expressions.
Visual displays also incorporate the positions of the head, ears, and tail. An equine may signal an intention to kick by laying back its ears and sometimes lashing the tail.
Flattened ears, bared teeth, and abrupt movement of the heads may be used as threatening gestures, particularly among stallions. Among harem-holding species, the adult females mate only with their harem stallion, while in other species, mating is more promiscuous and the males have larger testes for sperm competition.
Estrus in female equines lasts 5–10 days; physical signs include frequent urination, flowing mucus, and swollen, reverted labia. In addition, estrous females will stand with their hind legs spread and raise their tails when in the presence of a male.
Length of gestation varies by species; it is roughly 11–13 months, and most mares come into estrus again within a few days after foaling, depending on conditions. Usually, only a single foal is born, which is capable of running within an hour.
Within a few weeks, foals attempt to graze, but may continue to nurse for 8–13 months. Species in arid habitats, like Gravy's zebra, have longer nursing intervals and do not drink water until they are three months old.
Among harem-holding species, foals are cared for mostly by their mothers, but if threatened by predators, the entire group works together to protect all the young. The group forms a protective front with the foals in the center and the stallion will rush at predators that come too close.
In territory-holding species, mothers may gather into small groups and leave their young in kindergartens under the guard of a territorial male while searching for water. Gravy's zebra stallions may look after a foal in his territory to ensure that the mother stays, though it may not be his.
The earliest archaeological evidence for the domestication of the horse comes from sites in Ukraine and Kazakhstan, dating to around 4000-3500 BCE. By 3000 BCE, the horse was completely domesticated, and by 2000 BCE, a sharp increase occurred in the number of horse bones found in human settlements in northwestern Europe, indicating the spread of domesticated horses throughout the continent.
The most recent, but most irrefutable, evidence of domestication comes from sites where horse remains were buried with chariots in graves of the Sintashta and Petrov cultures c. 2100 BCE. Studies of variation in genetic material shows that very few wild stallions, possibly all from a single haplotype, contributed to the domestic horse, while many mares were part of early domesticated herds.
The split between Przewalskii's horse and E. ferns Catullus is estimated to have occurred 120,000–240,000 years ago, long before domestication. In addition, tartans that lived into modern times may have been hybridized with domestic horses.
Archaeological, biogeographical, and linguistic evidence suggests that the donkey was first domesticated by nomadic pastoral people in North Africa over 5,000 years ago. The animals were used to help cope with the increased aridity of the Sahara and the Horn of Africa.
Genetic evidence finds that the donkey was domesticated twice based on two distinct mitochondrial DNAhaplogroups. It also points to a single ancestor, the Nubian wild ass.
Attempts to domesticate zebras were largely unsuccessful, though Walter Rothschild trained some to draw a carriage in England. Captive Przewalski's horseman have had a great impact on the populations of wild equines.
Threats to wild equines include habitat destruction and conflicts with local people and livestock. Since the 20th century, wild equines have been decimated over many of their former ranges and their populations scattered.
In recent centuries, two subspecies, the quanta and the Tarzan, became extinct. The IUCN lists the African wild ass as critically endangered, Gravy's zebra, the mountain zebra, and Przewalski's horse as endangered, the Onsager as vulnerable, the plains' zebra as near threatened, and the King as least concern.
However, following successful captive breeding, it has been reintroduced in Mongolia. Feral horses vary in degree of protection and generate considerable controversy.
In the United States, feral horses and burros are generally considered an introduced species because they are descendants from domestic horses brought to the Americas from Europe. While they are viewed as pests by many livestock producers, conversely, a view also exists that E. f. Catullus is a reintroduced once-native species returned to the Americas that should be granted endangered species protection.
At present, certain free-roaming horses and burros have federal protection as “living symbols of the historic and pioneer spirit of the West” under the Wild and Free-Roaming Horses and Burros Act of 1971, and in Steppe v. New Mexico, the United States Supreme Court ruled that the animals so designated were, as a matter of law, wildlife. ^ a b c d Airstrip JT, Seguin-Orlando A, Stiller M, Minolta A, Madhavan M, Nielsen SC, et al. (2013).
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“MitochondrialDNA timetable and the evolution of Equus : of molecular and pale ontological evidence” (PDF). “Sussemionus, a new subgenus of Equus (Perissodactyla, Mammalian)”.
^ Yuan, Jun-Xia; You, Finding; Barlow, Axel; Track, Michaela; Aaron, Ulrike H.; Albert, Federico; Baler, Nikolas; Deng, Tao; Lie, Furlong; Forfeited, Michael; Sheng, Gillian (2019-05-16). “Molecular identification of late and terminal Pleistocene Equus voodoo from northeastern China”.
^ Druzhkova, Anna S.; Bakunin, Alexey I.; Vorobieva, Nadella V.; Vasiliy, Sergey K.; Volvo, Nikolai D.; Zhukov, Mikhail V.; Triton, Vladimir A.; Graphodatsky, Alexander S. (January 2017). “Complete mitochondrial genome of an extinct Equus (Sussemionus) voodoo specimen from Denis ova cave (Altai, Russia)”.
^ Orlando L, Male D, Albert MT, Prado Jr, Print A, Cooper A, Hanna C (May 2008). “Ancient DNA clarifies the evolutionary history of American Late Pleistocene equips”.
Winston J, Wellesley E, Her A, Tong W, Ho SY, Rubinstein D, et al. (August 2005). “Evolution, systematic, and paleogeography of Pleistocene horses in the new world: a molecular perspective”.
^ Hartman PD, Paula GD, Machete R, Scott E, Cahill JA, Choose BK, et al. (November 2017). ^ Barron-Ortiz CI, Villa LD, Mass CN, Bravo-Cuevas VM, Machado H, Mother D (2019-09-12).
^ Her Parisian C, Airstrip JT, Schubert M, Seguin-Orlando A, EME D, Winston J, et al. (March 2015). “Mitochondrial genomes reveal the extinct Hippidion as an out group to all living equips”.
“Rapid body size decline in Alaskan Pleistocene horses before extinction”. “A calendar chronology for Pleistocene mammoth and horse extinction in North America based on Bayesian radiocarbon calibration”.
^ “Befuddling Birth: The Case of the Mule's Foal”. “A mysterious zebra-donkey hybrid (Zedong or monkey) produced under natural mating: A case report from Born, southern Ethiopia”.
^ Accordingly JE, Hungarian SR, Kirchhoff IR, Shapiro B, Runway J, Rubinstein DI (2009). ^ a b Car T, Izzy A, Racer RC, Walker H, Sandwich T (April 2014).
“Aerial survey of feral horses in the Australian Alps”. “The roles of large herbivores in ecosystem nutrient cycles”.
^ Outran, A.K., Stare, N.A., Kendra, R., Olsen, S., Kasparov, A., Albert, V., Thorpe, N. and Ever shed, R.P. 323(5919): 1332–1335 ^ Malaysian Shaping World History p. 43 See also: “Horsey-aeology, Binary Black Holes, Tracking Red Tides, Fish Re-evolution, Walk Like a Man, Fact or Fiction”.
Quirks and Quarks Podcast with Bob Macdonald. ^ Evans, James Warren, (1992) Horse Breeding and Management, Elsevier Science, p.56 Kuznets PF (2006).
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Lindgren G, Backstroke N, Swinburne J, Hellebore L, Einarsson A, Sandberg K, et al. (April 2004). ^ Lira J, Linderholm A, Solaria C, Angstrom During M, Gilbert MT, Allergen H, et al. (January 2010).
“Ancient DNA reveals traces of Iberian Neolithic and Bronze Age lineages in modern Iberian horses (PDF). ^ Vila C, Leonard JA, Gotherstrom A, Maryland S, Sandberg K, Laden K, et al. (January 2001).
^ CAI D, Tang Z, Han L, Speller CF, Yang DY, Ma X, AHU H, Zhou H (2009). “Ancient DNA provides new insights into the origin of the Chinese domestic horse” (PDF).
^ Defend E, Akasha Y, Han Jr, Rosenbaum S, Hail A, Jessie T, Beja-Pereira A (2012). “Discordance between morphological systematic and molecular taxonomy in the stem line of equips: A review of the case of taxonomy of genus Equus “.
^ Timur B, Marshall FB, Chen S, Rosenbaum S, Lehman PD, Across N, et al. (January 2011). “Ancient DNA from Nubian and Somali wild ass provides insights into donkey ancestry and domestication”.
CS1 main: ref=hard (link) ^ “Australia Government Department of the Environment and Heritage. (Equus sinus): Invasive species fact sheet”.
“Is America's wild horse an invasive species, or a reintroduced native?” Horizontal Yellow: Nature and History in the Near Southwest.
Zebras are more distantly related to other members of their order Perrisodactyla, a group of herbivores that includes rhinoceroses and tapirs. Humans domesticated the horse (Equus ferns Catullus) over 5,000 years ago, primarily as a working animal, although its meat is edible and consumed in some countries to this day.
Examples include the mustangs of North America and the rubies of Australia. The Klan, or Asian wild ass (Equus heinous) is native to Southeast Asia, in particular Mongolia, although its range was far wider in the past, extending into Europe.
Kulaks are endangered because of habitat destruction, competition with livestock for water and food, and hunting for meat. Although the King is vulnerable to habitat destruction, enough individuals survive over a wide enough area that the species is not yet under threat.
In appearance, the quanta was similar to the surviving species of zebra; although it had a dun color and lacked stripes on its back. Zebras are best known for the distinct black (and sometimes brown) and white striped pattern that covers their bodies.
In the wild, both horses and zebras graze for food and tend to be very social animals. Another difference between the two animals is in their appearance: zebras are shorter and stockier than most horses, and have a distinctive striped pattern.
Asses, commonly known as donkeys, belong to the same genus as horses and zebra, but are in the subgenus Sinus. Like the zebra, they also have long ears, short manes that stick up, and solid tails with a small spurt of hair at the end.
Unlike zebras, donkeys have a poor flight response to predators and do not run as fast. Although stubborn, donkeys make good work animals and have even been known to be affectionate pets.
Although not as closely related to the zebra as the horse and the donkey, the rhinoceros is part of the same order (Perissodactyla) and therefore shares a few similarities. Author Corrie Agnew studied English with a writing concentration at Franciscan University in Ohio.