From the Other modelling work suggests that the threat of geoengineering by a rogue state may in fact increase the likelihood of emissions reduction. Rogue states, which we condemn in our reports, despatch their ambassadors with a view to having references to their countries removed at any price.
Armenia Cyprus Greece Israel Syria As early as July 1985, President Ronald Reagan stated that “we are not going to tolerate … attacks from outlaw states by the strangest collection of misfits, Looney Tunes, and squalid criminals since the advent of the Third Reich,” but it fell to the Clinton administration to elaborate on this concept.
In the 1994 issue of Foreign Affairs, U.S. National Security Advisor Anthony Lake labelled five nations as rogue states : North Korea, Cuba, Iran, Libya under Muhammad Gaddafi, and Iraq under Saddam Hussein. He described these regimes as “recalcitrant and outlaw states that not only choose to remain outside the family but also assault its basic values”.
Tough unilateral economic sanctions, often at congressional behest, were imposed on or tightened against Iran, Libya, Cuba, Sudan, and Afghanistan. After the conclusion of the Gulf War in 1991, the United States selectively used airpower against Iraq for years during the Iraqi no-fly zones to force them in complying with various United Nations Security Council resolutions regarding disarmament (i.e., Resolution 687) and human rights (i.e., Resolution 688).
Cruise missiles were fired at Afghanistan and Sudan in retaliation for terrorist attacks against U.S. embassies in Kenya and Tanzania in August 1998. In March 1999, NATO launched a massive air-bombing campaign against Yugoslavia in response to the Yugoslav Army's crackdown on ethnic Albanian separatists in the province of Kosovo.
In the last six months of the Clinton administration, U.S. Secretary of State Madeleine Albright announced that the term rogue state would be abolished in June 2000, in favor of the term states of concern, as three of the nations listed as rogue states” (Libya, Iran, and North Korea) no longer met the conditions established to define a rogue state. In 2015, after the US reopened its embassy in Cuba and restarted diplomatic relations with the Cuban government, Cuba was removed from the list of State sponsors of terrorism and was no longer referred to as a rogue state “.
More recently, the Donald Trump administration labelled Venezuela a rogue state due to its gross human rights violations, economic collapse and rampant excess deaths, anti-American stances and its reported involvement in international drug trafficking. During the 2017 UN General Assembly, UN ambassador Nikki Haley called Venezuela a global threat and a “dangerous Marco- state “.
Some figures of the Venezuelan government, like Vice-president Tack El Assam and minister of defense Vladimir Pairing López, were permanently banned from entering US territory, due to their involvement with human rights abuses and drug cartels. Later in the year, the US government banned all high ranking Venezuelan government officials from entering US territory.
Currently, due to the 2019 Venezuelan presidential crisis, Nicolás Maduro's government (which controls Venezuela de facto) is not recognized as legitimate by the United States or any other state in the Western Hemisphere, with the exceptions of Cuba, Dominica, Nicaragua, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, and Suriname. As the U.S. government remains the most active proponent of the expression rogue state, the term has received much criticism from those who disagree with U.S. foreign policy.
Both the concepts of rogue states and the Axis of Evil have been criticized by certain scholars, including philosopher Jacques Derrida and linguist Norm Chomsky, who considered it more or less a justification of imperialism and a useful word for propaganda. Some critics charge that rogue state merely means any state that is generally hostile to the U.S., or even one that opposes the U.S. without necessarily posing a wider threat.
Others, such as author William Blum, argued that the term is also applicable to the U.S. and Israel. In his Restate : A Guide to the World's Only Superpower, Blum claimed that the United States defines itself as a rogue state through its foreign policy.
Similarly, Erdoan made the following statements at the press conference he held after the cabinet meeting on October 5, 2021: “It is not possible for humanity to attain permanent peace and tranquility without saving the world from rogue states and their rogue rulers. Especially in our region, the number of rogue states is quite high.
These rogue states, dating back to Israel, Greek Administration of Cyprus and the Syrian regime, persecute their own citizens and destabilize the world. “Trump's axis of evil: Cuba, Venezuela, Iran and North Korea”.
^ “THE White House'S “TROIKA OF TYRANNY” IS NOW A “WOLF PACK OF ROGUE STATES ". ^ “Clinton Announces New North Korea Sanctions”.
, Inter Press Service, May 20, 2001 ^ Baal, Safer Faith (14 October 2021). “Armenia is rogue state : Turkish ruling party spokesman”.
The Foreign Policy Center of the United Kingdom. ^ AMU 88.5 American University Radio, Washington D.C., Broadcast on 19 June, 10:11 a.m. / Daily Press Briefing, Monday, 19 June 2000, Briefer: Richard Boucher, Spokesman Department 5-10, “States of Concern” versus Rogue states” ^ Wald, Matthew L. (7 July 2006).
“Trump targets Venezuela's government in new travel ban”. ^ “Text of President Bush's 2002 State of the Union Address”.
“Erdoan: Israel, Luna Debris ve Sure medicine radar Ugandan layout developer Wendi vatandalarna zulmediyor”. “Norm Chomsky: US Is a Rogue State and Suleiman's Assassination Confirms It”.
It could be attempted unilaterally, or worse, proliferate among rogue states, and it could be militarized. The influence of organized crime is not unique to failed or rogue states.
The concept of ‘ Rogue States’ is one that has been written on and explored over the years by numerous International Relations specialists and scholars. These are: pursuance weapons of mass destruction (WMD), actively carry out or support terrorism and terrorism related activities, systematic and severe violation and restriction of accepted international human rights, and repression and abuse of a state’s own citizens.
Additionally, rogue states are characterized by authoritarian rule, involvement in large-scale criminal activities such as drugs trafficking and money laundering or counterfeiting activities, and pathetic handling and treatment of those who dissent to the political leadership of the state. In the contemporary global context, North Korea can be considered a perfect example of a Restate and has remained a so for more than six decades.
Germany under the rule of the ruthless Adolf Hitler, Libya under notorious Muhammad Gaddafi, and Iraq under the reign of iniquitous Saddam Hussein were all once considered rogue states. Players such as the UN Security Council and USA are grappling with the question of how to deal with rogue states such as North Korea which is almost plunging the world to World War Three through its continued quest for and use of weapons of mass destruction such as the Nuclear Weapons.
This is far, it has turned out fairly difficult for the international community to deal with North Korea and bring to a halt its life-threatening activities. Some breakthroughs in recent history such as the change of heart of the Libyan reign of Muhammad Gaddafi from rogue to friend can give hope to this course. The Trump administration, notwithstanding its recent declaration of a Cold War with China, which is too large to be dismissed as a rogue, or the longstanding outlaw behavior of North Korea, whose dictator has become Donald Trump’s latest love interest, has depicted Iran as the preeminent rogue state.
This case is not the only recent international legal proceeding in which the Trump administration has said it will take its ball and go home. National Security Advisor John Bolton stated last week that the administration was withdrawing from a protocol to the 1961 Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations in response to a suit brought to the ICE by Palestine, which alleges the United States violated the convention when it moved to Jerusalem its embassy to Israel.
The U.S. sanctions that cut off humanitarian shipments to Iran violate not only that 1955 friendship treaty but also, even more clearly, the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JC POA), the multilateral agreement commonly known as the Iran nuclear deal, and United Nations Security Council Resolution 2231, which endorsed the JC POA and passed the council unanimously. The administration’s playing fast and loose with international agreements puts into perspective, by the way, some of the other arguments that opponents of the JC POA have long used.
After all, if nothing in the agreement were binding, Iran could feel just as free as the Trump administration has felt in blowing off its commitments whenever it wants, and the expiration dates would be meaningless anyway. All this comes amid headlines about alleged outlaw behavior by Iran’s principal regional rival, Saudi Arabia.
Turkey says it believes that journalist and part-time U.S. resident Jamal Khashoggi was killed inside the Saudi consulate in Istanbul after he went there to obtain some paperwork prior to getting married. You don’t need to read the Vienna Convention to know that murdering someone in one of your consulates is not what diplomatic missions are supposed to be used for.