For example, a 3-month-old would ideally be eating about three pounds of feed per day, in addition to milk and free choice hay or pasture. A weaning horse already accustomed to eating an adequate amount of dry feed will transition to life without mom much easier and will be ready to maintain nutrient intake at a level that can sustain optimum growth. Feeds formulated for adults will not provide the necessary nutrients for your baby to fulfill their genetic potential and may cause deficiencies and increase the risk of growth abnormalities.
Purina feeds formulated for growing foals include Cultism ® Growth, Imogene #300 ®, Strategy ® GO, Equine Junior ® and Enrich Plus ®. Plotting your weaning horse’s height and weight over time should show a smooth, steady growth curve with no obvious peaks or valleys.
Weaning horses are growing to their genetic potential when they are being fed a well-balanced diet in amounts to maintain slight cover, so ribs aren’t seen but are easily felt. For estimating weight, measure around the heart girth and the length from point of shoulder to point buttock. You can track growth over time by checking your horse’s body weight with a scale or measuring tape.
Plug these measurements into the body weight equation below to estimate your horse’s weight. Optimal growth Ideally, you should feed young horses to grow at a moderate, steady rate.
The National Resource Council (NRC) recommends rates of average daily gain for horses. Recommended average daily gain values for horses of different mature body weights range from 0.28 to 0.39 percent and 0.15 to 0.21 percent of the horse's body weight for weaklings and yearlings, respectively.
Maximum growth Feeding a young horse for a maximum growth rate is undesirable because bone hardening lags greatly behind bone lengthening. Ideally, young horses should gain weight at a rate that their developing bones can easily support.
Growing bones don’t have the strength to support rapid weight gain from overfeeding, especially energy. Rapid weight gain can also make other skeletal anomalies worse.
In these cases the risk of developmental orthopedic disorders (DOD) and unsoundness increases. For example, switching an underfed, slow growing horse to a good diet that allows quick growth, increases the risk of DOD.
Always provide horses free access to fresh, clean water. Common feed stuffs usually don’t provide enough trace minerals.
Maximizing forage intake will mimic natural feeding behavior and bring about gut health. Thus, don’t rely on pasture alone to provide your young horse with all the nutrients they need.
Concentrates A horse’s ability to efficiently use forage develops over time. Only feed enough concentrates to achieve the desired growth rate and maintain a moderate body condition score.
Feed young horses to grow at a moderate and steady rate. Foals between the age of 3 and 9 months are at greatest risk for developmental orthopedic disorders.
Young, growing horses need a diet ratio of Ca to P between 1 and 1 and 3 to 1. Maximizing forage intake will mimic natural feeding behavior and bring about gut health.
Nutrition is important for growing horses between weaning and 2 years of age. During this time, bone formation and size greatly increase as well as muscle mass.
Thus, these horses need the proper amount and balance of energy and nutrients in their ration. Most foals are weaned at about 4 to 6 months, just when their nutritional needs begin to outpace their mothers' milk supply.
Designed to provide all of a foal's nutritional needs at birth, a mare's milk yield naturally starts to decline after the first month or two. By the time the foal is 4 months old, he must supplement his nursing with other food sources, such as forage (hay and pasture) and grain.
Accustoming him to these nonmilk sources well before weaning time not only will help him maintain consistent growth throughout the transition, it will also help to avoid the “kid-in-the-candy-store” syndrome. But because the microorganism populations in newborns' hind guts need several months to develop fully, he will have trouble digesting this forage initially.
Turn him out on a productive pasture or entice him with good-quality, palatable hay (fresh and clean, early-cut). If you plan to feed your weaning grain, introduce him to it when he's about 1 or 2 months old, starting with just a handful at a time and increasing the amount incrementally.
One good way to introduce nursing foals to grain is with a creep feeder: a four-sided, single-railed enclosure built either in the corner of the fence line or standing alone in the center of the pasture (the latter is preferable for group feeding, as it allows escape on all four sides). This feeding method thus reduces the risks of digestive problems, such as colic and ulcers, brought on by large meals.
If you have only one foal, make the creep feeder sides about 8 feet long, set at your mare's chest height. If you don't use a creep feeder, offer your foal small meals when his dam is being fed.
He can eat out of her feeder?in which case, be sure the feed meets his nutritional needs, which are higher than the mare's in some respects. Or mount a foal feeder, which has openings too narrow for an adult horse's muzzle to access, for him on the wall of her stall.
To encourage what nutritionists call “optimal growth,” you can provide up to 60 percent of a weaning's ration, based on weight, in the form of a concentrated feed designed specifically for growing horses. Encouraging even more rapid growth by feeding excessively large grain portions can contribute to long-term development problems, for example in the bones and joints, particularly in certain breeds, such as warm bloods and Quarter Horses.
The best proven method for supporting healthy musculoskeletal growth is to provide a properly balanced diet? Be careful not to confuse a potbellied foal (with a bloated belly and no layer of fat over the ribs) with an overweight foal; a potbelly may indicate a parasite overload and/or poor hay quality, especially when accompanied by a poor hair coat.
Weaklings turned out in groups rarely get too fat, even when fed free-choice forage and given adequate concentrate to support growth. Stalled youngsters, on the other hand, may overeat out of boredom and, without plenty of exercise, may become overly fat.
Throughout that time, periodically reevaluate and adjust his diet to address his growing needs, as well as his exercise needs, until he reaches full maturity. Dr. Christine Kelly is an associate professor and equine extension specialist at Michigan State University.
April 3, 2012March 20, 2018By Dr. Peter Huntington Young horses need the best -quality feeds to meet their requirements for growth and free exercise. Crushed maize (corn), rice, and barley are other grains that are good sources of energy for the growing horse.
Young green grass/clover pasture contains 15–20% crude protein, but this amount falls rapidly as the plants begin flowering and go to seed. Linseed meal is relatively low in lysine and is not a good source of protein for growing horses, although its high oil content will produce a bloom on the coat.
Urinalysis can be used to assess the calcium status of young horses, or the calcium/phosphorus balance of the ration can be HTTP://www.equinews.com/article/providing-dietary-calcium-and-phosphorus-horsesalyzed by an equine nutritionist. Trace minerals such as copper, zinc, manganese, and selenium are important components in the diet for most growing horses, and are supplied in the right quantities and ratios in commercial feeds formulated for young horses.
Therefore, you must use good-quality chaff or hay to maximize the utilization of the fibrous feed in meeting the energy requirements and so decrease the amount of starch the weaning has to be fed. Lucerne (alfalfa) or clover hay will also supply protein and calcium as well as fiber, so they are preferred for growing horses and should be fed on demand.
This article discusses each of these dietary components in some detail and 3 potential diets for weaklings in different circumstances are given. Growth rate and body condition in weaklings are, in my opinion, the two most important parameters to manage.
If you allow your weaning to grow too quickly or carry too much body condition you will put it at increased risk of bone and joint diseases. The table below gives you a guide to how much weight a weaning should gain per day (please note these growth rates are for a horse expected to mature at 550 kg).
If your weaning is growing too quickly or is too heavy in condition, the amount of feed (and therefore dietary energy) must be reduced. Growth rates and condition scores are the two parameters that will determine HOW MUCH feed your weaning needs.
If you are feeding cereal grains and particularly corn and barley they should be cooked before they are fed (e.g. extruded, micronized, steam flaked, boiled). High energy fibers like beet pulp, soy or lupine hulls and copra meal can also be used for weaklings.
Where additional supplementary feeds are needed, soybean or soybean based feeds are the best source of protein for growing horses as they contain high concentrations of the essential amino acids needed for muscle and bone development. Cottonseed meal should be avoided as its content and availability of the most limiting amino acid, lysine, is poor.
Many people are scared of feeding protein to their growing horses for fear of causing developmental disease in the bones and joints. Minerals play a MAJOR role in determining the future structural soundness of your weaklings.
Deficiencies of other minerals like iodine and selenium can also limit growth rates and contribute to muscle disease. Failure to meet vitamin requirements can slow growth rates, affect feed intake and predispose the weaning to infectious diseases.
Again, Feed XL will calculate your weaning’s vitamin requirements and will show you if any deficiencies exist in its current ration. If you feed correctly to maintain a steady growth rate whilst meeting all the youngster’s protein, mineral and vitamin requirements, the risk of bone and joint disease is radically reduced.
With a degree in Rural Science, a doctorate degree in equine nutrition and nearly 20 years of full time, on the ground experience in feeding all types of horses Neruda is able to help Feed XL members solve any problem they may come up against with feeding their horses.