In the 1994 issue of Foreign Affairs, U.S. National Security Advisor Anthony Lake labelled five nations as rogue states : North Korea, Cuba, Iran, Libya under Muhammad Gaddafi, and Iraq under Saddam Hussein. He described these regimes as “recalcitrant and outlaw states that not only choose to remain outside the family but also assault its basic values”.
Tough unilateral economic sanctions, often at congressional behest, were imposed on or tightened against Iran, Libya, Cuba, Sudan, and Afghanistan. After the conclusion of the Gulf War in 1991, the United States selectively used airpower against Iraq for years during the Iraqi no-fly zones to force them in complying with various United Nations Security Council resolutions regarding disarmament (i.e., Resolution 687) and human rights (i.e., Resolution 688).
Cruise missiles were fired at Afghanistan and Sudan in retaliation for terrorist attacks against U.S. embassies in Kenya and Tanzania in August 1998. In March 1999, NATO launched a massive air-bombing campaign against Yugoslavia in response to the Yugoslav Army's crackdown on ethnic Albanian separatists in the province of Kosovo.
In the last six months of the Clinton administration, U.S. Secretary of State Madeleine Albright announced that the term rogue state would be abolished in June 2000, in favor of the term states of concern, as three of the nations listed as rogue states” (Libya, Iran, and North Korea) no longer met the conditions established to define a rogue state. In 2015, after the US reopened its embassy in Cuba and restarted diplomatic relations with the Cuban government, Cuba was removed from the list of State sponsors of terrorism and was no longer referred to as a rogue state “.
More recently, the Donald Trump administration labelled Venezuela a rogue state due to its gross human rights violations, economic collapse and rampant excess deaths, anti-American stances and its reported involvement in international drug trafficking. During the 2017 UN General Assembly, UN ambassador Nikki Haley called Venezuela a global threat and a “dangerous Marco- state “.
Some figures of the Venezuelan government, like Vice-president Tack El Assam and minister of defense Vladimir Pairing López, were permanently banned from entering US territory, due to their involvement with human rights abuses and drug cartels. Later in the year, the US government banned all high ranking Venezuelan government officials from entering US territory.
Currently, due to the 2019 Venezuelan presidential crisis, Nicolás Maduro's government (which controls Venezuela de facto) is not recognized as legitimate by the United States or any other state in the Western Hemisphere, with the exceptions of Cuba, Dominica, Nicaragua, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, and Suriname. As the U.S. government remains the most active proponent of the expression rogue state, the term has received much criticism from those who disagree with U.S. foreign policy.
Both the concepts of rogue states and the Axis of Evil have been criticized by certain scholars, including philosopher Jacques Derrida and linguist Norm Chomsky, who considered it more or less a justification of imperialism and a useful word for propaganda. Some critics charge that rogue state merely means any state that is generally hostile to the U.S., or even one that opposes the U.S. without necessarily posing a wider threat.
Others, such as author William Blum, argued that the term is also applicable to the U.S. and Israel. In his Restate : A Guide to the World's Only Superpower, Blum claimed that the United States defines itself as a rogue state through its foreign policy.
Similarly, Erdoan made the following statements at the press conference he held after the cabinet meeting on October 5, 2021: “It is not possible for humanity to attain permanent peace and tranquility without saving the world from rogue states and their rogue rulers. Especially in our region, the number of rogue states is quite high.
These rogue states, dating back to Israel, Greek Administration of Cyprus and the Syrian regime, persecute their own citizens and destabilize the world. “Trump's axis of evil: Cuba, Venezuela, Iran and North Korea”.
^ “THE White House'S “TROIKA OF TYRANNY” IS NOW A “WOLF PACK OF ROGUE STATES ". ^ “Clinton Announces New North Korea Sanctions”.
, Inter Press Service, May 20, 2001 ^ Baal, Safer Faith (14 October 2021). “Armenia is rogue state : Turkish ruling party spokesman”.
The Foreign Policy Center of the United Kingdom. ^ AMU 88.5 American University Radio, Washington D.C., Broadcast on 19 June, 10:11 a.m. / Daily Press Briefing, Monday, 19 June 2000, Briefer: Richard Boucher, Spokesman Department 5-10, “States of Concern” versus Rogue states” ^ Wald, Matthew L. (7 July 2006).
“Trump targets Venezuela's government in new travel ban”. ^ “Text of President Bush's 2002 State of the Union Address”.
“Erdoan: Israel, Luna Debris ve Sure medicine radar Ugandan layout developer Wendi vatandalarna zulmediyor”. “Norm Chomsky: US Is a Rogue State and Suleiman's Assassination Confirms It”.
“Trump is an autocratic leader in a weakening democracy, Harvard political scientists warn”. “America first” is the brand, but it doesn’t describe what President Donald Trump’s foreign policy actually is.
“There isn’t any consistency to it,” says Slate’s Fred Kaplan, “except that it’s something that supports Trump in the world of domestic politics.” Over the past four years, that approach has destabilized international relations and left the U.S. alone on important issues. Mike Sugar/Pool/AFP via Getty Images The most recent example of this came last week, when U.S. Secretary of State Mike Pompeo urged the U.N. Security Council to extend an arms embargo on Iran.
Russia and China opposed, and the rest, including America’s closest allies, abstained. On Thursday’s episode of What Next, I talked to Kaplan about how we got here and what the Trump administration is really trying to achieve on the world stage.
Ray Suarez: You’ve written that the Trump administration’s whole approach to Iran is so extreme as to be ineffective, that you can’t imagine these kinds of hard-line tactics working with any regional power. We need you to abandon Marxism-Leninism.” Or “We need you to dissolve the Warsaw Pact where you controlled politics of Eastern Europe.” That’s just not the way it works.
Sometimes anti-Trump commentators observe that the Trump team seemed to want nothing more than armed confrontation with Iran. Whether it’s whacking Gen. Qassem Soleimani or challenging Iran in the Persian Gulf at every opportunity, making small incidents into big ones, the possibility of something going really wrong doesn’t seem to frighten Trump’s foreign policy team.
John Bolton made it clear coming into office as national security adviser that he wanted regime change in Iran and North Korea, forcibly if necessary. Pompey has also made it clear, especially when talking with groups of Iranian émigrés, that that is what he wants.
Trump has made a decision to join in on this regional civil sectarian war on the side of the Sunnis. You know, John Kerry would send all these delegations to Vienna to try to work out some post-Assad politics in Syria.
Trump has shown no interest in any kind of diplomatic forum that can settle these conflicts or even that can make them less violent. And so no, they don’t see, nor do they particularly desire, a peaceful solution or even some kind of long-term Cold War entente.
One of the most reliable applause lines at Trump’s rallies is the assertion that the United States must be strong. The defense budget is now about $750 billion, which is an all-time record, except for when we’ve been in a big war, in real terms, accounting for inflation.
Sen. Sanders introduced an amendment to cut the defense budget by 10 percent. But I don’t think it’s the kind of thing that can easily be discussed in popular politics.