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“If Irvine had said nothing, I shouldn't have thought half so much of Betty as of Meg's lameness.” However, it was just the sort of day for lolling in the Hermitage, and he would go and finish Dr.
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Physically disabled, especially in the foot or leg to limp or walk with difficulty: a lame racehorse. Impaired or disabled through defect or injury: a lame arm.
Weak; inadequate; unsatisfactory; clumsy: a lame excuse. Awkward, dull, stupid, or uninteresting: The party was lame, so we bailed early.
While arguing in favor of Measure D at a City Council hearing in 2019, she called Baser a lame duck.” Lame -duck Congress and lame -duck president face huge challenges in the coming weeks Signature, which has nearly 60 percent of its portfolio tied up in commercial real estate, is bracing for the fallout.
We urge our leaders on both sides of the aisle to find common ground, finish the work they started, and pass additional relief measures during the lame -duck session to help the businesses, industries, and workers who continue to suffer. Though it’s possible another stimulus package could come during the lame -duck session before the next Congress sits in January, some economists find it unlikely.
Their comments came as lawmakers prepare to return to the Capitol next week for Congress’ post-election lame duck session. I have conflicting feelings of lame less and warm fuzzier: I'm only worried because I really do respect him.
She's cured of her lame less now, and is grown up to be a very pretty girl, Bailey said. In many instances, as soon as the subject has traveled a considerable distance, lame less diminishes or discontinues.
The American Heritage® Sherman's Medical Dictionary Copyright © 2002, 2001, 1995 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Lameness is a clinical sign of a more severe disorder that results in a disturbance in the gait and the ability to move the body about, typically in response to pain, injury, or abnormal anatomy.
This process is guided by deeper inspection of the apparent outward symptoms, ruling out each of the more common causes until the correct disorder is settled upon and can be treated appropriately. Computed tomography (CT) scans and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) will also be used when appropriate.
Your veterinarian will assist you in creating a food plan that will best work for your dog according to its breed, size and age. For example, pain relievers may be prescribed, along with steroids that can be used help to reduce inflammation in the muscles and nerves, allowing healing to take place.
Diagnosing lameness and establishing the condition responsible calls for a complete loco motor examination. Your veterinary surgeon is the only person qualified to assess your horse's loco motor function, using a series of special examinations and diagnostic tests.
From considering the horse's background to taking X-rays, also including a study of the horse as he moves, a consultation for lameness often takes a long time and is always broken down into several stages, which are absolutely essential to a precise diagnosis, on which effective treatment will depend. Local analgesia in which areas of the horse are nerve blocked (in the same way your dentist may numb or freeze your teeth) can be used to identify and confirm sites of lameness.
Using a sensor that emits and receives waves, ultrasonography shows the soft tissue tissue that is not bone (tendon, muscles, vessels, nerves, etc.). , together with the relief of the chondral bonbon area situated just under the joint cartilage.
The principle of scenography is the injection of a slightly radioactive product into the patient's circulation, followed by measurement of the amount of radioactivity released by different areas of the horse's body using a gamma camera. Scenography can be followed by classical radiography and ultrasonography, once the abnormal site has been identified.
Laminates Allah peradangan Maringá tank UK yang disebabkan ole ganglia sirkulasi Sarah. Laminates data disebabkan Kearney Peruvian pagan Mendoza, ketidakseimbangan concentrate Dan seat yang digerati pennant lain (factor predisposing).
Author/s : L. Solano *, H. W. Barker *, E. A. Major *, S. Mason *, S. J. Leblanc †, J. C. Affine Karloff †, C. G. R. Nash †, D. B. Haley †, E. Masseur ‡, D. Pelleting §, J. Rushed #, A. M. DE Pastille #, and K. Oriel * Summary Lameness is a severe welfare problem and a production-limiting disease in dairy farming.
The objectives of this study were to determine prevalence of lameness and investigate cow- and herd-level factors associated with lameness in dairy cows housed in free stall barns in 3 Canadian provinces. A purposive sample of 40 Holstein-Friesian cows was selected from each of 141 dairy farms in Québec, Ontario, and Alberta.
In total, 5,637 cows were scored once for lameness (presence of limping when walking). Data collected included information on individual cows (hock lesions, claw length, body condition score, parity, days in milk, and milk production), management practices (floor and stall cleaning routine, bedding routine, and footpath practices), and facility design (stall dimensions, stall base and bedding type, width of feed alley, flooring type, and slipperiness) hypothesized to be risk factors for lameness.
Furthermore, the odds of lameness were 1.6 times greater in cows with low body condition score (2.5) than in cows with a higher body condition score. In addition, injured hocks and overgrown claws were associated with 1.4- and 1.7-fold increased odds of being lame, respectively, whereas every 1 kg increase in daily milk production was associated with a 3% decrease in the odds of being lame.
Lameness prevalence was higher in herds with 100 cows, but lower in barns with a sand or dirt stall base, or with bedding 2 cm deep. We attributed the wide range of lameness prevalence to the great variability in facilities and management practices among farms.
* Department of Production Animal Health, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada; † Department of Population Medicine, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, Canada; ‡ Organic Dairy Research Center, University of Guelph, Alfred, Ontario, Canada; § Department of Animal Science, University Laval, Québec, Québec, Canada, G1V 0A6 #Dairy Education and Resource Center, University of British Columbia, Agassiz, British Columbia, Canada. Lameness is one of the most important welfare, health, and productivity problems in intensive dairy farming worldwide.
Furthermore, it causes pain (What et al., 1998; Rushed et al., 2007), reduces longevity (Booth et al., 2004; Canadian Dairy Information Center, 2014), milk production (Warwick et al., 2001; Green et al., 2002), and reproductive performance (Hernandez et al., 2001; Gasparino et al., 2004), and consequently has a great economic effect (Edema and Ostergaard, 2006). The prevalence of lameness varies considerably among farms, regions, and housing systems, although it is generally higher in free stall barns compared with tie stalls (Cook, 2003; Krogstad et al., 2005b), bedded packs (Haskell et al., 2006), and pasture systems (HernandezMendo et al., 2007).
In the United States, free stall dairies in Wisconsin and Minnesota had a mean lameness prevalence of 25% (Cook, 2003; ESEO et al., 2006), whereas in California and the northeastern United States, overall lameness prevalence was estimated to be 34 and 63%, respectively (on Tasering et al., 2012). Estimates of the prevalence of lameness using locomotion scores in Canada (irrespective of housing system) are scarce.
In Ontario, one study assessed lameness prevalence linked to stall design, but estimated lameness based on the presence of back arch (3.2%) and claw rotation (23%) and only in tie-stall barns (Curbing et al., 2005). Another study assessed a wider range of herd-level factors in both tie-stalls and free stalls, but estimated lameness based on the presence of foot lesions (Crater et al., 2009).
The only study that focused on the prevalence of lameness based on locomotion scores in free stalls was conducted in British Columbia (on Tasering et al., 2012). Lameness scoring systems differed considerably among these studies; therefore, the variation in lameness prevalence estimates among European and North American studies could partly be due to methodology and diagnostic criteria.
Several studies reported associations between lameness and factors such as flooring type and slipperiness (Somerset al., 2003; Telezhenko and Bergs ten, 2005); the amount, cleanliness, and type of stall bedding (Cook, 2003; Cook et al., 2004a; Ito et al., 2010; Capital et al., 2013); stall dimensions (Krogstad et al., 2005a; ESEO and Endures, 2007; Dipped et al., 2009), access to pasture, and footpath frequency (Capital et al., 2013). Therefore, differences in lameness estimates among studies could also be attributed to management and housing differences across farms that lead to the presence or absence of risk factors for lameness.
High lameness prevalence estimates and their variation highlight the need for a better understanding of the multifactorial origins of lameness, and the combination of risk factors related to the environment, management, and the individual cow (Vermont, 2007). Despite increased awareness of lameness as a problem in Canada, apparently no epidemiological study has been done to identify prevalence (and associated risk factor analysis) in free stall barns.
Based on hypothesized biological cause-and-effect relationships and previous research, a causal diagram was drawn to identify variables to measure on farms and to consider in analyses (Figure 1). A total of 141 free stall dairy farms were enrolled as part of a larger study.
Farms were located in 3 Canadian provinces: Alberta , Ontario , and Québec . Data were collected between May 2011 and July 2012 by trained graduate students and research assistants from the University of Calgary (Calgary, AB, Canada), University of Guelph (Guelph, ON, Canada), and University Laval (Québec City, QC, Canada).
Because of practical reasons and availability of students, farms were visited from May 2011 to July 2012 in AB, May to November 2011 in ON, and January to April 2012 in QC. All methods were approved by the Animal Care Committees and Research Ethics Boards of each participating academic institution.
Those who were interested replied by mail or fax and had to return a letter indicating willingness to participate in AB and ON, or they were called by a DHI (Malacca Inc., Sainte-Anne-de-Bellevue, QC, Canada) advisor in QC. To ensure that participating farms were representative of the majority of free stall herds in Canada, farms had to be enrolled in an organized milk recording system provided by Can West DHI (Guelph, ON, Canada) or Malacca Inc. and have a herd size 40 Holstein-Friesian lactating cows.
In ON and QC, farms were also selected on the basis of longevity and having mean milk production 7,000 kg/cow per yr (Masseur et al., 2015). Farms were excluded if lactating cows were subjected to uncommon management practices (e.g., access to an outdoor exercise area or pasture for >2 h/d).
To ensure that animal-based measures reflected housing conditions, the current free stall facility for lactating cows had to be in use for at least 1 yr. Causal web of factors hypothesized to affect lameness in dairy cows.
Based on previous work on estimating sample sizes for cow comfort aspects such as lying behavior (Ito et al., 2009), and due to time constraints (Affine Karloff et al., 2014), a purposive sample of 40 lactating Holstein-Friesian cows between 10 and 120 DIM was selected on each farm. Briefly, 2 dairy scientists with experience scoring lameness trained 6 observers in the 3 provinces (3, 2, and 1 observers for AB, ON, and QC, respectively) during an intensive 2-wk program.
To ensure a high level of agreement (weighted Kappa statistic 0.6), the program included 4 repeatability sessions between trainers and all observers (2 on-farm and 2 with videos) on locomotion scoring. A refresher course and mid-way check (3 to 4 and 5 to 15 wk after initial training, respectively) were done to maintain agreement throughout the study.
Cows were video recorded while returning from the milking parlor by 1 or 2 people per farm to assess lameness using a simplified version of a numerical rating score (Flower and Weary, 2006) that was previously validated (Capital et al., 2009; Ito et al., 2010). This scoring system aimed to identify cows that were reluctant to bear weight on at least 1 limb (i.e., walked with a limp).
Locomotion was not assessed if the video quality was poor, if the cow was trotting or running, or if less than 2 complete strides were recorded (n = 381). Cows were scored for leg cleanliness, BCS, hock injuries, and claw length using standard operating procedures by no more than 2 trained observers per farm.
For each of these measures, observers underwent a training program similar to that described above for lameness scoring. Leg cleanliness was assessed using the scoring system adapted from Cook (2006).
Hock injuries were scored in the milking parlor, in the headlocks or where the cows were free to move, as described (Gibbons et al., 2012). Individual cow data on parity, DIM, and test-day milk production (measured at the most recent monthly milk recording after data collection) for the sampled cows were obtained from Can West DHI and Malacca Inc.
The average interval between data collection and monthly milk recording was 17 d (range, 0 to 51 d). Initially, the questionnaire was pretested on 4 farms to evaluate whether it was understood easily and interpreted correctly.
All environmental measures were collected from all pens where the 40 study cows were housed on the day of the visit. Type of flooring was categorized as solid or slatted and concrete or rubber.
Assessing the cleanliness of the feed alley floor consisted of walking the entire length of the feed bunk alley 20 min before and after scraping, and measuring the height of manure that collected on the heel of rubber boots. If the scraping system was manual, feed alley cleanliness was scored at the beginning and at the end of the visit.
A slip was noted each time the cow’s feet slid as they touched the floor. A fall was noted when at least 1 knee (carpus) or hock (tarsus) touched the floor (Rushed and DE Pastille, 2006).
Information on stocking density was obtained as described (Charlton et al., 2014) and estimated as number of cows/usable stalls. Data on 8 dimensions per stall, bedding cleanliness, quantity, and dryness were estimated as described (Affine Karloff et al., 2014; Masseur et al., 2015).
Lunge space was considered adequate if no obstruction was present 76 cm forward from the brisket board. If no brisket board was present, this measure was taken from the point of the neck rail and 10 cm above the stall surface.
Sand was only recorded as a bedding type when it was also the stall base. All statistical analyses were performed using Stata13.1 (Statutory, 2013, College Station, TX) and P < 0.05 was considered significant.
Analyses of hock injuries and claw length (cow level) were done using the higher score of the 2 limbs. Similarly, if 2 footpaths were not identical, random selection was performed.
Categorical variables with low frequency (4 farms) were collapsed based on biological reasoning (i.e., an exact scraping frequency could not be determined for farms with a robotic scraper, therefore they were categorized as >2 times/d). Unusual stall bases, bedding types, and flooring that could not make their own category in analysis due to a low sample size were considered in a category as “other” (Affine Karloff et al., 2014).
If 2 predictors were highly correlated (|r| 0.7), the one with the strongest association with the outcome or the one with the fewest missing observations was chosen. First, univariable analyses were performed to assess associations between the outcome of interest, presence of lameness at cow level, and each predictor variable.
Predictors with a univariate association with P 0.25 were considered for the next step of multivariable modeling within 4 categories of explanatory variables: individual cow measures, pen space and flooring, stall management, and footpath management. In the second step, explanatory variables were screened in 4 separate multilevel mixed logistic regression models (GLUM in State).
In this step, all variables significant at P 0.10 from the 4 models were combined, and a backward elimination process was performed. Two-way interactions (e.g., bedding quantity and type of bedding, floor slipperiness and type of flooring, parity and DIM, and BCS and DIM) were tested among the significant predictors in the main effects model, but none was retained (P > 0.05 in all cases).
Study farms had on average 124 lactating cows, with daily and 305-d milk production of 36 and 10,238 kg, respectively (Table 1). Farm characteristics of this study represented the overall population of cows housed in free stalls per province in terms of parity, although herd size and milk production were slightly greater, because our study criteria required herds with 40 cows and cows between 10 and 120 DIM.
The exact agreement between the 2 trainers for locomotion scoring was 82% throughout the study period. A larger variation of lameness prevalence was found among farms than among provinces.
However, the difference in mean DIM between lame and nonlame cows was small. Lameness was associated with lower milk production, overgrown claws, and hock injuries (Table 2).
Barn design and lameness -associated management practices varied greatly among farms (Tables 3, 4, and 5). The majority of farms (70%) had a stocking density 100% (i.e., more stalls than cows), and lameness prevalence was not associated with overstocking (P = 0.32).
Based on univariable analyses, cow-level variables initially included in the multivariable model were parity, DIM, test-day milk production, claw length, leg cleanliness, hock injury, and BCS. Herd-level variables were herded size, stall bed length, lunge space, stall base, bedding type, bedding quality and quantity, frequency of bedding and stall cleaning, scraping frequency, feed alley width and flooring type, slipperiness of the flooring, footpath length, frequency of use, and number of footpath products (Table 6).
Cows with low BCS, injured hocks, and overgrown claws had a higher prevalence of lameness. Furthermore, every 1 kg increase in test-day milk production was associated with a 3% decrease in the odds of being lame.
Cows in groups with a high prevalence of slips or falls had 2 times greater odds of being lame (Table 6). Results from this study represented the population of Holstein-Friesian cows housed in free stalls without pasture access in the 3 Canadian provinces that represent 79% of the total Canadian dairy cow population.
However, the lameness prevalence estimate in the present study was lower than findings in British Columbia, California, and the northeastern United States (35, 34, and 63%, respectively; on Tasering et al., 2012), conventional farms in central Germany (48%; Dipped et al., 2009), and the United Kingdom (40%; Barker et al., 2010). Additionally, differences in lameness estimates in these regions could also be the consequence of the lameness scoring system used (e.g., assessment of an arched back versus assessment of a cow’s locomotion), interobserver reliability for lameness scoring (e.g., studies in the UK and Finland did not report interobserver assessments), and cow selection criteria (e.g., selection based on DIM, milk production, or parity).
In the present study, the odds of lameness increased with increasing parity, consistent with other studies (ESEO et al., 2006; Sarjokari et al., 2013). In agreement with Sarjokari et al. (2013), this association may be because older cows are bigger, are predisposed to relapse with certain foot lesions, and have been exposed for a longer interval to the housing environment than younger cows. Various hypotheses have been made regarding the cause-and-effect relationship between BCS and lameness.
Some authors suggested that low BCS was a result of lameness (attributed to a reduction of feed intake that caused BY loss; ESEO et al., 2006), whereas others suggested that low BCS contributed to lameness due to a decrease in thickness of the digital cushion, which caused foot lesions such as sole ulcers and white line disease (Idaho et al., 2009). Studies also differed on the relationship between milk production and the risk of lameness.
In some studies, an increased risk of lameness was present that was associated with either low (Warwick et al., 2001; Green et al., 2002) or high (Emory et al., 2008) milk production, whereas others reported no association (Haskell et al., 2006). However, these relationships may be confounded by stage of lactation and parity, among other variables.
Distribution of continuous and categorical cow-level explanatory variables for nonlame (n = 4,162) and lame cows (n = 1,094) from 141 Canadian free stall dairy farms Click here to enlarge the image We inferred that the complex associations between BCS, milk production and lameness vary depending on underlying conditions (e.g., infectious versus noninfectious foot lesions, or upper leg lameness) and need to be examined in large-scale longitudinal studies to distinguish risk factors for the incidence of new cases and persistence of lameness.
In a longitudinal study (Green et al., 2014), BCS was highly variable throughout lactation (typically decreased in early lactation but increased in late lactation); furthermore, cows with low BCS (<2.5) were more prone to develop lameness caused by noninfectious foot lesions and milk production decreased before cows became clinically lame. The odds of lameness were significantly higher for cows with injured hocks.
This association was explained in detail by Affine Karloff et al. (2014), in which a subset of the present data was analyzed, suggesting that lame cows had difficulty lying down or getting up, resulting in abrasion of the hock area. However, as the direction of risk cannot be determined in a cross-sectional study, it may also be that hock lesions were painful enough to make the cows lame.
Overgrown claws can also be a result of reduced wear (e.g., exposure to rubber flooring) and inconsistent hoof trimming. Several aspects related to stalls were studied, including stall dimensions, cleanliness, dryness, type of bedding, and management practices related to bedding and cleaning frequency.
Nevertheless, statistically significant associations were present only between lameness prevalence and bedding depth and sand or dirt stall bases, highlighting the importance of comfort of the lying surface with respect to lameness. Additionally, a great variation in bedding type was present, resulting in a lack of power to study the effect of an interaction between bedding type and quantity.
It is generally understood that deep bedding provides a comfortable lying surface that affects the lying behavior of lame cows, influencing their recovery and thus decreasing the risk of lameness (Cook et al., 2008). Hence, it is encouraging that deep bedding had a protective effect on lameness in the present study, as this may motivate more farmers to adopt this management practice.
Lameness prevalence was not associated with floor type in the milking parlor, holding pen, or feed alley. Evidence on the effect of different types of flooring on lameness prevalence has been equivocal.
Concrete flooring is known to have a detrimental effect on foot health when compared with straw yards or pasture (Somerset al., 2003); however, no clear evidence was found of the effect of various types of concrete flooring on lameness. Somerset al. (2003) reported no associations between solid or slatted concrete floors and prevalence of noninfectious foot lesions, whereas Krogstad et al. (2005a) reported a higher risk for white line disease on slatted floors.
Although benefits of rubber flooring on the locomotion of lame and nonlame cows (i.e., increased length of steps and speed) have been reported (Telezhenko and Bergs ten, 2005), no clear evidence was present on the risk of developing foot lesions in cows exposed to rubber versus concrete flooring. Vane gas et al. (2006) reported that foot lesions did not differ between floor types, although the odds of becoming lame were greater for concrete-exposed cows.
In contrast, Kramer et al. (2007) reported a higher incidence of sole ulcers on cows exposed to rubber flooring compared with concrete. It is noteworthy that these findings may be confounded by variables including stall design, bedding type and depth, and stocking density.
Distribution of continuous (median ± interquartile range, IQR) and categorical footpath management variables for dairy herds with a low, medium, or high lameness prevalence that use regular foot bathing Click here to enlarge the image In this study, lameness prevalence was not associated with floor cleaning routines nor feed alley cleanliness.
Notwithstanding, the results of the present study highlighted that the type of flooring (rubberized or concrete, slatted or solid) was less relevant than the flooring’s slip resistance. However, slipperiness indicator in the present study may have been confounded by cattle handling.
Poor cattle handling (rushed or aggressive handling) and slippery floors can result in injuries from slipping or falling and may be a predisposing factor for foot lesions due to alterations in cow gait. Besides a possible lack of statistical power, this result may reflect the fact that certain foot bathing practices can increase lameness and that high lameness prevalence can also incite certain foot bathing practices.
Therefore, more prospective, longitudinal studies are needed to assess these variables as contributors to the onset, duration, and resolution of lameness. Potential bias introduced by observers was controlled by the standard operating procedures developed, the intensive training program, and periodic checks throughout the study; collectively, these apparently contributed to achievement of high interobserver agreement.
In the statistical analysis, province did not result as a confounder, and it was forced as a fixed effect in the models; furthermore, no large difference was present among provinces’ overall lameness estimates. A strength of the present study was the large number of cows and farms and the comprehensive set of variables assessed.
However, the cross-sectional nature of the data collection revealed numerous associations with lameness, but limited our ability to make causal inferences. For example, farms in Alberta were selected based on participation in a hoof trimming project.
Although trimming practices are known to be an important risk factor for lameness (Crater et al., 2009), this was not included as a factor in our analyses because it was linked to the study’s selection criteria and therefore could not be assessed in an unbiased manner. Therefore, a potential bias due to selection and seasonality may have affected the lameness prevalence estimate, although probably not the risk factors identified.
This was apparently the largest study conducted to determine lameness prevalence and associated risk factors in dairy cows in Canada. We attributed the wide range of lameness prevalence to the great variability in facilities and management practices among farms.
Improving management of multiparous, thin, or injured cows and adopting management practices intended to improve cow comfort, namely the floor’s slip resistance and the stall’s lying surface, should reduce the prevalence of lameness. We are especially grateful for the contributions of Guilherme Bond and Tanja Kraus (University of Calgary) in data collection.
We also thank John Gaelic (Department of Production Animal Health, University of Calgary, AB, Canada) for editing this manuscript. Associations between sole ulcer, white line disease and digital dermatitis and the milk yield of 1824 dairy cows on 30 dairy cow farms in England and Wales from February 2003-November 2004.
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