It is measured with a tape and can be used in determining body size, composition and to monitor changes in these parameters. Low costs involved in the testing procedure For many sites the measurement can be self administered.
It does not work well on lean individuals, and it lacks high tech appeal. Flexible measuring tape and pen for marking the skin.
Tape is located perpendicular to the long axis of the neck superior to larynx. Breadth : measured across the widest area where the fingers join the palm.
Waist Girth Measurement is taken from the narrowest part of the torso that is halfway between the 12th rib and the Iliad crest. The subject should stand comfortably erect with hands by the side and must not be contracting any muscles.
Abdominal Girth It is the perimeter distance around the torso at the level of umbilicus. Gluteal Girth Subject stands with minimal clothing, with feet together and no intentional muscle contraction.
It is the perimeter at level of greater posterior protuberance of gluteals. Proximal or Upper Thigh Girth : About 1 cm below the gluteal fold and horizontal to the long axis of femur.
Mid Thigh : Measurement is taken from inguinal crease to the proximal border of patella. Distal Thigh : It is measured from just proximal to femoral condoles.
Equipment required: flexible metal tape measure and pen for marking the skin. Prepare forms and record basic information such as age, height, body weight, gender.
When recording, you need to make sure the tape is not too tight or too loose, is lying flat on the skin, and is horizontal. For descriptions of the procedure for measuring specific girths see the list below.
Reliability: Things that may affect reliability are changes to the testers, constant and even tension on the tape, and correct land marking (finding the correct anatomical sites for measurement). Advantages: low costs involved in the testing procedure, and for many sites the measurement can be self administered.
Limb -girdle muscular dystrophy is a term for a group of diseases that cause weakness and wasting of the muscles in the arms and legs. The severity, age of onset, and features of limb -girdle muscle dystrophy vary among the many subtypes of this condition and may be inconsistent even within the same family.
Signs and symptoms may first appear at any age and generally worsen with time, although in some cases they remain mild. They may need to use their arms to press themselves up from a squatting position because of their weak thigh muscles.
As the condition progresses, people with limb -girdle muscular dystrophy may eventually require wheelchair assistance. Some develop joint stiffness (contractures) that can restrict movement in their hips, knees, ankles, or elbows.
Overgrowth (hypertrophy) of the calf muscles occurs in some people with limb -girdle muscular dystrophy. Weakening of the heart muscle (cardiomyopathy) occurs in some forms of limb -girdle muscular dystrophy.
Intelligence is generally unaffected in limb -girdle muscular dystrophy; however, developmental delay and intellectual disability have been reported in rare forms of the disorder. It is difficult to determine the prevalence of limb -girdle muscular dystrophy because its features vary and overlap with those of other muscle disorders.
These genes provide instructions for making proteins that are involved in muscle maintenance and repair. Limb -girdle muscular dystrophy is classified on the basis of its inheritance pattern and genetic cause.
Limb -girdle muscular dystrophy type 1 includes forms of the disorder that have an inheritance pattern called autosomal dominant. Limb -girdle muscular dystrophy type 2 includes forms of the disorder that have an inheritance pattern called autosomal recessive.
Calpainopathy, or limb -girdle muscular dystrophy type 2A, is caused by mutations in the CAPN3 gene. Type 2A is the most common form of limb -girdle muscular dystrophy, accounting for about 30 percent of cases.
Dysferlinopathy, also called limb -girdle muscular dystrophy type 2B, is caused by mutations in the DSF gene. Sarcoglycanopathies are forms of limb -girdle muscular dystrophy caused by mutations in the SGA, GCB, SGC, and SACD genes.
A TEN gene mutation causes limb -girdle muscular dystrophy type 2J, which has been identified only in the Finnish population. Most forms of this condition are inherited in an autosomal recessive pattern, which means both copies of the gene in each cell have mutations.
Several rare forms of limb -girdle muscular dystrophy are inherited in an autosomal dominant pattern, which means one copy of the altered gene in each cell is sufficient to cause the disorder. Angelina C, Biretta L, Arezzo R. An update on diagnostic options and considerations in limb -girdle dystrophies.
Citation on Dubbed Chu ML, Moran E. The Limb -Girdle Muscular Dystrophies: Is Treatment on the Horizon? Making sense of the clinical spectrum of limb girdle muscular dystrophies.
Citation on Dubbed Liewluck T, Malone M. Untangling the complexity of limb -girdle muscular dystrophies. Citation on Dubbed Liu W, Causal S, Lake NJ, Zhou G, Ioannis N, Mitral P, Johnson NE, Wall CC, Williams BA, Albrecht DE, Rupiah LE, Led M. Estimating prevalence for limb -girdle muscular dystrophy based on public sequencing databases.
Citation on Dubbed MAH JK, Kong L, First KM, Dyke man J, Day LA, Springtail T, Bette N. A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis on the Epidemiology of the Muscular Dystrophies. Citation on Dubbed Straub V, Murphy A, Add B; GMD workshop study group.
Users with questions about a personal health condition should consult with a qualified healthcare professional. When there is a shortening of the limb, the body compensates by tilting the pelvis down, equines position of the foot and flexion of the opposite lower limb at the hip and knee.
True length is the measurement taken from the anterior superior Iliad spine to the tip of medial malleolus while both lower limbs are in identical positions and the pelvis is square. Please note that identical position of the lower limb is and pelvis squaring is very important because the upper reference point BASIS is outside the limb and any change in the position can affect the length.
In nutshell, the deformity is left as such and limb length is measured from a common point such as xiphisternum or umbilicus. The height of the wooden block required is the limb length disparity.
Image Credit: Musculoskeletal Key The pelvis it should be square to the table. In case of few deformities like pelvic tilting due to an adduction contraction of the hip, it will not be possible to do this.
Leg Length Measurement with Tape, Image Credit: Musculoskeletal Key In such cases, the pelvis is squared up and the limb length from BASIS to the tip of the medial malleolus is measured in the deformed position of the limb. How to Keep Limb Position in Different Deformities for Leg Length Measurement Abduction/Adduction Contracture of the Hip When hip gets fixed in abduction, the pelvis is dipped towards the affected side to align the leg.
If both anterosuperior Iliad spines or BASIS are at the same level and the pelvis is square there is no adduction or abduction deformity If the BASIS on the affected side is higher, a fixed adduction deformity is present. If the BASIS on the affected side is lower, a fixed abduction deformity is present.
Now, if there is a fixed deformity, either adduction or abduction, you cannot square the pelvis by moving the affected limb. Therefore, the rule is to obtain an accurate comparison of their true length by surface measurement the two limbs must be placed in comparable positions relative to the pelvis.
This maneuver makes both limbs in comparable positions and the values arrived at would remove any fallacy. Shortening above the trochanter may be caused by the destruction of the femoral head or acetabulum or both, a dislocated hip, coxa-vara deformity of a mounted intertrochanteric fracture.
Image Credit Bryant's triangle test involves officially drawing out with pen various lines on the pelvis A perpendicular line is dropped from the anterior superior Iliad spine onto the bed.
Relative shortening on one side indicates that the femur is displaced upwards as a result of a problem in or near the hip joint. Nelaton-LineNelaton’s line connects the anterior superior Iliad spine and social tuberosity.
Patient lies supine A line joining the anterior superior Iliad spine and tip of the greater trochanter is extended on the side of the abdomen on both sides. Proximal migration of greater trochanter the lines will meet on the opposite side of the abdomen and below the umbilicus.